Zonation Patterns (zonation + pattern)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Zonation Patterns of Belizean Offshore Mangrove Forests 41 Years After a Catastrophic Hurricane,

BIOTROPICA, Issue 3 2006
Cyril Piou
ABSTRACT Mangroves are prone to bearing frequently the full brunt of hurricanes and tropical storms. The extent of destruction and early regeneration are widely studied. The purpose of this study was to add a long-term view of mangrove regeneration and assess the potential effects on mangrove horizontal zonation patterns of catastrophic destruction. Hattie, a category five hurricane, hit the Belizean coast in 1961. It passed directly over the Turneffe Atoll where our study area, Calabash Cay, is located. At four sites on this island, we analyzed mangrove forest structure along transects parallel to the shoreline within zones delineated by species dominance and tree height. We propose an index based on the Simpson index of diversity to express changes in the heterogeneity of the species dominance. Physical,chemical parameters and nutrient availability were also measured. The destruction levels were estimated by analysis of the distribution of diameter at breast heights of the bigger trees in the inland zones. Variations in species dominance among sites and zones could be explained by interactions of various factors. Further, different levels of destruction between the two sides of the island had a significant effect on current patterns of species and structural zonation at Calabash. We conclude that disturbance regime in general should be considered as a factor potentially influencing mangrove horizontal zonation patterns. [source]


The distribution and prevalence of sponges in relation to environmental gradients within a temperate sea lough: vertical cliff surfaces

DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTIONS, Issue 6 2000
James J. Bell
Abstract. The prevalence and distribution of sponges was surveyed on vertical cliff surfaces at Lough Hyne Marine Nature Reserve, Co. Cork, Ireland. The number of sponge species was recorded at 6-metre depth intervals at four sites within Lough Hyne, and at one site on the adjacent Atlantic coastline to examine differences in abundance and zonation patterns. Sites ranged from an exposed turbulent regime to sheltered, sedimented environments. Individual species showed different distributions and prevalence between sites and with increasing depth. Greatest differences were observed between the most- and least-disturbed sites. Distinct sponge zonation patterns were evident at all sites sampled. Twenty-five species were considered dominant at all five sites with the remaining 48 species considered rare. Only four of the 25 most-dominant species occurred at the site experiencing the most turbulent flow conditions, whereas 12 species were found at the site of unidirectional fast flow. At sites of moderate to slight water movement and high sedimentation, between 18 and 24 of the most dominant species were present. Encrusting forms constituted high proportions of sponge communities at all five sites sampled (although consisting of different species). At sites of turbulent and unidirectional fast flow massive forms also dominated whereas at the least turbulent sites, where sedimentation was high, arborescent sponges were abundant. Few species showed exclusive distribution to a single depth and site, but there was some degree of correlation between species distributions and abiotic factors such as sedimentation rate and flow regimes. Sponge distributions and densities are discussed with respect to the suitability of species' morphologies to particular environments, intra-specific and inter-specific competition and physiological adaptations that enable them to survive in different habitats. [source]


High-Si phengite, mineral chemistry and P,T evolution of ultra-high-pressure eclogites and calc-silicates from the Dabie Shan, eastern China

GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 3-4 2000
Robert Schmid
Abstract A suite of coesite,eclogites and associated calc-silicate rocks from the ultra-high-pressure (UHP) belt in the Dabie Shan (eastern China) was investigated petrologically. Field relations and the presence of UHP minerals such as coesite, omphacite and high-Si phengite in the eclogites and the enclosing calc-silicates testify to a common metamorphic evolution for these two lithologies. Except for one sample, all bear phengite with unusually high silica contents (Si up to 3.7 per formula unit). Phengite occupies various textural positions indicating that different metamorphic stages are reflected by these white micas, which correlate with distinct mineral zonation patterns. Using the latest thermobarometric calibrations for eclogite-facies rocks, maximum pressure,temperature (P,T) conditions of 40,48 kbar at <,750C were estimated for the peak-metamorphic mineral assemblages. These P,T conditions were calculated for both eclogitic garnet porphyroblasts with diffusion-controlled zoning as well as garnet porphyroblasts with prograde growth zonation patterns. Most samples were affected by a strong retrograde overprint mainly under eclogite- and amphibolite-facies conditions. Thermobarometry using mineral sets from different textural positions reveals cooling and decompression of the UHP rocks down to <,20 kbar at <,600C for the bulk of the samples. Decompression and heating indicated by a few samples is interpreted to result from mineral chemical disequilibrium or late thermal influence. These new data show that subduction of continental crust in the Dabie Shan was deeper than previously thought, and also that some cooling and decompression took place at upper-mantle depths. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


The development of vegetative zonation patterns in restored prairie pothole wetlands

JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECOLOGY, Issue 1 2003
Eric W. Seabloom
Summary 1The spatial structure of plant communities can have strong impacts on ecosystem functions and on associated animal communities. None the less, spatial structure is rarely used as a measure of restoration success. 2The restoration of hundreds of wetlands in the prairie pothole region in the mid-western USA provided an excellent opportunity to determine whether the re-establishment of abiotic conditions is sufficient to restore structure, composition and spatial patterning of the vegetation. 3We mapped the topography and vegetative distributions in 17 restored and nine natural wetlands. We used these data to compare the composition and spatial structure of the vegetation in both wetlands types. 4The composition of the plant communities differed between restored and natural wetlands; the restored wetlands lacked the well-developed sedge-meadow community found in most natural wetlands. However, the spatial heterogeneity was similar, although the zonation patterns were less well-developed in the restored wetlands. 5Although the overall structure was similar, species distributions differed among wetland types, such that species were found more than 10 cm higher in restored wetlands than in natural wetlands. 6Synthesis and applications. This study illustrates that restored plant community composition and spatial structure may converge on their targets at different rates. Evaluations of restoration success should consider spatial structure of communities along with compositional and functional metrics. [source]


High-pressure granulites in the Sanggan area, North China craton: metamorphic evolution, P,T paths and geotectonic significance

JOURNAL OF METAMORPHIC GEOLOGY, Issue 8 2002
J. H. Guo
Abstract High-pressure basic granulites are widely distributed as enclaves and sheet-like blocks in the Huaian TTG gneiss terrane in the Sanggan area of the Central Zone of the North China craton. Four stages of the metamorphic history have been recognised in mineral assemblages based on inclusion, exsolution and reaction textures integrated with garnet zonation patterns as revealed by compositional maps and compositional profiles. The P,T conditions for each metamorphic stage were obtained using thermodynamically and experimentally calibrated geothermobarometers. The low-Ca core of growth-zoned garnet, along with inclusion minerals, defines a prograde assemblage (M1) of garnet + clinopyroxene + plagioclase + quartz, yielding 700 C and 10 kbar. The peak of metamorphism at about 750,870 C and 11,14.5 kbar (M2) is defined by high-Ca domains in garnet interiors and inclusion minerals of clinopyroxene, plagioclase and quartz. Kelyphites or coronas of orthopyroxene + plagioclase magnetite around garnet porphyroblasts indicate garnet breakdown reactions (M3) at conditions around 770,830 C and 8.5,10.5 kbar. Garnet exsolution lamellae in clinopyroxene and kelyphites of amphibole + plagioclase around garnet formed during the cooling process at about 500,650 C and 5.5,8 kbar (M4). These results help define a sequential P,T path containing prograde, near-isothermal decompression (ITD) and near-isobaric cooling (IBC) stages. The clockwise hybrid ITD and IBC P,T paths of the HP granulites in the Sanggan area imply a model of thickening followed by extension in a collisional environment. Furthermore, the relatively high-pressures (6,14.5 kbar) of the four metamorphic stages and the geometry of the P,T paths suggest that the HP granulites, together with their host Huaian TTG gneisses, represent the lower plate in a crust thickened during collision. The corresponding upper-plate might be the tectonically overlying Khondalite series, which was subjected to medium- to low-pressure (MP/LP: 7,4 kbar) granulite facies metamorphism with a clockwise P,T path including an ITD segment. Both the HP and the MP/LP granulite facies events occurred contemporaneously at c. 1.90,1.85 Ga in a collisional environment created by the assembly process of the North China craton. [source]


Modern distribution of saltmarsh testate amoebae: regional variability of zonation and response to environmental variables

JOURNAL OF QUATERNARY SCIENCE, Issue 5-6 2002
Dan J. Charman
Abstract Sea-level reconstruction from biological indicators in saltmarsh sediments requires an understanding of the modern ecology of the organisms concerned. Previous work suggested that testate amoebae are a potential new group of organisms to use for sea-level reconstruction, especially combined with diatoms and foraminifera. This paper analyses data from three saltmarshes on the Taf estuary, South Wales, the River Erme, Devon, and at Brancaster, Norfolk (UK) to (i) test for the presence and zonation of testate amoebae in relation to elevation; (ii) examine the similarity of zonation patterns between marshes; and (iii) explore the relationship between assemblage composition and a wider range of environmental variables. In addition we provide an update on the identification of testate amoebae on saltmarshes. Our results confirm that at all sites the primary environmental gradient is tidal inundation. Major changes in taxa along the tidal gradient are similar except for the lowest elevations, where different taxa become dominant at different sites. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) shows that assemblage composition is also strongly related to other variables, independent of the tidal position. Salinity, particle size and organic matter content are particularly important, and there is a statistically significant geographical effect on assemblages. Relationships between sea-level and assemblage composition are often stronger for individual sites, suggesting that local data sets should be used for quantitative sea-level reconstructions. However, the combined data set would provide more robust estimates of past sea-level change from fossil data. Other environmental variables explain as much of the variability in species assemblages as tidal parameters and should be considered more often in sea-level reconstructions based on microfossil indicators. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Sensitivity of the Early Life Stages of Macroalgae from the Northern Hemisphere to Ultraviolet Radiation,

PHOTOCHEMISTRY & PHOTOBIOLOGY, Issue 4 2007
Michael Y. Roleda
The reproductive cells of macroalgae are regarded as the life history stages most susceptible to various environmental stresses, including UV radiation (UVR). UVR is proposed to determine the upper depth distribution limit of macroalgae on the shore. These hypotheses were tested by UV-exposure experiments, using spores and young thalli of the eulittoral Rhodophyceae Mastocarpus stellatus and Chondrus crispus and various sublittoral brown macroalgae (Phaeophyceae) with different depth distribution from Helgoland (German Bight) and Spitsbergen (Arctic). In spores, the degree of UV-induced inhibition of photosynthesis is lower in eulittoral species and higher in sublittoral species. After UV stress, recovery of photosynthetic capacity is faster in eulittoral compared to sublittoral species. DNA damage is lowest while repair of DNA damage is highest in eulittoral compared to sublittoral species. When the negative impact of UVR prevails, spore germination is inhibited. This is observed in deep water kelp species whereas the same UVR doses do not inhibit germination of shallow water kelp species. A potential acclimation mechanism to increase UV tolerance of brown algal spores is the species-specific ability to increase the content of UV-absorbing phlorotannins in response to UV-exposure. Growth rates of young Mastocarpus and Chondrus gametophytes exposed to experimental doses of UVR are not affected while growth rates of all young kelp sporophytes exposed to UVR are significantly lowered. Furthermore, morphological UV damage in Laminaria ochroleuca includes tissue deformation, lesion, blistering and thickening of the meristematic part of the lamina. The sensitivity of young sporophytes to DNA damage is correlated with thallus thickness and their optical characteristics. Growth rate is an integrative parameter of all physiological processes in juvenile plants. UV inhibition of growth may affect the upper distribution depth limit of adult life history stages. Juveniles possess several mechanisms to minimize UVR damage and, hence, are less sensitive but at the expense of growth. The species-specific susceptibility of the early life stages of macroalgae to UVR plays an important role for the determination of zonation patterns and probably also for shaping up community structure. [source]


Zonation Patterns of Belizean Offshore Mangrove Forests 41 Years After a Catastrophic Hurricane,

BIOTROPICA, Issue 3 2006
Cyril Piou
ABSTRACT Mangroves are prone to bearing frequently the full brunt of hurricanes and tropical storms. The extent of destruction and early regeneration are widely studied. The purpose of this study was to add a long-term view of mangrove regeneration and assess the potential effects on mangrove horizontal zonation patterns of catastrophic destruction. Hattie, a category five hurricane, hit the Belizean coast in 1961. It passed directly over the Turneffe Atoll where our study area, Calabash Cay, is located. At four sites on this island, we analyzed mangrove forest structure along transects parallel to the shoreline within zones delineated by species dominance and tree height. We propose an index based on the Simpson index of diversity to express changes in the heterogeneity of the species dominance. Physical,chemical parameters and nutrient availability were also measured. The destruction levels were estimated by analysis of the distribution of diameter at breast heights of the bigger trees in the inland zones. Variations in species dominance among sites and zones could be explained by interactions of various factors. Further, different levels of destruction between the two sides of the island had a significant effect on current patterns of species and structural zonation at Calabash. We conclude that disturbance regime in general should be considered as a factor potentially influencing mangrove horizontal zonation patterns. [source]