Vegetative Development (vegetative + development)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Plant profilin isovariants are distinctly regulated in vegetative and reproductive tissues

CYTOSKELETON, Issue 1 2002
Muthugapatti K. Kandasamy
Abstract Profilin is a low-molecular weight, actin monomer-binding protein that regulates the organization of actin cytoskeleton in eukaryotes, including higher plants. Unlike the simple human or yeast systems, the model plant Arabidopsis has an ancient and highly divergent multi-gene family encoding five distinct profilin isovariants. Here we compare and characterize the regulation of these profilins in different organs and during microspore development using isovariant-specific monoclonal antibodies. We show that PRF1, PRF2, and PRF3 are constitutive, being strongly expressed in all vegetative tissues at various stages of development. These profilin isovariants are also predominant in ovules and microspores at the early stages of microsporogenesis. In contrast, PRF4 and PRF5 are late pollen-specific and are not detectable in other cell types of the plant body including microspores and root hairs. Immunocytochemical studies at the subcellular level reveal that both the constitutive and pollen-specific profilins are abundant in the cytoplasm. In vegetative cell types, such as root apical cells, profilins showed localization to nuclei in addition to the cytoplasmic staining. The functional diversity of profilin isovariants is discussed in light of their spatio-temporal regulation during vegetative development, pollen maturation, and pollen tube growth. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 52:22,32, 2002. 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Abscisic acid and late embryogenesis abundant protein profile changes in winter wheat under progressive drought stress

PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 5 2010
I. I. Vaseva
Abstract Three varieties (cv. Pobeda, Katya and Sadovo) of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum), differing in their agronomic characteristics, were analysed during progressive soil water stress and recovery at early vegetation stages. Changes in abscisic acid content, SDS,PAGE and immunoblot profiles of proteins that remained soluble upon heating were monitored. Initially higher ABA content in control Pobeda and Katya corresponded to earlier expression of the studied late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins. A combination of higher ABA content, early immunodetection of dehydrins, and a significant increase of WZY2 transcript levels were observed in drought-stressed leaves of the tolerant variety Katya. One-step RT-PCR analyses of some acidic dehydrin genes (WCOR410b, TADHN) documented their relatively constant high expression levels in leaves under drought stress during early vegetative development. Neutral WZY2 dehydrin, TaLEA2 and TaLEA3 transcripts accumulated gradually with increasing water deficit. Delayed expression of TaLEA2 and TaLEA3 genes was found in the least drought-tolerant wheat, Sadovo. The expression profile of WZY2 revealed two distinct and separate bands, suggesting alternative splicing, which altered as water stress increased. [source]

Brassinosteroids as Metahormones: Evidence for their Specific Influence during the Critical Period in Sorghum Development

PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 6 2002
G. N. Amzallag
Abstract: In Sorghum bicolor, the effect of brassinosteroid (BR) treatments on blade elongation depends both on concentration and on the stage of development. A specific period of increase in sensitivity to BR is reported during early vegetative development. It coincides with emergence of a critical period during which the between-organs relationship is readjusted as a function of new developmental events or new environmental conditions. Accordingly, the influence of BR cannot be completely understood without separating its effects during stable phases (phenophases) and during critical periods. A high level of redundancy exists in networks of regulation, so that modifications due to BR treatments generally remain cryptic. Nevertheless, it is shown that BR affects the pattern of relationships between organs, confirming its involvement in emergence of a new network of regulation. It is suggested that, during critical periods, brassinosteroids act as "metahormones" integrating the new emerging regulation network by triggering changes in cellular sensitivity to PGRs. [source]

Needle cytokinin content as a sensitive bioindicator of N pollution in Sitka spruce

ABSTRACT Previous work has shown that conifers growing on sites exposed to aerial pollution exhibit a different pattern of vegetative development in comparison with those on unpolluted sites, and have higher needle cytokinin contents (von Schwartzenberg & Hahn, Journal of Plant Physiology 139, 218,223, 1991). Physiologically mature Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis[Bong.] Carr) trees growing in a commercial plantation were sprayed with combinations of S, N and acidity from bud burst until December, for a 3 year period, in order to factor out the effects of individual pollutants and identify the specific component responsible for the high cytokinin content. Cytokinins were monitored using high-performance liquid chromatography/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques. After 3 years of treatment only needles of neutral N-treated trees contained significantly higher levels of cytokinin than those of trees receiving no spray. The addition of acid S could suppress the effects of added N. Needles from neutral N treatments also contained significantly higher levels of biologically active cytokinins and forms that can be transported in the xylem/phloem. Significantly lower levels of active cytokinins were present in needles sprayed with N in combination with acid sulphate. The results demonstrate that the needle cytokinin content may be used as a sensitive and selective bioindicator of the early stages in N perturbation in coniferous trees. [source]

A role for ethylene in the phytochrome-mediated control of vegetative development

Eloise Foo
Summary Members of the phytochrome family of photoreceptors play key roles in vegetative plant development, including the regulation of stem elongation, leaf development and chlorophyll accumulation. Hormones have been implicated in the control of these processes in de-etiolating seedlings. However, the mechanisms by which the phytochromes regulate vegetative development in more mature plants are less well understood. Pea (Pisum sativum) mutant plants lacking phytochromes A and B, the two phytochromes present in this species, develop severe defects later in development, including short, thick, distorted internodes and reduced leaf expansion, chlorophyll content and CAB gene transcript level. Studies presented here indicate that many of these defects in phyA phyB mutant plants appear to be due to elevated ethylene production, and suggest that an important role of the phytochromes in pea is to restrict ethylene production to a level that does not inhibit vegetative growth. Mutant phyA phyB plants produce significantly more ethylene than WT plants, and application of an ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor rescued many aspects of the phyA phyB mutant phenotype. This deregulation of ethylene production in phy-deficient plants appears likely to be due, at least in part, to the elevated transcript levels of key ethylene-biosynthesis genes. The phytochrome A photoreceptor appears to play a prominent role in the regulation of ethylene production, as phyA, but not phyB, single-mutant plants also exhibit a phenotype consistent with elevated ethylene production. Potential interactions between ethylene and secondary plant hormones in the control of the phy-deficient mutant phenotype were explored, revealing that ethylene may inhibit stem elongation in part by reducing gibberellin levels. [source]

Performance of Galia-type melons grafted on to Cucurbita rootstock in Monosporascus cannonballus -infested and non-infested soils

Summary Galia-type melons grafted on to the Cucurbita rootstock,TZ 148'and non-grafted controls were evaluated for vegetative development under greenhouse conditions. In general, the development of grafted and non-grafted plants was similar within a cultivar. The horticultural and pathological performances of the Galia-type melons ,Carrera', ,NUN-5554', ,6003' and ,Arava' were evaluated in experiments conducted in non-infested and Monosporascus-infested soils. In non-infested soil, grafted and non-grafted ,Carrera', ,NUN-5554' and ,Arava' had the same yields. The yield of grafted ,6003' was significantly higher than that of its non-grafted control. Responses of grafted and non-grafted Galia-type melons to Monosporascus cannonballus were evaluated and compared in the spring and autumn growing seasons. Significant differences in disease incidence were found among cultivars, between grafted and non-grafted plants, and between growing seasons. Disease reduction and the beneficial effect of grafting on yield were more pronounced in the spring. The results indicate that Galia-type melons can be grafted successfully, but the cultivation of the grafted plants should be adapted to each growing area and season. [source]