Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Tomato

  • Pseudomona syringae pv. tomato
  • cultivated tomato
  • fresh tomato
  • pv. tomato
  • syringae pv. tomato
  • transgenic tomato

  • Terms modified by Tomato

  • tomato cell
  • tomato chlorosis virus
  • tomato crop
  • tomato cultivar
  • tomato fruit
  • tomato genotype
  • tomato juice
  • tomato leaf
  • tomato leaf curl virus
  • tomato line
  • tomato paste
  • tomato plant
  • tomato products
  • tomato pulp
  • tomato root
  • tomato sauce
  • tomato seedling
  • tomato spotted wilt virus
  • tomato torrado virus
  • tomato yellow leaf curl virus

  • Selected Abstracts


    P. J. CULLEN
    A vibrational process viscometer was evaluated as an in-line consistency monitoring technique for tomato based products. This sensor was installed in both pilot and industry scale production processes. Accuracy of the sensor and its ability to distinguish between varying concentrations of non-Newtonian fluids was evaluated with flowrate and temperature closely controlled. The sensor was shown to have the least inherent variability when compared to off-line techniques. However it was found to be flowrate dependent for the tomato based products. Good correlations between the sensor and off-line techniques were developed for the pilot scale trials. Plant trials revealed a number of problems in developing such correlations under industrial process conditions, however the instrument proved capable of tracking out of specification sauce as determined by the off-line Brookfield viscometer. It was concluded that use of the sensor would result in increased measurement precision over the off-line instruments coupled with the benefits of in-line monitoring. [source]


    ABSTRACT The effects of variety and season on several organoleptic and nutritional quality parameters (i.e., dry weight (dw), total sugars, soluble solid compounds, titratable acidity (TA), electrical conductivity (EC), juiciness, firmness, vitamin C (vit C), total phenolic compounds, hydrophilic antioxidant capacity and minerals) of five different varieties of tomatoes (i.e., Jack, Cabrales, Jaguar, Iker and Nevada) grown in two crop cycles (spring and autumn) were studied. Each variety presented its own specific characteristics regarding the chosen parameters. Firmness, TA and EC were season dependent, whereas soluble solids content did not change between cycles. In some varieties, the dw, juiciness and total sugars were affected by climatic conditions. The total phenolic compounds and the hydrophilic antioxidant capacity were variety dependent in both cycles. By contrast, the vit C content was variety dependent only in the autumn cycle. Similarly, these latter parameters (phenolic compounds, hydrophilic antioxidant capacity and vit C) were also season dependent, showing higher values in the spring than in the autumn cycle. The effect of tomato variety and season on mineral contents is also discussed. Those tomatoes grown in the spring cycle had better quality according to the organoleptic parameters studied here as well as to a higher antioxidant capacity. The percentages of the recommended dietary allowances supplied by the studied tomatoes were not significantly affected by variety or season, despite differences in their physicochemical compositions. [source]


    ABSTRACT In order to investigate the firmness of tomato slices, two experiments were performed. In the first one, Monte Carlo simulation was used to study the variation in firmness within and between slices. Adding more slices and more measurements per slice reduced the SD, but in general, the efficiency of adding more slices was higher. In the second experiment, the firmness of tomato slices was measured by puncture test during storage, using one of three flat-tipped cylindrical probes (3.5-, 2.5- and 1.5-mm diameter) in two directions, along or perpendicular to the main axis of the fruit. Changes in firmness were studied by nonlinear regression analysis. The same model could be applied to all combinations of probe size and direction with the same correction for shear and compression. It suggests that shear and compression forces decay with storage time according to the same mechanism, irrespective of the measurement direction. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Methodologies for both firmness evaluation and data analysis were presented. Monte Carlo simulation was used to optimize the number of samples for firmness assays. After calculating the experimental SD from preliminary experimental results, simulations were performed with different numbers of replicates and measurements per replicate, to find an optimal experimental design where the SD is minimized. Using nonlinear regression, the effects on firmness of probe size, puncture direction in relation to the plant tissue and storage time can be analyzed simultaneously. The incorporation of a correction factor to account for differences in firmness due to probe size was proposed. The relative influence of shear (s) and compression force (c) on the observed force is estimated. Results of interest for the industry were presented, confirming previous findings that the firmness of ripened tomato slices measured by puncture analysis does not change significantly during short-term storage at low temperature. [source]

    Whiteflies on tomato crops in Portugal,

    EPPO BULLETIN, Issue 1 2002
    A. Lopes
    In Portugal during the 1960/1980s, there was intensive development of vegetable crop production, in particular protected crops, of which tomato was the most important. The main producing regions now are Ribatejo e Oeste, Alentejo and Algarve. Tomato presents extensive phytosanitary problems, being host to a wide range of pests, including the whiteflies Trialeurodes vaporariorum, in protected crops, and Bemisia tabaci, in protected and field crops. Portugal has applied for the status of an EU ,protected zone' for this latter pest. As B. tabaci is an important vector of a large number of viruses, including tomato yellow leaf curl viruses (TYLCV), a monitoring programme of the tomato crop was implemented in Portugal. Preliminary data are presented concerning B. tabaci in the three main tomato-growing regions of the country. [source]


    ABSTRACT Turbidity maintenance, high antioxidant activity and attractive red color are important attributes of good tomato juice. Acidification was found effective in pectin esterase (PE) inactivation and turbidity maintenance. However, no information related to the changes of antioxidant properties after enzyme inactivation by acidification has been reported. In this article, acidification of cold break tomato juice to pH 2 or 3 was conducted after extraction. The changes of antioxidant properties (content and activity) and their correlation with PE activity and color in the juice were studied. Results indicated that acidification enhanced the viscosity of tomato juice by decreasing its PE activity. Significant increases of the main antioxidant contents (lycopene, polyphenols and vitamin C) and antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging, ferrous ion chelating ability [FICA] and reducing power), as well as red color, were also found. In addition, the acidified cold break tomato juice exhibited better FICA and reducing power than butylated hydroxyanisole and, -tocopherol. This finding reveals the possibility of producing tomato juice with high antioxidant capacities by acidification. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS The consumers' demand for healthy products with high quality toward fresh and health has increased remarkably these years. Tomato is one of the most popular vegetable juices, and its important quality aspects are color, stability and antioxidant capacity. Pectin esterase is the principal agent responsible for tomato juice stability. In addition, the goal of tomato juice processors is to optimize processing conditions by prevention of heat and oxidative damages on antioxidant components. Our results indicated that acidification may stabilize tomato juice and improve its color characteristics and main nutritional factors. Therefore, the acidification treatment could be used as a tool for providing the attractive color and enhancing the nutritional value and health-promoting properties of cold break tomato juice. [source]


    ABSTRACT This study was conducted with the aim to characterize the diversity of fruit sensory quality of traditional tomato genotypes, grown in open fields, by means of descriptive profile analysis. It gives the results from sensory profiling of fresh tomato genotypes San Marzano, Vesuviano, Corbarino and Sorrento, originating from Southern Italy, and their respective commercial hybrids over 3 years of harvesting. The effects of genotypes, year of production (2002, 2003, 2004) and fields located in different geographical areas on sensory data were analyzed using principal component analysis and multivariate analysis of variance partial least square regression. For most sensory characteristics, the greatest variation was caused by differences in genotypes, suggesting that there was considerable level of genetic diversity. Minor effects were given to year of harvest and experimental fields. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Tomato is one of the most frequently consumed vegetables in many countries. Italy is one of the main tomato producers in the world, where the genetic variability among traditional tomato genotypes, hybrid and wild varieties in terms of variability in shape, dimension and sensorial attributes is enormous. A feasible area of improvement of tomato production is toward the increase or changing the original flavor. The knowledge of the effect of variety and season on sensory-perceived quality and the selection by breeding of genotypes with improved aroma and flavor profile is a tool to better orientate the tomato production. [source]

    Optimizing the Use of Garlic Oil as Antimicrobial Agent on Fresh-Cut Tomato through a Controlled Release System

    J. Fernando Ayala-Zavala
    Abstract:, Encapsulation of garlic oil (GO) in ,-cyclodextrin (,-CD) was undertaken to generate a release system of antimicrobial volatiles and tested on microbial growth and sensory quality of fresh-cut tomato. GO volatile profile was characterized by gas chromatography mass spectrometry and to demonstrate the disadvantages of applying free GO to fresh-cut tomato, the effect of different free oil treatments (0, 50, 100, and 200 ,g/100 g) on microbial growth and sensorial quality was tested. The effect of GO capsules (0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 g/100 g) on microbial growth and sensory quality of tomato was also investigated. Allyl disulfide was the most abundant GO compound identified. The release of volatiles from GO: ,-CD capsules (12: 88 [w/w] ratio) was evaluated at 100% relative humidity (RH). Close to 70% of GO volatiles were released from capsules when exposed to 100% RH during 5 wk. The most effective antimicrobial concentrations of free oil (100 and 200 ,g/100 g) applied to tomatoes did not present acceptable sensory quality for panelists. Tomato was affected by the highest concentration of GO capsules applied, showing the lowest microbial growth and the highest sensory quality. In this context, successful encapsulation in ,-CD could stimulate further interest in the use of GO for the control of microbial growth in fresh-cut tomato. Practical Application:, The present study demonstrated that relative humidity in-package of fresh-cut tomatoes can be used as a trigger to release antimicrobial garlic oil volatiles from ,-cyclodextrin capsules, reducing microbial growth and the sensory effect of the treatment caused by the free garlic oil. In this context, successful encapsulation in ,-cyclodextrin could stimulate further interest in the use of garlic oil for the control of microbial growth in fresh-cut tomatoes. [source]

    Biological Control of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici on Tomato by Brevibacillus brevis

    Sunita Chandel
    Abstract The ability of Brevibacillus brevis to influence development of disease on tomato caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici was investigated using plants raised in Petri dish microcosms and in pots in the glasshouse. Development of symptoms on both microcosm- and glasshouse-raised tomato plants was markedly reduced in co-inoculations of F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici with B. brevis, compared with inoculations with the pathogen alone. Moreover, co-inoculations resulted in significant growth boosting effects on the plants, with increases in plant height in microcosms and in total root lengths in glasshouse-raised plants. In microcosm-raised plants, the carrier used to inoculate seed with B. brevis, either carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) or vermiculite, had no effect on the persistence of the biological control agent on roots in the absence of inoculation with the pathogen. By contrast, numbers of B. brevis recovered from the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of inoculated plants in microcosms were four orders of magnitude lower than in plants treated with B. brevis alone. Moreover, higher numbers of B. brevis CFU were re-isolated from the rhizosphere of plants arising from CMC-coated seed, than vermiculite-coated seed. The carrier had no effect on disease control. Inhibition of conidial germination and germ-tube extension of F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici by cell-free filtrates of B. brevis cultures varied significantly depending on the culture medium used for suspension. These results indicate that B. brevis is a potential biological control agent for reducing the impact of F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici on tomato. [source]

    Use of , -Glucuronidase Activity to Quantify the Growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici during Infection of Tomato

    K. K. Papadopoulou
    Abstract The , -glucuronidase (gus) reporter gene was integrated into the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL) in a co-transformation experiment using the hygromycin B resistance (hph) gene as selective marker, which resulted in the generation of 10 mitotically stable transformants. One transformant, F30, was selected based on the results of prior detailed characterization of the 10 transformants for growth rate, conidia production and pathogenicity in comparison with the wild-type strain. A strong positive correlation was found between GUS activity and accumulated biomass of in vitro -grown fungus and therefore GUS activity was used to study fungal growth quantitatively in two tomato lines. Although a parallel increase in lesion development and GUS activity was noted for both tomato lines, a correlation between the GUS activity and disease progression was not always possible. Interestingly, the levels of GUS activity obtained for the more resistant line were higher than those obtained for the susceptible line, indicating that disease progression in tomato caused by FORL may not be related only to the amount of fungal biomass within the root tissue. [source]

    Dual Role for Ethylene in Susceptibility of Tomato to Verticillium Wilt

    M. M. Robison
    Abstract Ethylene has been observed to both inhibit and promote the symptoms of Verticillium wilt (caused by Verticillium dahliae) in tomato. To test the hypothesis that ethylene has different effects at different stages in the infection process, ethylene levels were manipulated in V. dahliae -infected tomato plants by the application of an ethylene synthesis inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) and/or ethylene's biosynthetic precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) and the effects on disease severity were examined. Statistically significant reductions in disease severity were consistently obtained for AVG-treated plants that had ACC added at the time of inoculation. A model is therefore proposed in which post-infection ethylene enhances Verticillium wilt development in tomato whereas its presence at the time of infection inhibits disease development. [source]

    Review of flavonoids and other phenolics from fruits of different tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivars

    Rune Slimestad
    Abstract BACKGROUND: Tomato, one of the most important vegetables worldwide, contains a range of flavonoids and phenolic acids in addition to lycopene, which are regarded as potentially useful compounds with respect to health benefits. Composition data in fresh tomatoes vary due to genetic and environmental factors and cultural practices. Breeding programs aim to produce tomatoes with enhanced levels of flavonoids and other phenolics. RESULTS: The present paper gives an overview of flavonoids, stilbenoids and other phenolics reported to occur in tomato fruits. Contents are reported for a wide range of cultivars and types. Metabolism of phenolics during fruit maturation and tissue location are described, and an overview of measured contents is given. Effects of environmental conditions and cultural practices are estimated using available literature. Recent literature on transgenic tomatoes is included, and possibilities for regulating phenolic contents in tomatoes are discussed. CONCLUSION: The literature review clearly discloses a rapidly growing interest in flavonoids and other phenolics in tomato fruits and products made thereof. This is particularly connected to the antioxidant properties of these compounds as well as other possible health effects. Choice of cultivar and effects of environment and agronomic practices are important factors with respect to phenolic qualities and quantities of tomatoes. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    The Inheritance of Chilling Tolerance in Tomato (Lycopersicon spp.)

    PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2005
    J. H. Venema
    Abstract: During the past 25 years, chilling tolerance of the cultivated (chilling-sensitive) tomato Lycopersicon esculentum and its wild, chilling-tolerant relatives L. peruvianum and L. hirsutum (and, less intensively studied, L. chilense) has been the object of several investigations. The final aim of these studies can be seen in the increase in chilling tolerance of the cultivated genotypes. In this review, we will focus on low-temperature effects on photosynthesis and the inheritance of these traits to the offspring of various breeding attempts. While crossing L. peruvianum (,) to L. esculentum (,) so far has brought the most detailed insight with respect to physiological questions, for practical purposes, e.g., the readily cross ability, crossing programmes with L. hirsutum as pollen donor at present seem to be a promising way to achieve higher chilling-tolerant genotypes of the cultivated tomato. This perspective is due to the progress that has been made with respect to the genetic basis of chilling tolerance of Lycopersicon spp. over the past five years. [source]

    Pyramiding of genes conferring resistance to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus from different wild tomato species

    PLANT BREEDING, Issue 6 2008
    F. Vidavski
    Abstract Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) production in tropical and subtropical regions of the world is limited by the endemic presence of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). Breeding programmes aimed at producing TYLCV-resistant tomato cultivars have utilized resistance sources derived from wild tomato species. So far, all reported breeding programmes have introgressed TYLCV resistance from a single wild tomato source. Here, we tested the hypothesis that pyramiding resistances from different wild tomato species might improve the degree of resistance of the domesticated tomato to TYLCV. We have crossed TYLCV-resistant lines that originated from different wild tomato progenitors, Solanum chilense, Solanum peruvianum, Solanum pimpinellifolium, and Solanum habrochaites. The various parental resistant lines and the F1 hybrids were inoculated in the greenhouse using viruliferous whiteflies. Control, non-inoculated plants of the same lines and hybrids were exposed to non-viruliferous whiteflies. Following inoculation, the plants were scored for disease symptom severity, and transplanted to the field. Resistance was assayed by comparing yield of inoculated plants to those of the control non-inoculated plants of the same variety. Results showed that the F1 hybrids between the resistant lines and the susceptible line suffered major yield reduction because of infection, but all hybrids were more resistant than the susceptible parent. All F1 hybrids resulting from a cross between two resistant parents, showed a relatively high level of resistance, which in most cases was similar to that displayed by the more resistant parent. In some cases, the hybrids displayed better levels of resistance than both parents, but the differences were not statistically significant. The F1 hybrid between a line with resistance from S. habrochaites and a line with resistance from S. peruvianum (HAB and 72-PER), exhibited the lowest yield loss and the mildest level of symptoms. Although the resistance level of this F1 hybrid was not statistically different from the level of resistance displayed by the 72-PER parent itself, it was statistically better than the level of resistance displayed by the F1 hybrids between 72-PER and any other resistant or susceptible line. [source]

    The plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter SOS1 is essential for salt tolerance in tomato and affects the partitioning of Na+ between plant organs

    PLANT CELL & ENVIRONMENT, Issue 7 2009
    ABSTRACT We have identified a plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter gene from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), SlSOS1, and used heterologous expression in yeast to confirm that SlSOS1 was the functional homolog of AtSOS1. Using post-transcriptional gene silencing, we evaluated the role played by SlSOS1 in long-distance Na+ transport and salt tolerance of tomato. Tomato was used because of its anatomical structure, more complex than that of Arabidopsis, and its agricultural significance. Transgenic tomato plants with reduced expression of SlSOS1 exhibited reduced growth rate compared to wild-type (WT) plants in saline conditions. This sensitivity correlated with higher accumulation of Na+ in leaves and roots, but lower contents in stems of silenced plants under salt stress. Differential distribution of Na+ and lower net Na+ flux were observed in the xylem sap in the suppressed plants. In addition, K+ concentration was lower in roots of silenced plants than in WT. Our results demonstrate that SlSOS1 antiporter is not only essential in maintaining ion homeostasis under salinity, but also critical for the partitioning of Na+ between plant organs. The ability of tomato plants to retain Na+ in the stems, thus preventing Na+ from reaching the photosynthetic tissues, is largely dependent on the function of SlSOS1. [source]

    Glycinebetaine accumulation is more effective in chloroplasts than in the cytosol for protecting transgenic tomato plants against abiotic stress

    PLANT CELL & ENVIRONMENT, Issue 8 2007
    ABSTRACT Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Moneymaker) plants were transformed with a gene for choline oxidase (codA) from Arthrobacter globiformis. The gene product (CODA) was targeted to the chloroplasts (Chl,codA), cytosol (Cyt,codA) or both compartments simultaneously (ChlCyt,codA). These three transgenic plant types accumulated different amounts and proportions of glycinebetaine (GB) in their chloroplasts and cytosol. Targeting CODA to either the cytosol or both compartments simultaneously increased total GB content by five- to sixfold over that measured from the chloroplast targeted lines. Accumulation of GB in codA transgenic plants was tissue dependent, with the highest levels being recorded in reproductive organs. Despite accumulating, the lowest amounts of GB, Chl,codA plants exhibited equal or higher degrees of enhanced tolerance to various abiotic stresses. This suggests that chloroplastic GB is more effective than cytosolic GB in protecting plant cells against chilling, high salt and oxidative stresses. Chloroplastic GB levels were positively correlated with the degree of oxidative stress tolerance conferred, whereas cytosolic GB showed no such a correlation. Thus, an increase in total GB content does not necessarily lead to enhanced stress tolerance, but additional accumulation of chloroplastic GB is likely to further raise the level of stress tolerance beyond what we have observed. [source]

    Host adaptation to potato and tomato within the US,1 clonal lineage of Phytophthora infestans in Uganda and Kenya

    PLANT PATHOLOGY, Issue 5 2000
    M. E. Vega-Sánchez
    Twenty isolates of Phytophthora infestans from potato and twenty-two from tomato, collected in Uganda and Kenya in 1995, were compared for dilocus allozyme genotype, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype, mating type and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) fingerprint using probe RG57. Based on RFLP fingerprint and mtDNA haplotype, all isolates were classified in the US,1 clonal lineage. Nonetheless, isolates from potato differed from isolates from tomato in several characteristics. Isolates from potato had the 86/100 glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (Gpi) genotype, while those from tomato were 100/100, which represents a variant of US,1 that had been identified previously as US,1.7. Furthermore, while pure cultures of the pathogen were acquired from infected potato leaflets by first growing the isolates on potato tuber slices, this approach failed with infected tomato tissue because the isolates grew poorly on this medium. Tomato isolates were eventually purified using a selective medium. Six isolates from each host were compared for the diameter of lesions they produced on three tomato and three potato cultivars in one or two detached-leaf assays (four isolates from the first test were repeated in the second). On potato leaflets, isolates from potato caused larger lesions than isolates from tomato. On tomato leaflets, isolates from that host caused larger lesions than did isolates from potato, but the difference was significant in only one test. The interaction between source of inoculum (potato or tomato) and inoculated host (potato or tomato) was significant in both tests. Isolates from tomato were highly biotrophic on tomato leaflets, producing little or no necrosis during the seven days following infection, even though abundant sporulation could be seen. In contrast, isolates from potato sporulated less abundantly on tomato leaflets and produced darkly pigmented lesions that were most visible on the adaxial side of the leaflets. Nonetheless, all isolates infected and sporulated on both hosts, indicating that host adaptation is not determined by an ability to cause disease but rather by quantitative differences in pathogenic fitness. Assessment of Gpi banding patterns, mtDNA haplotype and RFLP fingerprint of 39 isolates from potato collected in Uganda and Kenya in 1997 indicated that the population had not changed on this host. The population of P. infestans from Kenya and Uganda provides an interesting model for the study of quantitative host adaptation. [source]

    An NB-LRR protein required for HR signalling mediated by both extra- and intracellular resistance proteins

    THE PLANT JOURNAL, Issue 1 2007
    Suzan H.E.J. Gabriëls
    Summary Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Cf resistance genes confer hypersensitive response (HR)-associated resistance to strains of the pathogenic fungus Cladosporium fulvum that express the matching avirulence (Avr) gene. Previously, we identified an Avr4 - responsive tomato (ART) gene that is required for Cf-4/Avr4 -induced HR in Nicotiana benthamiana as demonstrated by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). The gene encodes a CC-NB-LRR type resistance (R) protein analogue that we have designated NRC1 (NB-LRR protein required for HR-associated cell death 1). Here we describe that knock-down of NRC1 in tomato not only affects the Cf-4/Avr4 -induced HR but also compromises Cf-4- mediated resistance to C. fulvum. In addition, VIGS using NRC1 in N. benthamiana revealed that this protein is also required for the HR induced by the R proteins Cf-9, LeEix, Pto, Rx and Mi. Transient expression of NRC1D481V, which encodes a constitutively active NRC1 mutant protein, triggers an elicitor-independent HR. Subsequently, we transiently expressed this auto-activating protein in N. benthamiana silenced for genes known to be involved in HR signalling, thereby allowing NRC1 to be positioned in an HR signalling pathway. We found that NRC1 requires RAR1 and SGT1 to be functional, whereas it does not require NDR1 and EDS1. As the Cf-4 protein requires EDS1 for its function, we hypothesize that NRC1 functions downstream of EDS1. We also found that NRC1 acts upstream of a MAP kinase pathway. We conclude that Cf -mediated resistance signalling requires a downstream NB-LRR protein that also functions in cell death signalling pathways triggered by other R proteins. [source]

    Effects of tomato paste extracts on cell proliferation, cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells

    BIOFACTORS, Issue 2 2005
    Eun-Sun Hwang
    Abstract Since tomato consumption is associated with decreased risk of prostate cancer, cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis by LNCaP human prostate cancer cells might elucidate action of tomatoes. To discover possible bioactive fractions of tomatoes, whole tomato paste and its water and hexane extract were used and biomarkers of carcinogenesis were measured. After 6, 24 and 48 hr of incubation, cells were harvested and determined cell growth. Tomato paste hexane extract inhibited cell proliferation by 33% compared to the control after 48 hr incubation. Whole tomato paste and its water extract showed only modest growth inhibition. Tomato paste hexane extract at 5 ,M lycopene increased G2/M-phase of the cell cycle from 13 to 28% and decreased S-phase cells from 45 to 29%. Apoptosis was observed at the 5 ,M hexane extract at the late stages during 24 and 48 hr treatment. Tomato, therefore, deserves study as a potential chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic agent. [source]

    Bacterial diseases of tomato in southern Spain: application of a detached tissue assay to evaluate bacterial pathogenicity

    EPPO BULLETIN, Issue 2 2000
    F. M. Cazorla
    Tomatoes are one of the most important crops in southern Spain, especially during the cold season. As a preliminary step in the design of an integrated disease management programme for tomato, a study on the occurrence of bacterial diseases in tomato houses of Almería (ES) was carried out during the 1993/1997 growing seasons. Sixty-four bacterial strains were isolated from tomato plants showing symptoms of bacterial diseases and 41 of them (64%) were characterized as pathogenic. The bacterial tomato pathogens most frequently isolated were Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, Pseudomonas corrugata, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and Xanthomonas vesicatoria. The pathogenicity of the bacterial isolates on tomato was tested by the conventional seedling assay and by an in vitro assay using detached tissues developed in our laboratory. Close correspondence between the two assays was observed. An in vitro detached tissue assay is proposed for determining the pathogenicity of bacterial isolates on tomato. [source]


    The effects of raw materials and process variables on the heat penetration times into diced tomatoes (Halley Bos 3155 cv) were evaluated. Variables included dice size (1.27 and 2.54 cm), maturity at harvest (red and red+2 weeks), and processing temperature (88 and 92C). Heat penetration times between dice sizes were significantly different, but not between maturities or processing temperatures. Tomatoes were also evaluated for firmness, pectin-methylesterase (PME) and polygalacturonase (PG) activities. Half-inch size diced tomatoes were processed at 88 and 92C, and evaluated for firmness using the shear-compression method. Firmness decreased to 60% of the initial raw firmness from 8.8 × 105 to 5.3 × 105 g-mm after 15 s at 88C, and to 50% from 8.8 × 105 to 4.4 × 105 g-mm after 15 s at 92C. Diced tomato firmness showed a slight firming trend after 150 s at both temperatures. PME was inactivated after 45 s, while 5% residual PG activity remained after 3 min. [source]

    Energy Consumption, Density, and Rehydration Rate of Vacuum Microwave- and Hot-Air Convection- Dehydrated Tomatoes

    T.D. Durance
    ABSTRACT: Vacuum to lower boiling temperature and microwaves for energy transfer can provide very rapid dehydration at low temperatures. Tomato sections were dehydrated in a batch convection air dryer (AD), a 16 kW vacuum microwave (VM) dryer, or by 1 of 3 combination processes. Drying rate of the 100% VM process was 18 times that of the 100% AD process. Only a slight falling rate effect was noted in VM drying AD and VM in sequence allowed the operator to choose any process time between 0.8 and 14.75 h. In this instance the least energy consumption occurred in the 100% VM process. Lowest energy cost was found for the 70% AD / 30% VM process. These results are expected to be strongly dependent upon the scale and design of dryers. Tomatoes finish-dried by VM exhibited a puffed structure associated with faster rehydration. [source]

    Carotenoid content impacts flavor acceptability in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)

    Jonathan T Vogel
    Abstract BACKGROUND: Tomatoes contain high levels of several carotenoids including lycopene and ,-carotene. Beyond their functions as colorants and nutrients, carotenoids are precursors for important volatile flavor compounds. In order to assess the importance of apocarotenoid volatiles in flavor perception and acceptability, we conducted sensory evaluations of near-isogenic carotenoid biosynthetic mutants and their parent, Ailsa Craig. RESULTS: The carotenoid contents of these tomatoes were extremely low in the r mutant, increased in lycopene in old gold, and higher in tetra- cis -lycopene and ,-carotene in tangerine. The volatiles derived from these carotenoids (,-ionone, geranylacetone and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one) were proportionally altered relative to their precursors. Fruits were also analyzed for soluble solids, sugars, acids and flavor volatiles. Consumer panels rated the r mutant lowest for all sensory attributes, while Ailsa Craig was generally rated highest. Old gold and tangerine were rated intermediate in two of the three harvests. CONCLUSIONS: Several chemicals were negatively correlated with at least one of the hedonic scores while several others were positively correlated with tomato flavor acceptability. The results permitted identification of positive and negative interactions of volatiles with tomato flavor. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Antioxidative properties of lycopene and other carotenoids from tomatoes: Synergistic effects

    BIOFACTORS, Issue 1-4 2004
    John Shi
    Lycopene is the major carotenoid in tomatoes. Tomatoes contain a matrix of many bioactive components, including vitamin C, vitamin E, other carotenoids (a-, ,-, ,- carotene, lutein), and flavonoids. Their synergistic interactions, when used in combination, may be responsible for the observed beneficial effects of tomato-based products. This study investigated the synergistic antioxidant activity of lycopene in combination with ,-carotene, vitamin E, and lutein. A liposome system was used to test the synergistic antioxidant activity. The carotenoid mixtures were more efficient in protecting liposome from oxidation than the individual carotenoid. Mixtures of lycopene and vitamin E appear to have the greatest synergistic antioxidant activity. [source]

    Impact of chemical elicitor applications on greenhouse tomato plants and population growth of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae

    Anthony J. Boughton
    Abstract Recent advances in the understanding of plant signaling pathways have opened the way for using elicitor-induced plant resistance as a tactic for protecting plants against arthropod pests. Four common elicitors of induced responses in tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (Solanaceae), were evaluated with regard to phytotoxicity, induction of plant defensive proteins, and effects on population growth and fecundity of a common pest, the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae). Ethephon and methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatments caused varying degrees of phytotoxicity. Ethephon caused pronounced changes in plant growth form and severe, dose-dependent negative impacts on plant growth and flowering. Effects with MJ were milder, but still caused temporary inhibition of development, leading to smaller plants and delayed flowering. The commercial elicitors benzothiadiazole (BTH) and harpin did not cause detectable phytotoxicity. The highest doses of ethephon and MJ significantly increased leaf peroxidase (POD) levels but only MJ treatments significantly increased polyphenol oxidase (PPO) levels. BTH and harpin had no detectable effects on POD and PPO. Populations of green peach aphids grew significantly more slowly on plants treated with BTH or MJ than on control plants or plants treated with harpin or ethephon. Slowed aphid population growth on BTH-treated plants was due to significant reductions in aphid fecundity, although this was independent of changes in time to onset of reproduction or time to death. Aphid fecundity was also reduced on MJ-treated plants relative to controls, but this difference was not statistically significant, suggesting that other mechanisms are involved in slowing aphid population growth on MJ-treated plants. Growth of aphid populations on plants treated with a MJ,BTH mixture was reduced almost as much as with treatments of MJ alone, suggesting that antagonism between JA-dependant and SA-dependent plant signaling pathways is only mild with regard to induced defenses against aphids. [source]

    Within-plant distribution and infestation pattern of the B- and Q-biotypes of the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, on tomato and pepper

    M. Muñiz
    First page of article [source]

    Genetic analysis of larval survival and larval growth of two populations of Leptinotarsa decemlineata on tomato

    Wenhua Lu
    Abstract The genetics of adaptation to tomato in Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) were investigated in reciprocal F1, F2, and backcross populations generated from crosses between beetles from a tomato adapted population and from a population that was poorly adapted to tomato. Larvae from the parent and test populations were reared on tomato for four days, after which survivorship and larval weights were recorded. Most results indicate that differences in larval growth and survival on tomato between the parent populations are largely determined by autosomal, polygenic mechanisms, the inheritance of which involves a significant dominance component. However, results from F2 crosses are not consistent with this conclusion. A significant difference in larval weights, but not in survival, between reciprocal F1 populations in an analysis of combined data from four separate experiments suggests that maternal cytoplasmic effects may contribute to differences in larval performance on tomato between the adapted and unadapted populations. The unusual results obtained from F2 crosses in this study are not atypical of results from previous studies of the genetics of adaptation to host plants by the Colorado potato beetle. Host plant adaptation by Colorado potato beetles may therefore involve unusual genetic mechanisms that are not easily assessed by classical Mendelian analysis. [source]

    Application of Toxkit microbiotests for toxicity assessment in soil and compost

    L. Dubova
    Abstract The potential of Toxkit microbiotests to detect and analyze pollution in agricultural soil and the quality of compost was studied. The toxicity tests used included seed germination biotests using cress salad (Lepidum sativum L.), tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum L.), and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and the Toxkit microbiotests included those with microalgae (Selenastrum capricornutum), protozoa (Tetrahymena thermophila), crustaceans (Daphnia magna, Thamnocephalus platyurus, and Heterocypris incongruens), and rotifers (Brachionus calyciflorus). Experiments on compost were undertaken in a modified solid-state fermentation system (SSF) and under field conditions (in a windrow). To promote the composting process, two strains of Trichoderma (Trichoderma lignorum and Trichoderma viride), as well as a nitrification association that regulated the nitrogen-ammonification and nitrification processes were applied. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 19: 274,279, 2004. [source]

    Effects of functionalized and nonfunctionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes on root elongation of select crop species,,

    Jaclyn E. Cañas
    Abstract Single-walled carbon nanotubes have many potential beneficial uses, with additional applications constantly being investigated. Their unique properties, however, create a potential concern regarding toxicity, not only in humans and animals but also in plants. To help develop protocols to determine the effects of nanotubes on plants, we conducted a pilot study on the effects of functionalized and nonfunctionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes on root elongation of six crop species (cabbage, carrot, cucumber, lettuce, onion, and tomato) routinely used in phytotoxicity testing. Nanotubes were functionalized with poly-3-aminoben-zenesulfonic acid. Root growth was measured at 0, 24, and 48 h following exposure. Scanning-electron microscopy was used to evaluate potential uptake of carbon nanotubes and to observe the interaction of nanotubes with the root surface. In general, nonfunctionalized carbon nanotubes affected root length more than functionalized nanotubes. Nonfunctionalized nanotubes inhibited root elongation in tomato and enhanced root elongation in onion and cucumber. Functionalized nanotubes inhibited root elongation in lettuce. Cabbage and carrots were not affected by either form of nanotubes. Effects observed following exposure to carbon nanotubes tended to be more pronounced at 24 h than at 48 h. Microscopy images showed the presence of nanotube sheets on the root surfaces, but no visible uptake of nanotubes was observed. [source]

    Relationship between soil copper content and copper content of selected crop plants in central Chile

    Ricardo Badilla-Ohlbaum
    Abstract A survey of copper levels in agricultural soils of central Chile revealed two soil clusters,one with a mean copper level of 162 mg/kg and one with a mean copper level of 751 mg/kg of soil. Samples of soils from both soil clusters were characterized on the basis of physicochemical characteristics, and copper extractability was compared by saturation and CaCl2 extraction as well as an acid-leaching procedure (TCLP). We also measured the copper content of various tissues of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and onion (Allium cepa) crops growing on these soils. Other than copper levels, soils from the two clusters were quite similar, with slightly greater levels of molybdenum and cadmium in the high-copper soils. Within each cluster, extracted copper levels and total soil copper levels were not correlated. However, the three extraction procedures solubilized significantly more copper from the high-Cu soils. Mineralogical characterization of the soil particles and depth profiles of soil metal levels in a subsample of sites suggested that highly insoluble copper ore and mining wastes might account for the high copper levels. Neither total nor extractable copper levels allowed statistical prediction of the levels of copper in plant tissue. The edible tissues of both crops had the same mean copper content, regardless of the copper soil level. However, copper contents of stems and leaves were significantly higher for plants growing on the high-Cu soils. These results show that in these soils, high copper levels are associated with very insoluble copper species and thus low bioavailability of copper to crop plants. [source]

    Metabolism of fluoranthene in different plant cell cultures and intact plants

    Marit Kolb
    Abstract The metabolism of fluoranthene was investigated in 11 cell cultures of different plant species using a [14C]-labeled standard. Most species metabolized less than 5% of fluoranthene to soluble metabolites and formed less than 5% nonextractable residues during the standardized 48-h test procedure. Higher metabolic rates were observed in lettuce (Lactuca sativa, 6%), wheat (Tricitum aestivum, 9%), and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, 15%). A special high metabolic rate of nearly 50% was determined for the rose species Paul's Scarlet. Chromatographic analysis of metabolites extracted from aseptically grown tomato plants proved that the metabolites detected in the cell cultures were also formed in the intact plants. Metabolites produced in tomato and rose cells from [14C]-fluoranthene were conjugated with glucose, glucuronic acid, and other cell components. After acid hydrolyses, the main metabolite of both species was 1-hydroxyfluoranthene as identified by gas chromatography,mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The second metabolite formed by both species was 8-hydroxy-fluoranthene. A third metabolite in tomatoes was 3-hydroxyfluoranthene. [source]