Urinary Continence (urinary + continence)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Concomitant repeated intravesical injections of botulinum toxin-type A and laparoscopic antegrade continence enema; a new solution for an old problem

AbdolMohammad Kajbafzadeh
OBJECTIVE To report our experience of treating bladder and bowel dysfunction in children with myelomeningocele, with simultaneous laparoscopic antegrade continence enema (LACE) and repeated intravesical injection of botulinum toxin-type A (BTX-A). PATIENTS AND METHODS Six girls and 14 boys (mean age, 8.7 years) with myelomeningocele were included in this study. All patients had received one or two intravesical injection(s) of BTX-A, but had persistent fecal incontinence or constipation despite improved urinary symptoms. We performed a two-port laparoscopic appendicostomy, immediately after repeated intravesical injection of BTX-A, through a V-shaped skin flap at McBurney's point. The stoma was finally covered by a quadrilateral skin flap, using the ,VQ' technique. The degree of urinary incontinence and bowel dysfunction were determined in each patient, and conventional urodynamic studies were performed 4 months after each injection. RESULTS All patients were followed-up for a mean (range) of 19.1 (14,33) months. Urinary continence improved significantly after the first injection, and remained constant after repeat injections. The maximum detrusor pressure, bladder compliance and capacity improved significantly (P < 0.001) compared with baseline. Interestingly, the simultaneous intravesical BTX-A injection/LACE procedure significantly improved all urodynamic variables compared with the values obtained after the last BTX-A injection alone. The laparoscopic procedure was well tolerated, and 19 (95%) children were nappy-free at the final follow-up. Only two patients had stoma stenosis, and one patient had minor stoma leakage. CONCLUSION Concomitant repeat intravesical injection of BTX-A and LACE can effectively manage bladder and bowel dysfunction in children with myelomeningocele. The procedure may further contribute to improve bladder urodynamic function, as effective evacuation of the bowel provides more room for bladder distension. [source]

Treatment of adult female epispadias without exstrophy in the presence of rhabdosphincter function

Abstract, Female epispadias without exstrophy is a very rare entity. Symptoms of female epispadias are primary urinary incontinence and anatomical abnormal features. A 24-year-old married women with two children presented with primary urinary incontinence. Due to previous failure of correct diagnosis and ineffective medical treatment, the patient developed psychological problems (anxiety and depression). In the presence of minimal rhabdosphincter function we could achieve socially acceptable urinary continence by bladder neck plication and a Burch colposuspension. The patient did not consent to a major reconstruction. [source]

Retropubic versus perineal radical prostatectomy in early prostate cancer: Eight-year experience

Gianni Martis MD
Abstract Background Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men and the second leading cause of cancer death. A randomized study was performed on patients with localized prostate cancer and treated with radical prostatectomy using the perineal or the retropubic approach comparing oncological outcomes, cancer control, and functional results. Study Design Between 1997 and 2004, in a randomized study 200 patients underwent a radical prostatectomy performed by retropubic (100 patients) or perineal (100 patients) approach. Results Differences between hospital stay, duration of catheter drainage, intraoperative blood loss, and transfusion requirements were statistically significant in favor of perineal prostatectomy. Differences between positive surgical margins and urinary continence in the two groups were not statistically significant at 6 and 24 months. Differences between erectile function at 24 months were statistically significant in favor of retropubic prostatectomy. Conclusions Radical perineal prostatectomy is an excellent alternative approach for radical surgery in the treatment of early prostate cancer. J. Surg. Oncol. 2007; 95: 513,518. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Psychometric testing of the NEECHAM confusion scale among patients with hip fracture

Inger S. Johansson
Abstract The main aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of a Swedish translation of the NEECHAM Confusion Scale among 73 patients having surgery for hip fractures. Cronbach's alpha before and 7 days after surgery were .73 and .82, respectively. Principal-component analyses yielded three factors explaining 69% of the variance of the variables preoperatively and 73.6% of the variance 7 days postoperatively. Four months after discharge vital function, factor II in the NEECHAM scale, significantly predicted the total score on the Ferrans and Powers Quality of Life Index. Items reflecting information processing, behavior, and urinary continence, factor I, also predicted functional capacity, using the Standardized Practical Equipment test, a tool measuring instrumental daily activity. The scale seems to be a reliable and valid instrument for evaluating acute confusional state among patients with hip fracture. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Res Nurs Health 25:203,211, 2002 [source]

Striated muscle and nerve fascicle distribution in the female raturethral sphincter

Ronald J. Kim
Abstract The anatomical basis for urinary continence depends on a thorough understanding of the tissues in the urethra. The objective of this study was to evaluate the morphology and neuroanatomy of urethral striated muscle, called the rhabdosphincter or external urethral sphincter, in normal female rats. Urethras from 12 female rats were dissected from the bladder, fixed, embedded in paraffin or epon, and sectioned every 1 mm. Striated muscle content was taken as the ratio of the striated muscle area to net urethral area. Nerve fascicles containing myelinated axons near the rhabdosphincter were counted and mapped. Both striated muscle content and number of nerve fascicles peak in the proximal third of the urethra, with a secondary peak at the distal end of the urethra. This secondary peak may correspond to an analog of the combined compressor urethrae/urethrovaginal sphincter located in the distal urethra in human. The rhabdosphincter has a variable distribution along the length of the urethra. In the middle and distal thirds of the urethra, the dorsal striated muscle fibers between the urethra and vagina become more sparse. The majority of nerve fascicles are contained in the lateral quadrants of the urethra, similar to the lateral distribution of somatic nerves in humans. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the normal distribution of the striated musculature and neuroanatomy in the urethra, with similarities to the human. It thus supports and extends the usefulness of the rat as an experimental model for studying urinary incontinence. Anat Rec 290:145,154, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Postoperative Orgasmic Function Increases over Time in Patients Undergoing Nerve-Sparing Radical Prostatectomy

Andrew Salonia MD
ABSTRACT Introduction., Postprostatectomy orgasmic function (OF) remains poorly defined. Aims., To assess OF over time in patients who underwent bilateral nerve-sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy (BNSRRP) for organ-confined prostate cancer (PCa). Methods., Baseline data were obtained from 334 consecutive preoperatively sexually active PCa patients at hospital admission; data included a medical and sexual history, IIEF domain scores, and ICIQ-SF. Questionnaire were then completed every 12 months postoperatively, and patients participated in a semistructured interview at the 12-month (191/334 [57.2%] patients), 24-month (95/334 [28.4%] patients), 36-month (42/334 [12.6%] patients), and 48-month (19/334 [5.7%] patients) follow-up (FU). Main Outcome Measures., IIEF-OF domain values throughout the FU. Multivariate linear regression analysis (MVA) of the association between predictors (patient's age, IIEF-erectile function [EF], ICIQ-SF, and the use of postoperative proerectile pharmacological treatments) and the IIEF-OF at 12-month, 24-month, and 36-month FU. Results., Preoperative mean (median) IIEF-OF was 7.6 (10). The anova analysis showed an increase of the IIEF-OF values (P = 0.008; F = 4.009) throughout the FU (namely, IIEF-OF 12-month: 6.1 [6]; 24-month: 7.2 [8]; 36-month: 7.3 [8]; and 48-month: 7.7 [9.50]). The 12-month MVA showed that while proerectile oral therapy did not affect postoperative OF (P = 0.150; Beta 0.081), IIEF-OF linearly increased with IIEF-EF (P < 0.001; Beta 0.425). Conversely, IIEF-OF linearly decreased with patient's age (P < 0.001; Beta ,0.135) and with ICQ-SF scores (P < 0.001; Beta ,0.438). The 24-month and 36-month analyses showed that IIEF-OF still linearly increased with IIEF-EF (P < 0.001; Beta 0.540, and P < 0.001; Beta 0.536 respectively at the 24- and 36-month FU), whereas pharmacological therapy, rate of urinary continence, and patient's age did not significantly affect postoperative OF. Conclusions., Postoperative OF significantly ameliorates over time in patients undergoing BNSRRP. The higher the postoperative EF score, the higher the OF throughout the FU time frame. Salonia A, Gallina A, Briganti A, Colombo R, Bertini R, Da Pozzo LF, Zanni G, Sacca A, Rocchini L, Guazzoni G, Rigatti P, and Montorsi F. Postoperative Orgasmic Function Increases over Time in Patients Undergoing Nerve-Sparing Radical Prostatectomy. J Sex Med 2010;7:149,155. [source]

Early sacral neuromodulation prevents urinary incontinence after complete spinal cord injury

Karl-Dietrich Sievert MD
Background The study aim was to investigate potential influences on human nerves and pelvic organs through early implantation of bilateral sacral nerve modulators (SNMs) in complete spinal cord injury (SCI) patients during the acute bladder-areflexia phase. Methods Ten patients with neurologically-confirmed complete spinal cord lesions (SCLs) were provided with bilateral SNMs during the phase of atonic-detrusor muscle. Modulation was achieved by two electrodes implanted into each S3 -foramen. Six patients declined and served as controls. The mean follow-up was 26.2 months. Results Videourodynamics (VU) confirmed detrusor acontractility, resulting in urinary continence as well as significant reductions in urinary tract infections (UTIs). Bowel movements did not require oral laxatives; additional preprogrammed parameters achieved erections for intercourse. Interpretation Early SNM implantation in SCI patients may revolutionize neurogenic lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction management; it prevented detrusor overactivity and urinary incontinence, ensured normal bladder capacity, reduced UTI rates, and improved bowel and erectile functionality without nerve damage. Conclusion Future SCI investigations will be conducted to evaluate the potential benefits of even earlier SNM placement to progressively enhance pelvic organ functionality. This new approach may provide important clues required for assessing whether neuronal information is passed through the sympathetic trunk ganglion to the brain after complete SCI. Further investigations are needed to determine if functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) might be helpful for analyzing changes in brain function in patients with SNMs and those taking antimuscarinics. ANN NEUROL 2010;67:74,84 [source]

Botulinum injections for the treatment of bladder symptoms of multiple sclerosis

MRCS, Vinay Kalsi MBBS
Objective Our objective was to demonstrate the efficacy and impact on quality of life of detrusor injections of botulinum neurotoxin type A in the treatment of bladder dysfunction in patients with multiple sclerosis. Methods Forty-three patients with multiple sclerosis suffering from severe urgency incontinence were treated with detrusor injections of botulinum neurotoxin type A. Data from cystometric assessment of the bladder, voiding diaries, quality-of-life questionnaires, and procontinence medication usage were collected before treatment and 4 and 16 weeks after injection. The same data were also collected after repeat treatments. Results Highly significant improvements (p < 0.0001) in incontinence episodes and urinary urgency, daytime frequency and nocturia, were the symptomatic reflection of the significant improvements in urodynamically demonstrated bladder function. Although 98% of patients had to perform self-catheterization after treatment, there were sustained improvements in all quality-of-life scores. The mean duration of effect was 9.7 months. Similar results were seen with repeat treatments. Interpretation Minimally invasive injections of botulinum neurotoxin type A have been shown to be exceptionally effective in producing a prolonged improvement in urinary continence in patients with multiple sclerosis. This treatment is likely to have a major impact on future management. Ann Neurol 2007 [source]

A prospective, non-randomized trial comparing robot-assisted laparoscopic and retropubic radical prostatectomy in one European institution

Vincenzo Ficarra
OBJECTIVE To compare the functional results of two contemporary series of patients with clinically localized prostate cancer treated by robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) or retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP). PATIENTS AND METHODS This was a non-randomized prospective comparative study of all patients undergoing RALP or RRP for clinically localized prostate cancer at our institution from February 2006 to April 2007. RESULTS We enrolled 105 patients in the RRP and 103 in the RALP group; the two groups were comparable for all clinical and pathological variables, except median age. For RRP and RALP the respective median operative duration was 135 and 185 min (P < 0.001), the intraoperative blood loss 500 and 300 mL (P < 0.001) and postoperative transfusion rates 14% and 1.9% (P < 0.01). There were complications in 9.7% and 10.4% of the patients (P = 0.854) after RRP and RALP, respectively; the positive surgical margin rates in pT2 cancers were 12.2% and 11.7% (P = 0.70). For urinary continence, 41% of patients having RRP and 68.9% of those having RALP were continent at catheter removal (P < 0.001). The 12-month continence rates were 88% after RRP and 97% after RALP (P = 0.01), with the mean time to continence being 75 and 25 days (P < 0.001), respectively. At the 12-month follow-up, 20 of 41 patients having bilateral nerve-sparing RRP (49%) and 52 of 64 having bilateral nerve-sparing RALP (81%) (P < 0.001) had recovery of erectile function. CONCLUSIONS RALP offers better results than RRP in terms of urinary continence and erectile function recovery, with similar positive surgical margin rates. [source]

Combined external urethral bulking and artificial urinary sphincter for urethral atrophy and stress urinary incontinence

Nadeem U. Rahman
OBJECTIVE To describe a technique of externally bulking the urethra with a soft-tissue graft before placing another artificial urinary sphincter (AUS), as when placing another AUS for recurrent male stress urinary incontinence (SUI) other manoeuvres, e.g. placing a tandem cuff or transcorporal cuff, must be used to obtain urinary continence in an atrophic urethra, and each is associated with morbidity. PATIENTS AND METHODS From January 2003 to July 2004, five patients (mean age 74 years, range 62,84) treated by radical prostatectomy were referred for recurrent SUI after placing an AUS (four, including one with urethral erosion) or a male sling (one, with a resulting atrophic urethra). Each patient was treated with an external urethral bulking agent (Surgisis® ES, Cook Urological, Spencer, Indiana) and had an AUS placed. RESULTS In each patient the greatest urethral circumference was <4 cm. To place a functional 4 cm cuff, the diameter of the urethra was enhanced by wrapping it with Surgisis ES. Continence was significantly improved in all patients except one 84-year-old man who had the replanted artificial sphincter removed because of erosion 14 months after surgery. CONCLUSION In cases of severe recurrent SUI from urethral atrophy after placing an AUS, externally bulking the urethra with Surgisis ES before placing another AUS is well tolerated, and gives satisfactory results. [source]

Orthotopic ileal neobladder: the influence of reservoir volume and configuration on urinary continence and emptying properties

Iqbal S. Shergill
First page of article [source]

An unrandomized prospective comparison of urinary continence, bowel symptoms and the need for further procedures in patients with and with no adjuvant radiation after radical prostatectomy

T. Hofmann
OBJECTIVE To prospectively assess, using a questionnaire-based study, the relative differences and changes in urinary continence and bowel symptoms, and the need for further surgery, within the first year after radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) in patients with and with no adjuvant radiotherapy (aRT). PATIENTS AND METHODS The study included 96 men with clinically organ-confined adenocarcinoma of the prostate who underwent RRP between March 1998 and June 1999. A subset of 36 patients was recommended aRT of the prostatic fossa (median dose 54 Gy) because of positive surgical margins and/or seminal vesicle involvement. Using a mailed questionnaire all patients were prospectively assessed at 4-month intervals for the first year after RRP. RESULTS Valid data were analysed from 83 patients (overall response rate 86%), of whom 30 (36%) had received aRT. At 4 months a significantly lower proportion used no pads and significantly more used 1 pad/day in the aRT than in the RRP group (both P < 0.05). Eight and 12 months after RRP there was no statistically significant difference between the groups in urinary incontinence. However, 53% of men in the aRT group had stool urgency and 13% reported fecal incontinence at 4 months, compared with 1.9% and none (both P < 0.01) of the RRP group. At 1 year after RRP bowel symptoms and fecal continence improved in the aRT group and there was no significant difference for these symptoms between the groups. Starting aRT early (, 12 weeks after RP) or late (> 12 weeks) had no significant effect on urinary continence, bowel symptoms and fecal incontinence. Apart from dilatation of urethral strictures in one patient in each group, no further procedures were reported during the follow-up. CONCLUSION A moderate dose of aRT after RRP had a temporary effect on subjective urinary continence at 4 months but not at 8 and 12 months. More patients receiving aRT reported significant bowel symptoms at 4 and 8 months than those with RRP only, but at 1 year most of these symptoms had resolved and there were no significant differences between the groups. [source]