Urinary Leakage (urinary + leakage)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Percutaneous embolization of persistent urinary fistula after partial nephrectomy using N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate

Abstract Percutaneous closure of a calyceal fistula following partial nephrectomy for kidney cancer was achieved with fistula embolization with n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. Previous attempts at closure by conservative and endoscopic means were unsuccessful. Tissue adhesives are useful in the management of persistent urinary leakage after partial nephrectomy. [source]

Repair of a fistula between the bladder and the perineal skin by femoral gracilis flap interposition

Shuichi Osawa
Abstract The successful repair of a fistula between the bladder and the perineal skin using a femoral gracilis flap is reported. A 70-year-old woman, who 10 years previously had undergone a total hysterectomy for uterine cancer, developed a fistula between the bladder and the perineal skin after she underwent Mile's operation for rectal cancer. Initially, an attempt was made to repair the fistula by the transabdominal approach. This failed, probably because of the lack of supporting tissue between the bladder and the perineal skin. The second repair was performed with plastic surgeons. A secure three-layer bladder closure was accomplished. A right femoral gracilis flap was developed and rotated 180° to fill the defect in the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Four weeks after surgery, cystography revealed no fistula or urinary leakage and the drainage catheter was removed. Femoral gracilis flap interposition was successful for repair of a fistula between the bladder and the perineal skin when there was no supporting tissue due to extensive exenteration in the surgical removal of rectal cancer and after other repair procedures had been unsuccessful. [source]

Urinary incontinence among institutionalized oldest old Chinese men in Taiwan,

Yi-Ming Chen
Abstract Aims To explore prevalence and related factors for urinary incontinence (UI) among the oldest old institutionalized Chinese men in Taiwan. Methods All residents living in Banciao Veterans Care Home were invited for study. UI was defined as urinary leakage at least once weekly. Additional data items from the Minimum Data Set (MDS Nursing Home Chinese Version 2.1) were used to explore impact associated with physical function, cognitive status and quality of life (social engagement, SocE). Depressive symptoms were screened by the Short Form Geriatric Depression Scale. Results Data from 594 male residents (mean age: 80.9,±,5.3 years) were analyzed. Among all study subjects, 92.8% were functionally independent, 20.4% had certain cognitive impairment and 8.2% had depressive symptoms. The prevalence of UI in the Banciao Veterans Care Home was 10.1%. Compared with residents without UI, subjects with UI had poorer physical function, cognitive status, and more depressive symptoms. The mean SocE score was 1.5,±,1.3, and was similar between UI (+) and UI (,) subjects (1.4,±,1.2 vs. 1.6,±,1.3, P,=,0.411). By multivariate logistic regression, poorer physical functional status, cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms were independent risk factors for UI (P,<,0.05). Conclusions Poorer physical function, poorer cognitive status and depressive symptoms were all statistically significant independent risk factors for UI. However, SocE score (proxy indicator of quality of life) did not differ between subjects with and without UI. Further investigations are needed to evaluate the impact of UI on quality of life among oldest old institutionalized Chinese men in Taiwan. Neurourol. Urodynam. 28:335,338, 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Urinary incontinence across the lifespan

Yvette D. Miller
Abstract Aims The objectives of the current study were (1) to measure type and severity of urinary leakage and (2) to investigate the association between these factors and age-related life events and conditions in three groups of Australian women with a history of urinary leakage. Methods Five hundred participants were randomly selected from women in the young (aged 18,22 in 1996), mid-age (45,50), and older (70,75) cohorts of the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health (ALSWH) who had reported leaking urine in the 1996 baseline survey. Details about leaking urine (frequency, severity, situations) and associated factors (pregnancy, childbirth, body mass index [BMI]) were sought through self-report mailed follow-up surveys in 1999. Results & Conclusions Response rates were 50, 83, and 80% in the young, mid-age, and older women, respectively. Most women confirmed that they had leaked urine in the past month, and the majority of these were cases of "mixed" incontinence. Incontinence severity tended to increase with BMI for women of all ages, and increased severity scores were associated with having urine that burns or stings. Additional independent risk factors for increasing incontinence severity were heavy smoking in young women, past or present use of hormone replacement therapy in older women, and BMI and history of hysterectomy in mid-age women. Neurourol. Urodynam. 22:550,557, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Effectiveness of two conservative modes of physical therapy in women with urinary stress incontinence

Tiina Arvonen
Abstract Stress incontinence is the most prevalent form of female urinary incontinence and it affects approximately 5% of younger women to nearly 50% of elderly women. Women have traditionally been treated with pelvic floor muscle exercises alone or with the use of vaginal cones. A new treatment mode, vaginal balls, has been developed. The aim of this study was to compare pelvic floor muscle training with and without vaginal balls and to collect information on women's subjective feelings about the two training modes. The study was carried out as a prospective randomized clinical trial. Thirty-seven women aged 25,65 were assigned either to a pelvic floor muscle training program or to a training program using weighted vaginal balls for 4 months. Treatment outcomes were assessed by a pad-test with a standardized bladder volume, vaginal palpation, and by women's self-reported perceptions. The sense of coherence score was compared with the score for a normal population. Ninety-three percent of the women completed the study. Both training modes were effective in reducing urinary leakage: with vaginal balls (P,<,0.0001) and without (P,<,0.019); and increasing pelvic floor muscle strength: with vaginal balls (P,<,0.0039) and without (P,<,0.0002). However, the reduction of urinary leakage after four months of exercise in the training group with vaginal balls was significantly better (P,<,0.03) than the results in the group training with pelvic floor muscle exercises alone. The study found the weighted vaginal balls to be a good alternative for training pelvic floor muscles in women with stress urinary incontinence. Neurourol. Urodynam. 20:591,599, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Female Urinary Incontinence During Intercourse: A Review on an Understudied Problem for Women's Sexuality

Maurizio Serati MD
ABSTRACT Introduction., Coital urinary incontinence is a frequently underreported symptom, with a relevant impact on women's sexuality and quality of life. Aim., This article will review the available evidence on incidence, pathophysiology, and treatment of coital urinary incontinence with the attempt to present the current state of the art. Methods., PubMed was searched for reports about coital urinary incontinence that were published from 1970 to 2008, and the most relevant articles were reviewed. Main Outcome Measures., Review on epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of coital incontinence. Results., The incidence of coital incontinence in incontinent women has been reported to range between 10% and 27%. At present, some evidence suggests an association between urinary leakage at penetration and urodynamic stress (USI) incontinence as well as urinary leakage during orgasm and detrusor overactivity (DO). When treatment for these conditions are based upon urodynamic findings, pelvic floor muscle training, surgery, and pharmacotherapy show satisfactory cure rates. Conclusions., Coital urinary incontinence deserves much more attention in clinical practice: women should be specifically interviewed for this disturbance because it has a very negative impact on their sexuality. If a reliable urodynamic diagnosis is made, coital urinary incontinence at penetration can be cured in more than 80% of cases by surgery in the presence of USI. The form of coital incontinence during orgasm is curable by antimuscarinic treatment in about 60% of cases when associated with DO. Serati M, Salvatore S, Uccella S, Nappi RE, and Bolis P. Female urinary incontinence during intercourse: A review on an understudied problem for women's sexuality. J Sex Med 2009;6:40,48. [source]

Synchronous panniculectomy with stomal revision for obese patients with stomal stenosis and retraction

Devendar Katkoori
Study Type , Therapy (case series) Level of Evidence 4 OBJECTIVE To report our experience of synchronous panniculectomy with stomal revision in morbidly obese patients after radical cystectomy (RC) and ileal conduit urinary diversion (UD). Abnormal skin folds with an uneven surface, stomal retraction and stomal stenosis result in a poorly fitting appliance which leads to urinary leakage, need for frequent change of appliances and skin excoriation. PATIENTS AND METHODS In all, 302 RCs with UD were done by one surgical team between 2002 and 2008, with ileal conduit diversion in 182 (60%); 18 had a body mass index (BMI) of >35 kg/m2, and among them four had severe stomal stenosis with retraction. We report the technique we used for managing stomal stenosis in these patients. RESULTS The mean (range) BMI of the patients was 42 (38,46) kg/m2; all were women. The mean (sd) operative duration was 2 (0.5)h. The drain was removed once the drainage was <25 mL in 24 h. The mean (sd) hospital stay was 3 (1) days; there were no significant complications. After a mean follow-up of 3 years there was no recurrent stomal stenosis or retraction. CONCLUSIONS The unique advantage of this procedure is that it avoids laparotomy in a morbidly obese patient, and it provides excellent cosmesis while correcting the stomal complication. [source]

Evaluating and grading cystographic leakage: correlation with clinical outcomes in patients undergoing robotic prostatectomy

Nilesh Patil
OBJECTIVE To classify cystographically detected urinary leaks in patients undergoing computer-assisted (robotic) radical prostatectomy (RP) and to evaluate its effect on postoperative outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS Between October 2001 and October 2007, 3327 patients had a RP using a technique described previously. The data were entered prospectively into an approved database. Before catheter removal, all patients had a gravity cystogram taken 7 days after RP. All patients who had a detectable urinary leak on cystography were stratified into three groups by two independent radiologists using a previously described grading system. Patients were evaluated with a validated International Prostate Symptom Score at 3-, 6-, 9- and 12-month intervals after RP. The continence status was determined based on a patient-reported questionnaire. Medical records in these patients were reviewed for the presence of complications requiring secondary interventions. RESULTS In all, 287 patients (8.6%) had a detectable leak on cystography, of which 179 (62.4%), 84 (29.3%) and 24 (8.4%) were grades I, II and III, respectively. Of the patients with a detectable leak 70% were continent within 3 months and 94% had no involuntary urinary leakage at 1 year. Eight of 287 (2.8%) patients required a secondary intervention to correct bladder neck contracture. All eight of these patients had a grade II or III leak on cystography. CONCLUSION The presence of a urinary leak might delay the time to continence, but has no adverse effect on long-term urinary control. Quantifying the gradation of leakage according to the described classification might provide the clinician with prognostic information about patients at risk for future interventions. [source]

An analysis of the causes of bladder neck contracture after open and robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy

David R. Webb
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the difference in outcome of bladder neck contracture (BNC) and its causes between large groups of patients undergoing open radical prostatectomy (ORP) and robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP). PATIENTS AND METHODS We analysed 200 consecutive RPs performed by one surgeon for prostate cancer, 100 by ORP and 100 by RALP, between March 2003 and September 2007. The operative techniques of bladder neck repair and urethro-vesical anastomosis were different. The ORP patients had a conventional stomatization and ,racquet handle' repair of the bladder if necessary, with mucosal eversion and a direct circular interrupted ,end-to-end' suture anastomosis between the bladder and urethra. The RALP patients had no bladder neck reconstruction or mucosal eversion and their anastomosis was by the continuous suture ,parachute' technique. RESULTS There was no BNC in the RALP group, whilst 9% of the ORP group developed a BNC (P < 0.005). Apart from surgical technique, other variables, including patient age, previous transurethral resection of the prostate, Gleason score, T stage, urine infection rate, urinary leakage, blood loss, drain tube removal, anastomotic suture material, catheter type and catheter removal times were statistically comparable in both groups. CONCLUSION This series suggests that the major factor involved in the cause of bladder neck contracture after ORP, relates to the stomatization or ,racquet handle' bladder neck repair, and the end-to-end anastomosis between the urethra and stomatized bladder. Mucosal eversion might also contribute. Normal postoperative urinary leakage when the anastomotic apposition is good seems unlikely to be a significant aetiological factor in the development of BNC. Prolonged urinary leakage results from an anastomotic gap, which heals by second intention, thereby causing scarring and BNC. The RALP ,parachute' technique, which expands the anastomosis towards the bladder, appears to protect against BNC. Mucosal eversion is not necessary in the parachute repair. [source]

Hand-assisted versus total laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy: comparison and technique evolution at a single center in Taiwan

I-Rue Lai
Lai I-R, Yang C-Y, Yeh C-C, Tsai M-K, Lee P-H. Hand-assisted versus total laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy: comparison and technique evolution at a single center in Taiwan. Clin Transplant 2009 DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-0012.2009.01173.x. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Abstract:, Purpose:, To compare the outcome of hand-assisted laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy (HLDN) and total laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy (TLDN) in a single center. Methods:, The demographics, complications, and outcomes were compared between successfully performed 51 HLDN and 42 TLDN. Results:, The patients' demographics including body mass index were all similar. Four conversions were excluded for the outcome analysis. The operation time of HLDN group (188 ± 62 min) was shorter, although not significantly, than that of TLDN group's (207 ± 30 min) (p = 0.065). However, the operation time of the first 24 cases (237 ± 66 min) was significantly longer than that of the later 69 performed (180 ± 35 min). The warm ischemia time was shorter in HLDN (2.5 ± 1.3 min) compared to that of TLDN (4.1 ± 1.7 min) (p < 0.01), but the serum creatinine values (mg/dL) of recipients were equivalent (HLDN/TLDN = 1.18 ± 0.3:1.14 ± 0.3, p = 0.587). There was no difference in the length of hospital stay (6.7 vs. 6.4 d, p = 0.475). There was no graft loss, but one ureter stricture (HLDN group) and one urinary leakage (TLDN group) were recorded. Conclusions:, Both HLDN and TLDN are effective and safe as reflected in graft functions and limited complications. There was a learning curve in establishing the technique of laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. [source]