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## Waveform Inversion (waveform + inversion)
## Selected Abstracts## Full waveform seismic inversion using a distributed system of computers CONCURRENCY AND COMPUTATION: PRACTICE & EXPERIENCE, Issue 11 2005Indrajit G. RoyAbstract The aim of seismic waveform inversion is to estimate the elastic properties of the Earth's subsurface layers from recordings of seismic waveform data. This is usually accomplished by using constrained optimization often based on very simplistic assumptions. Full waveform inversion uses a more accurate wave propagation model but is extremely difficult to use for routine analysis and interpretation. This is because computational difficulties arise due to: (1) strong nonlinearity of the inverse problem; (2) extreme ill-posedness; and (3) large dimensions of data and model spaces. We show that some of these difficulties can be overcome by using: (1) an improved forward problem solver and efficient technique to generate sensitivity matrix; (2) an iteration adaptive regularized truncated Gauss,Newton technique; (3) an efficient technique for matrix,matrix and matrix,vector multiplication; and (4) a parallel programming implementation with a distributed system of processors. We use a message-passing interface in the parallel programming environment. We present inversion results for synthetic and field data, and a performance analysis of our parallel implementation. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Full waveform inversion of seismic waves reflected in a stratified porous medium GEOPHYSICAL JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL, Issue 3 2010Louis De BarrosSUMMARY In reservoir geophysics applications, seismic imaging techniques are expected to provide as much information as possible on fluid-filled reservoir rocks. Since seismograms are, to some degree, sensitive to the mechanical parameters and fluid properties of porous media, inversion methods can be devised to directly estimate these quantities from the waveforms obtained in seismic reflection experiments. An inversion algorithm that uses a generalized least-squares, quasi-Newton approach is described to determine the porosity, permeability, interstitial fluid properties and mechanical parameters of porous media. The proposed algorithm proceeds by iteratively minimizing a misfit function between observed data and synthetic wavefields computed with the Biot theory. Simple models consisting of plane-layered, fluid-saturated and poro-elastic media are considered to demonstrate the concept and evaluate the performance of such a full waveform inversion scheme. Numerical experiments show that, when applied to synthetic data, the inversion procedure can accurately reconstruct the vertical distribution of a single model parameter, if all other parameters are perfectly known. However, the coupling between some of the model parameters does not permit the reconstruction of several model parameters at the same time. To get around this problem, we consider composite parameters defined from the original model properties and from a priori information, such as the fluid saturation rate or the lithology, to reduce the number of unknowns. Another possibility is to apply this inversion algorithm to time-lapse surveys carried out for fluid substitution problems, such as CO2 injection, since in this case only a few parameters may vary as a function of time. We define a two-step differential inversion approach which allows us to reconstruct the fluid saturation rate in reservoir layers, even though the medium properties are poorly known. [source] ## Seismotectonics of the Sinai subplate , the eastern Mediterranean region GEOPHYSICAL JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL, Issue 1 2003Amos SalamonSUMMARY We define the Sinai subplate, from a seismotectonic perspective, as a distinct component in the plate tectonics of the eastern Mediterranean region. This is based on the tectonic characteristics of a comprehensive listing of all ML, 4 recorded seismicity in the region during the 20th century, on newly calculated and recalculated fault plane mechanisms of first P -wave arrivals and on published solutions based on waveform inversion of broad-band data. The low seismicity level and scarcity of strong events in the region required a thorough search for useful data and a careful examination of the reliability of the focal solutions. We gathered all available records of first P -wave onsets from the ISS and ISC Bulletins and the local seismic networks. Altogether, we were able to calculate 48 new focal mechanisms and 33 recalculated ones of events that occurred during the years 1940,1992. With the increasing number of teleseismic and regional broad-band stations in the later years, we added 37 solutions based on teleseismic and regional waveform inversions of events that occurred during 1977,2001. These mechanisms enabled us to examine the seismotectonic character of the Sinai subplate. The strike and rake directions of the calculated mechanisms usually reflect the geometry and the large-scale type of deformation observed along the boundaries of the Sinai subplate,the Dead Sea Transform, the Cypriot Arc convergent zone and the Suez Rift. Nevertheless, along each of these boundaries we found anomalous solutions that attest to the complexity of the deformation processes along plate margins. Earthquakes along the Dead Sea Transform exhibit mainly sinistral transtension and transpression, reflecting its leaky manner and local change in the transform geometry. The presence of other unexpected mechanisms near the transform, however, reflects the heterogeneous deformation it induces around. As expected, thrust mechanisms along the Cypriot Arc mirror its convergent nature and typical curved geometry. Transtension and transpressional solutions in the eastern segment of the arc reflect the sinistral shear motion between Anatolia and Sinai there. However, shear mechanisms found between Cyprus and the Eratosthenes Seamount pose a problem regarding its collision process. Most intriguing of all are ML, 4 thrust and shear solutions found in the Gulf of Suez. They are associated with predominantly normal mechanisms within a rift zone and therefore constitute a unique phenomenon, yet to be deciphered. [source] ## Migration velocity analysis and waveform inversion GEOPHYSICAL PROSPECTING, Issue 6 2008William W. SymesABSTRACT Least-squares inversion of seismic reflection waveform data can reconstruct remarkably detailed models of subsurface structure and take into account essentially any physics of seismic wave propagation that can be modelled. However, the waveform inversion objective has many spurious local minima, hence convergence of descent methods (mandatory because of problem size) to useful Earth models requires accurate initial estimates of long-scale velocity structure. Migration velocity analysis, on the other hand, is capable of correcting substantially erroneous initial estimates of velocity at long scales. Migration velocity analysis is based on prestack depth migration, which is in turn based on linearized acoustic modelling (Born or single-scattering approximation). Two major variants of prestack depth migration, using binning of surface data and Claerbout's survey-sinking concept respectively, are in widespread use. Each type of prestack migration produces an image volume depending on redundant parameters and supplies a condition on the image volume, which expresses consistency between data and velocity model and is hence a basis for velocity analysis. The survey-sinking (depth-oriented) approach to prestack migration is less subject to kinematic artefacts than is the binning-based (surface-oriented) approach. Because kinematic artefacts strongly violate the consistency or semblance conditions, this observation suggests that velocity analysis based on depth-oriented prestack migration may be more appropriate in kinematically complex areas. Appropriate choice of objective (differential semblance) turns either form of migration velocity analysis into an optimization problem, for which Newton-like methods exhibit little tendency to stagnate at nonglobal minima. The extended modelling concept links migration velocity analysis to the apparently unrelated waveform inversion approach to estimation of Earth structure: from this point of view, migration velocity analysis is a solution method for the linearized waveform inversion problem. Extended modelling also provides a basis for a nonlinear generalization of migration velocity analysis. Preliminary numerical evidence suggests a new approach to nonlinear waveform inversion, which may combine the global convergence of velocity analysis with the physical fidelity of model-based data fitting. [source] ## Comparison of waveform inversion, part 2: phase approach GEOPHYSICAL PROSPECTING, Issue 4 2007J. B. BednarABSTRACT In this paper, we take advantage of the natural separation into amplitude and phase of a logarithmic-based approach to full-wavefield inversion and concentrate on deriving purely kinematic approaches for both conventional and logarithmic-based methods. We compare the resulting algorithms theoretically and empirically. To maintain consistency between this and the previous paper in this series, we continue with the same symbolism and notation and apply our new algorithms to the same three data sets. We show that both of these new techniques, although different in implementation style, share the same computational methodology. We also show that reverse-time back-propagation of the residuals for our new kinematic methods continues to be the basis for calculation of the steepest-descent vector. We conclude that the logarithmic phase-based method is more practical than its conventionally based counterpart, but, in spite of the fact that the conventional algorithm appears unstable, differences are not great. [source] ## Comparison of waveform inversion, part 3: amplitude approach GEOPHYSICAL PROSPECTING, Issue 4 2007Sukjoon PyunABSTRACT In the second paper of this three part series, we studied the case of conventional and logarithmic phase-only approaches to full-waveform inversion. Here, we concentrate on deriving amplitude-only approaches for both conventional- and logarithmic-based methods. We define two amplitude-only objective functions by simply assuming that the phase of the modelled wavefield is equal to that of the observed wavefield. We do this for both the conventional least-squares approach and the logarithmic approach of Shin and Min. We show that these functions can be optimized using the same reverse-time propagation algorithm of the full conventional methodology. Although the residuals in this case are not really residual wavefields, they can both be considered and utilized in that sense. In contrast to the case for our phase-only algorithms, we show through numerical tests that the conventional amplitude-only inversion is better than the logarithmic method. [source] ## Seismotectonics of the Sinai subplate , the eastern Mediterranean region GEOPHYSICAL JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL, Issue 1 2003Amos SalamonSUMMARY We define the Sinai subplate, from a seismotectonic perspective, as a distinct component in the plate tectonics of the eastern Mediterranean region. This is based on the tectonic characteristics of a comprehensive listing of all ML, 4 recorded seismicity in the region during the 20th century, on newly calculated and recalculated fault plane mechanisms of first P -wave arrivals and on published solutions based on waveform inversion of broad-band data. The low seismicity level and scarcity of strong events in the region required a thorough search for useful data and a careful examination of the reliability of the focal solutions. We gathered all available records of first P -wave onsets from the ISS and ISC Bulletins and the local seismic networks. Altogether, we were able to calculate 48 new focal mechanisms and 33 recalculated ones of events that occurred during the years 1940,1992. With the increasing number of teleseismic and regional broad-band stations in the later years, we added 37 solutions based on teleseismic and regional waveform inversions of events that occurred during 1977,2001. These mechanisms enabled us to examine the seismotectonic character of the Sinai subplate. The strike and rake directions of the calculated mechanisms usually reflect the geometry and the large-scale type of deformation observed along the boundaries of the Sinai subplate,the Dead Sea Transform, the Cypriot Arc convergent zone and the Suez Rift. Nevertheless, along each of these boundaries we found anomalous solutions that attest to the complexity of the deformation processes along plate margins. Earthquakes along the Dead Sea Transform exhibit mainly sinistral transtension and transpression, reflecting its leaky manner and local change in the transform geometry. The presence of other unexpected mechanisms near the transform, however, reflects the heterogeneous deformation it induces around. As expected, thrust mechanisms along the Cypriot Arc mirror its convergent nature and typical curved geometry. Transtension and transpressional solutions in the eastern segment of the arc reflect the sinistral shear motion between Anatolia and Sinai there. However, shear mechanisms found between Cyprus and the Eratosthenes Seamount pose a problem regarding its collision process. Most intriguing of all are ML, 4 thrust and shear solutions found in the Gulf of Suez. They are associated with predominantly normal mechanisms within a rift zone and therefore constitute a unique phenomenon, yet to be deciphered. [source] |