Water Absorption Capacity (water + absorption_capacity)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The hydrophilic, foaming and emulsifying properties of casein concentrates produced by various methods

Janesca A. Roman
Summary The hydrophilic and surfactant properties of casein concentrates made by different processes such as isoelectric precipitation and neutralization (commercial casein, CC) coagulation by rennet (casein clots, COC) and microfiltration/diafiltration (casein micelles, CM) were studied. Water absorption capacity (WAC), water solubility (WS) and water-holding capacity (WHC) were highest for CM and lowest for COC. Solubility was higher in water and in pH 5.5, 0.10 m NaCl solution for both CM and COC. Foaming capacity was better for CM than for CC at pH 4.0 and for CC at pH 6.0 and 8.0. Foam stability was low for both CM and CC at pH 4.0 but it was high for CM at pH 6.0 and 8.0 and for CC in the absence of salt. Emulsifying capacity was higher for CC at pH 4.0 and 7.0. Stability of emulsion was high for CC at pH 4.0 and for CM at pH 7.0. [source]


ABSTRACT Breeding specialty soybeans for the soyfood market requires proper methodology in evaluation of seed quality attributes. In this study, efficient methods that could be potentially used for testing soybean seed hardness were developed by examining different instruments and seed parameters. Five food-grade soybean genotypes with different seed sizes were used to determine seed water-absorption capacity and hardness. Water absorption capacity was expressed by swell ratios for seed weight, seed dimension, and volume of water changes before and after soaking. Seed hardness test was conducted by a one-bite method using a food texture analyzer equipped with five different probes. The results showed that hardness testing by a 75 mm cylinder with 10 steamed seeds, single blade with five steamed seeds, and shear cell with 30 g steamed seeds produced dependable and consistent results with low coefficient of variance. However, shear cell may not be practical for early plant selection in a breeding program due to a relatively large sample requirement. Seed size can be used as indirect selection indicators for seed hardness. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Seed hardness is an important factor in determining soybean suitability for natto production. This study used two texture analyzers equipped with five different probes to test hardness of five soybean genotypes with different seed size. The methodologies for testing the seed texture of soybean have been established, which can help regulate the seed hardness testing for commercial production and provide consistent hardness references for natto breeding programs and the seed industry. [source]

Processing of urea-formaldehyde-based particleboard from hazelnut shell and improvement of its fire and water resistance

M. Gürü
Abstract The purpose of this study was to manufacture urea-formaldehyde-based particleboard from hazelnut shell and eliminate its disadvantages such as flammability, water absorption, swelling thickness by using fly ash and phenol-formaldehyde. Synthesized urea-formaldehyde and grained hazelnut shells were blended at different ratios ranging from 0.8 to 3.2 hazelnut shell/urea-formaldehyde and dried at 70°C in an oven until constant weight was reached. In addition, other parameters affecting polymer composite particleboard from hazelnut shell and urea-formaldehyde were investigated to be the amount of fly ash, amount of phenol formaldehyde and the effects of these parameters on bending stress, limit oxygen index, water absorption capacity and swelling in the thickness. The optimization results showed that the maximum bending strength was 4.1N/mm2, at urea-formaldehyde ratio of 1.0, reaction temperature of 70°C, reaction time of 25,min, hazelnut shell/urea-formaldehyde resin of 2.4 and mean particle size of 0.1,mm. Although the limited oxygen index and smoke density of composite particleboard without fly ash has 22.3 and 1.62, with fly ash of 16% (w/w) according to the filler has 38.2 and 1.47, respectively. Water absorption and increase in the swelling thickness exponentially decreased with increasing phenol formaldehyde. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Characteristics of Tortillas Prepared from Dry Extruded Masa Flour Added with Maize Pericarp

V.G. Arámbula
ABSTRACT Corn flour produced by extrusion was used to evaluate the effect of added maize pericarp (0 to 6%, w/w) on the following parameters: water absorption capacity of dry extruded masa flour (DEMF); weight loss during cooking and dehydration rate (DR) in fresh masa (FM), as well as rollability (R), puffing degree (PD), and cutting force (CF) of tortillas. CF was evaluated after 1 and 24 h of preparation. The viscoamylogram profiles, x-ray diffraction, and crystallinity of DEMF and powdered tortillas were also obtained. The DEMF with 3% (w/w) of pericarp produced the highest tortilla yield, improved the PD, DR, R, and CF characteristics of FM and tortillas, and developed the highest viscosity and a structure with adequate crystallinity to make tortillas with commercial quality. [source]

Formation and Densification Behavior of MgAl2O4 Spinel: The Influence of Processing Parameters

Ibram Ganesh
Different types of dense stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric magnesium aluminate (MgAl2O4) spinel (MAS) ceramics were prepared following a conventional double-stage firing process using different commercially available alumina and magnesia raw materials. Stoichiometric, magnesia-rich, and alumina-rich spinels were sintered at 1500°,1800°C for 1,2.5 h. The influence of the different processing parameters (average particle size, degree of spinel phase, green density, mass of the powder compact, sintering temperature, holding time at the peak temperature, and starting composition) on the densification behavior of MAS was assessed by measuring the bulk density, apparent porosity, and water absorption capacity, and microstructural observations. Most of the MAS compositions tested exhibited excellent sintering properties. [source]

Differences in the structure, growth and survival of Parasenecio yatabei ramets with contrasting water relations on the slope of a stream bank

Abstract Parasenecio yatabei (Asteraceae), a summer-green perennial herb, is widely distributed on sloping mountain stream banks in cool-temperate zone forests of Japan. We investigated the growth pattern, leaf longevity and leaf water relations of vegetatively independent plants (ramets) growing in two contrasting soil water conditions, that is, upper and lower stream banks (U ramets and L ramets, respectively). The objective of the present study was to clarify the physiological and morphological responses of the ramets to soil water conditions. Dry matter allocation to subterranean parts was higher in U ramets than in L ramets. The U ramet leaves survived for approximately 2 months longer than L ramet leaves. The ratio of subterranean part to aerial part dry matter was greater in U ramets than L ramets. Leaf mass per leaf area (LMA) tended to be greater in U ramets than L ramets throughout the growing season. The leaf bulk modulus of elasticity at full hydration was significantly higher in U ramets. Thus, ramet growth patterns and morphological traits varied with changing soil water conditions. The greater longevity of U ramet leaves may play a role in compensating for the reduced annual net carbon gain caused by lower photosynthetic activity. U ramets growing in environments with less water availability achieved high water-use efficiency by a high passive water absorption capacity via a progressed root system and high productivity via longer leaf longevity with higher LMA and elasticity. Therefore, P. yatabei growing along mountain streams could have the ability to colonize the upper bank through higher survivorship based on these traits. [source]