Unconscious Patients (unconscious + patient)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

An unconscious patient with a ruptured pseudoaneurysm: clues to suggest intravenous drug abuse

MMed (Surg), MRCS (Ed), Min-Hoe Chew MBBS
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Complications associated with enteral nutrition by nasogastric tube in an internal medicine unit

Pedro L. Pancorbo-Hidalgo PhD
,,Enteral nutrition through a nasogastric tube is a technique often used with hospitalized patients when they present problems with oral nutrition. ,,Patients receiving enteral nutrition show several kinds of complications such as diarrhoea, vomiting, constipation, lung aspiration, tube dislodgement, tube clogging, hyperglycaemia and electrolytic alterations. ,,We present a prospective and observational study carried out in an Internal Medicine Unit with 64 patients who were fed by a nasogastric tube. From the results it can be seen that older people represented a majority (the average age was 76.2 years), and difficulty in swallowing was the main reason for beginning enteral nutrition. ,,The complications which appeared were: tube dislodgement (48.5%); electrolytic alterations (45.5%); hyperglycaemia (34.5%); diarrhoea (32.8%); constipation (29.7%); vomiting (20.4%); tube clogging (12.5%); and lung aspiration (3.1%). We discuss the possible relationship between the different factors associated with the enteral nutrition procedure and the occurrence of these complications. ,,Finally, some nursing interventions are suggested, such as: checking the gastric residue periodically; attempting to place the tube in the duodenum in unconscious patients; and the use of protective mittens in disturbed patients. [source]

Intracerebral monitoring in comatose patients treated with hypothermia after a cardiac arrest

Background: Induced mild hypothermia (32,34 C) has proven to reduce ischemic brain injury and improve outcome after a cardiac arrest (CA). The aim of this investigation was to study the occurrence of increased intracranial pressure (ICP) and neurochemical metabolic changes indicating cerebral ischemia, after CA and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), when induced hypothermia was applied. Methods: ICP, brain chemistry and brain temperature were monitored during induced hypothermia and re-warming in four adult unconscious patients with restoration of spontaneous circulation after CA and CPR. Results: ICP was occasionally above 20 mmHg. Neurochemical changes indicating cerebral ischemia (increased lactate/pyruvate ratio) and excitoxicity (increased glutamate) were found after CA, and signs of ischemia were also observed during the re-warming phase. A biphasic increase in glycerol was seen, which may have been a result of both membrane degradation and overspill from the general circulation. Conclusions: Intracerebral microdialysis and ICP monitoring may be used in selected patients not requiring anticoagulants and PCI to obtain information regarding the common disturbances of intracranial dynamics after CA. The results of this study underline the importance of inducing hypothermia quickly after CA and emphasize the need for developing tools for guidance of the re-warming. [source]

Clinical utility of an automated pupillometer for assessing and monitoring recipients of liver transplantation

Sheng Yan
Pupil examination has been used as a basic measure in critically ill patients and has great importance for the prognosis and management of disease. An automated pupillometer is a computer-based infrared digital video system by which the accuracy and precision of the pupil examination are markedly improved. We conducted an observational study of pupil assessment with automated pupillometry in clinical liver transplantation settings, including pretransplant evaluations and posttransplant surveillance. Our results showed that unconscious patients (grade 4 hepatic encephalopathy) had a prolonged latency phase (left side: 283 80 milliseconds; right side: 295 96 milliseconds) and a reduced pupillary constrictive ratio (left direct response: 0.23 0.10; left indirect response: 0.21 0.07; right direct response: 0.20 0.08; right indirect response: 0.21 0.08) in comparison with normal and conscious patients. After liver transplantation, the recovery of pupillography in these patients was slower than that in conscious patients. However, the surviving recipients without major complications all had a gradual recovery of pupillary responses, which occurred on the first or second posttransplant day. We also reported 4 cases of futile LT in the absence of pretransplant pupillary responses and other pupillary abnormalities revealed by automated pupillometry in our study. In conclusion, patients with grade 4 hepatic encephalopathy had a sluggish pupil response and a delayed recovery pattern after LT. An automated pupillometer is potentially a supplementary device for pretransplant screening and posttransplant monitoring in patients undergoing LT, but further prospective studies are required. Liver Transpl 15: 1718,1727, 2009. 2009 AASLD. [source]

Absence of explicit and implicit memory in unconscious patients using a TCI of propofol

P. Y. Lequeux
Background:, ,Episodes of implicit memory have been described during propofol anaesthesia. It remains unclear whether implicit memory is caused by short periods of awareness or occurs in an unconscious subject. Methods:, Sixty patients were randomized in an experimental group (EG), a control group (CG) and a reference group (RG). Loss of consciousness (LOC) was obtained by progressive stepwise increases of propofol using a target-controlled infusion device (Diprifusor, Alaris Medical Systems, San Diego, CA). A tape containing 20 words was played to the patients in the CG before the start of anaesthesia and to the patients in the EG at a constant calculated concentration of propofol associated with LOC. The tape was not played to the patients in the RG. Three memory tests were performed postoperatively. Results:, Explicit and implicit memories were evidenced in the CG but not in the EG. Conclusion:, In our group of young ASA I/II patients, in the absence of any noxious stimulus, no implicit or explicit memory was found when the calculated concentration of propofol using a Diprifusor was maintained at the level associated with LOC. [source]

Therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest , implementation in UK intensive care units,

ANAESTHESIA, Issue 3 2010
A. C. Binks
Summary A telephone survey was carried out to determine how many United Kingdom intensive care units were using therapeutic hypothermia as part of their management of unconscious patients admitted after cardiac arrest. All 247 intensive care units listed in the 2008 Directory of Critical Care Services were contacted to determine how many units were using hypothermia as part of their post-cardiac arrest management and how it was implemented. We obtained information from 243 (98.4%) of the intensive care units. At the time of the study, 208 (85.6%) were using hypothermia as part of post-cardiac arrest management. There has been a steady increase annually in the number of units performing therapeutic cooling from 2003 to date, with the majority of units starting in 2007 or 2008. The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation guidelines, which recommend the use of therapeutic hypothermia for comatose patients following successful resuscitation from cardiac arrest, have taken at least 4,5 years to achieve widespread implementation in the United Kingdom. [source]

Therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest: a survey of practice in intensive care units in the United Kingdom

ANAESTHESIA, Issue 9 2006
S. R. Laver
Summary A telephone survey was carried out on the use of hypothermia as part of the management of unconscious patients following cardiac arrest admitted to United Kingdom (UK) intensive care units (ICUs). All 256 UK ICUs listed in the Critical Care Services Manual 2004 were contacted to determine how many units have implemented therapeutic hypothermia for unconscious patients admitted following cardiac arrest, how it is implemented, and the reasons for non-implementation. Two hundred and forty-six (98.4%) ICUs agreed to participate. Sixty-seven (28.4%) ICUs have cooled patients after cardiac arrest, although the majority of these have treated fewer than 10 patients. The commonest reasons given for not using therapeutic hypothermia in this situation are logistical or resource issues, or the perceived lack of evidence or consensus within individual ICU teams. [source]

Clearing the cervical spine in unconscious adult trauma patients: A survey of practice in specialist centres in the UK,

ANAESTHESIA, Issue 11 2004
P. S. Jones
Summary A postal questionnaire survey of neurosurgery and spinal injury departments in the UK was conducted to determine how they assessed the cervical spine in unconscious, adult trauma patients, and at what point immobilisation was discontinued. Of the 32 units contacted, 27 responded (response rate, 84%). Most centres had no protocols to guide initial imaging or when immobilisation devices should be removed. Most responding centres performed fewer than three plain radiographs, and most did not use computerised tomography routinely. Routine use of magnetic resonance imaging or dynamic flexion,extension fluoroscopy was rare, and few units regarded the latter as safe in unconscious patients. There was no consensus on when immobilisation of the cervical spine should be discontinued. Most centres that terminated immobilisation immediately after imaging did so on the basis of plain radiographs alone. Unconscious adult trauma patients remain at risk of inadequate assessment of potential cervical spine injuries. [source]

Clinical practice guidelines for the management of acute limb compartment syndrome following trauma

Christopher J. Wall
Abstract Background:, Acute compartment syndrome is a serious and not uncommon complication of limb trauma. The condition is a surgical emergency, and is associated with significant morbidity if not managed appropriately. There is variation in management of acute limb compartment syndrome in Australia. Methods:, Clinical practice guidelines for the management of acute limb compartment syndrome following trauma were developed in accordance with Australian National Health and Medical Research Council recommendations. The guidelines were based on critically appraised literature evidence and the consensus opinion of a multidisciplinary team involved in trauma management who met in a nominal panel process. Results:, Recommendations were developed for key decision nodes in the patient care pathway, including methods of diagnosis in alert and unconscious patients, appropriate assessment of compartment pressure, timing and technique of fasciotomy, fasciotomy wound management, and prevention of compartment syndrome in patients with limb injuries. The recommendations were largely consensus based in the absence of well-designed clinical trial evidence. Conclusions:, Clinical practice guidelines for the management of acute limb compartment syndrome following trauma have been developed that will support consistency in management and optimize patient health outcomes. [source]

Cerebral gunshot wounds: a score based on three clinical parameters to predict the risk of early mortality

Michael Stoffel
Abstract Background:, To provide a score to predict the risk of early mortality after single craniocerebral gunshot wound (GSW) based on three clinical parameters. Methods:, All patients admitted to Baragwanath Hospital, Johannesburg, South Africa, between October 2000 and May 2005 for an isolated single craniocerebral GSW were retrospectively evaluated for the documentation of (i) blood pressure (BP) on admission; (ii) inspection of the bullet entry and exit site; and (iii) initial consciousness (n= 214). Results:, Conscious GSW victims had an early mortality risk of 8.3%, unconscious patients a more than fourfold higher risk (39.2%). Patients with a systolic BP between 100 and 199 mm Hg had an 18.2% risk of mortality. Hypotension (<100 mm Hg) doubled this risk (37.7%) and severe hypertension (,200 mm Hg) was associated with an even higher mortality rate of 57.1%. Patients without brain spilling out of the wound (,non-oozer') exhibited a mortality of 19.7%, whereas it was twice as high (43.3%) in patients with brain spill (,oozer'). By logistic regression, a prognostic index for each variant of the evaluated parameters could be established: non-oozer:0, oozer:1, conscious:0, unconscious:2, 100 ,RRsys < 200 mm Hg:0, RRsys < 100 mm Hg:1, RRsys, 200 mm Hg:2. This resulted in a score (0,5) by which the individual risk of early mortality after GSW can be anticipated. Conclusions:, Three immediately obtainable clinical parameters were evaluated and a score for predicting the risk of early mortality after a single craniocerebral GSW was established. [source]


Christopher J. Wall
Background: Acute compartment syndrome is a serious and not uncommon complication of limb trauma. The condition is a surgical emergency and is associated with significant morbidity if not diagnosed promptly and treated effectively. Despite the urgency of effective management to minimize the risk of adverse outcomes, there is currently little consensus in the published reports as to what constitutes best practice in the management of acute limb compartment syndrome. Methods: A structured survey was sent to all currently practising orthopaedic surgeons and accredited orthopaedic registrars in Australia to assess their current practice in the management of acute, traumatic compartment syndrome of the leg. Questions were related to key decision nodes in the management process, as identified in a literature review. These included identification of patients at high risk, diagnosis of the condition in alert and unconscious patients, optimal timeframe and technique for carrying out a fasciotomy and management of fasciotomy wounds. Results: A total of 264 valid responses were received, a response rate of 29% of all eligible respondents. The results indicated considerable variation in management of acute compartment syndrome of the leg, in particular in the utilization of compartment pressure measurement and the appropriate pressure threshold for fasciotomy. Of the 78% of respondents who regularly measured compartment pressure, 33% used an absolute pressure threshold, 28% used a differential pressure threshold and 39% took both into consideration. Conclusions: There is variation in the management of acute, traumatic compartment syndrome of the leg in Australia. The development of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines may be beneficial. [source]