Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Thickness

  • active-layer thickness
  • artery intima-media thickness
  • average thickness
  • backfat thickness
  • barrier thickness
  • biofilm thickness
  • bone thickness
  • boundary layer thickness
  • bowel wall thickness
  • breslow thickness
  • carotid artery intima-media thickness
  • carotid intima-media thickness
  • cartilage thickness
  • cavity thickness
  • cell thickness
  • cell wall thickness
  • central corneal thickness
  • central foveal thickness
  • central macular thickness
  • central retinal thickness
  • coating thickness
  • constant thickness
  • corneal thickness
  • cortical bone thickness
  • cortical thickness
  • critical thickness
  • crustal thickness
  • cutaneous thickness
  • dermal thickness
  • different thickness
  • eggshell thickness
  • enamel thickness
  • endometrial thickness
  • epidermal thickness
  • epithelial thickness
  • equivalent oxide thickness
  • fat thickness
  • fiber layer thickness
  • film thickness
  • finite thickness
  • flap thickness
  • fold thickness
  • foveal thickness
  • gap thickness
  • ice thickness
  • increased thickness
  • increasing film thickness
  • increasing thickness
  • initial film thickness
  • interlayer thickness
  • interventricular septal thickness
  • intima-media thickness
  • intimal thickness
  • lamellar thickness
  • layer thickness
  • leaf thickness
  • leave ventricular wall thickness
  • lens thickness
  • liquid film thickness
  • lv wall thickness
  • m thickness
  • macular thickness
  • maximum thickness
  • mean thickness
  • media thickness
  • medial thickness
  • median thickness
  • membrane thickness
  • minimum thickness
  • mucosal thickness
  • muscle thickness
  • nerve fiber layer thickness
  • nm thickness
  • normal thickness
  • nuchal translucency thickness
  • optical thickness
  • oxide thickness
  • pad thickness
  • plate thickness
  • posterior wall thickness
  • relative wall thickness
  • retinal nerve fiber layer thickness
  • retinal thickness
  • rnfl thickness
  • same thickness
  • sample thickness
  • sediment thickness
  • septal thickness
  • septum thickness
  • sheet thickness
  • shell thickness
  • similar thickness
  • skin thickness
  • skinfold thickness
  • slice thickness
  • small thickness
  • specimen thickness
  • stromal thickness
  • subcutaneous fat thickness
  • substrate thickness
  • tissue thickness
  • total thickness
  • trabecular thickness
  • translucency thickness
  • triceps skinfold thickness
  • tumor thickness
  • tumour thickness
  • uniform thickness
  • various thickness
  • ventricular wall thickness
  • wall thickness

  • Terms modified by Thickness

  • thickness decrease
  • thickness decreased
  • thickness dependence
  • thickness direction
  • thickness distribution
  • thickness flap
  • thickness gradient
  • thickness increase
  • thickness loss
  • thickness measurement
  • thickness parameter
  • thickness range
  • thickness ratio
  • thickness score
  • thickness uniformity
  • thickness value
  • thickness variation

  • Selected Abstracts


    ABSTRACT Inulin has interesting functional properties, which are linked to the average degree of polymerization of its chains. The aims of this work were to explore the effect of adding different types of inulin (short chain, native and long chain) on the thickness and creaminess of milk-beverage model systems, and to explore the possibility of using each of the three types of inulin as a fat replacer in skimmed-milk beverages. Sensory ranking data were analyzed using the R-index. For the two lots of samples (whole milk and skimmed milk), all samples with added inulin were perceived as significantly thicker and creamier than the samples without inulin. The fat mimetic capacity of inulin depended not only on the chain length, but also on the concentration of added inulin. In order to obtain milk beverages with reduced fat content having similar thickness and creaminess than those perceived in whole milk beverages, it was necessary to add long-chain inulin at concentrations over 8%. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS In most cases, inulin is added to different foods to supplement them in order to increase fiber ingestion, in amounts that vary between 3 and 6 g per portion, or to assure its bifidogenic nature, adding 3,8 g per portion. The results of this work provide information regarding the effects of inulin on the sensory characteristics of milk beverages, and show that applying the R-index analysis helped detect the small perceivable differences in thickness and creaminess among the samples tested, what will be of great use in formulating low-fat milk beverages. [source]


    The thickness of a piece of food and its mechanical properties affected the bite force. A multiple-point sheet sensor was used to measure the bite force applied to apple specimens of various thicknesses during the first bite with incisors. The results of wedge penetration tests on the same samples were compared with results of the bite measurements. The maximum bite force increased with the sample thickness for two apple varieties, though the maximum load measured by the wedge penetration test did not change. Therefore, it is important to consider that not only the mechanical properties but also the thickness of the sample affects the required bite force. [source]

    Effect of Cathode and Anode Voltage on an Ion Sheath Thickness in a Magnetically Confined Diffusion Plasma

    M. Kr.
    Abstract This article reports about the ion sheath thickness variation occurring in front of a negatively biased plate immersed in the target plasma region of a double plasma device. The target plasma is produced due to the local ionization of neutral gas by the high energetic electrons coming from the source region (main discharge region). It is observed that for an increase in cathode voltage (filament bias voltage) in the source region, the ion flux into the plate increases. As a result, the sheath at the plate contracts. Again, for an increase in source anode voltage (magnetic cage bias), the ion flux to the plate decreases. As a result, the sheath expands at the plate. The ion sheath formed at the separation grid of the device is found to expand for an increase in cathode voltage and it contracts for an increase in the anode voltage of the main discharge region. One important observation is that the applied anode bias can control the Bohm speed of the ions towards the separation grid. Furthermore, it is observed that the ion current collected by the separation grid is independent of changes in plasma density in the diffusion region but is highly dependent on the source plasma parameters. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Echocardiographic Follow-Up of Patients with Takayasu's Arteritis: Five-Year Survival

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 5 2006
    María Elena Soto M.D, Ms.Sc.
    Takayasu's arteritis (TA) is a primary vasculitis that causes stenosis or occlusion, rarely aneurysm and distal ischemia. This study was undertaken to examine cardiovascular damage using echocardiography and determine the causes of morbid-mortality in Mexican Mestizo patients with TA. Seventy-six patients were studied by transthoracic echocardiography. Left ventricular diameters, parietal thickness, systolic function, and wall motion were analyzed, also, valvular lesions and aorta features were assessed. Thickness of the interventricular septum was 12 mm ± 3 (8,19), and that of posterior wall was 12 mm ± 2 (9,18). The average left ventricular diastolic diameter was 47 mm ± 7 (33,68) and the left ventricular systolic diameter 32 mm ± 8 (16,64). The left ventricular ejection fraction was of 57 ± 11%. Left ventricular concentric hypertrophy was found in 28 (50%) of the 56 hypertensive patients. The five-year survival of patients with left ventricular concentric hypertrophy was 80%, compared to 95% in patients without hypertrophy (P = 0.00). Abnormal wall motion was found in 15 patients. Thirty-one patients had aortic regurgitation, 19 had mitral regurgitation, 13 had tricuspid regurgitation, and 10 and pulmonary hypertension. Six patients had aneurysms of ascending aorta and 7 stenosis of descending aorta. Thirteen of 76 patients died (17%), 85% were hypertensive, and 9% also had acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Echocardiography, a noninvasive technique, shows a great utility in detection and follow-up of cardiovascular manifestations in patients with TA. New techniques, more sensitive toward detecting the early stages of left ventricular dysfunction, are promising to limit left ventricular hypertrophy development. [source]

    Relationship Between Plasma Total Antioxidant Capacity and Thoracic Aortic Intima-Media Thickness

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 3 2006
    Recep Demirbag M.D.
    It is known that antioxidants have an important role in the prevention of coronary artery disease (CAD). Low total antioxidant capacity (TAC) is a risk factor for ischemic heart disease. However, no data are available concerning the relationship between TAC and severity of thoracic aortic atherosclerosis. This study using multiplane transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) examined the relationship between atherosclerotic thoracic aortic intima-media thickness (TAIMT) and TAC. Twenty-nine patients (17 male, 12 female; mean age 36 ± 8 years) without a history of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease referred for TEE were included. The patients with obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and CAD were excluded. The TAC was measured for each patient using a more recently developed method. TAIMT and grade of thoracic aortic atherosclerosis were evaluated in each patient by using TEE. Mean TAC level was 1.91 ± 0.53 mmol Trolox equiv/l. There was a negative and significant correlation between the TAC levels and TAIMT and grade of thoracic aortic atherosclerosis (r =,0.799, P < 0.001 versus r =,0.827, P < 0.001, respectively). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that TAIMT was independently associated with TAC (,=,0.734, P < 0.001). The mean values of TAC in grade I, II, and III were 2.23 ± 0.31, 1.58 ± 0.31, and 1.04 ± 0.27 mmol Trolox equiv/l, respectively (ANOVA P < 0.001). This study indicates that the TAC is an independent variable for TAIMT and it has a potential for an independent variable for atherosclerotic lesions in the major arterial locations. [source]

    Impact of Body Mass Index on Markers of Left Ventricular Thickness and Mass Calculation: Results of a Pilot Analysis

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 3 2005
    Ranjini Krishnan M.D.
    Specific correlations between body mass index (BMI) and left ventricular (LV) thickness have been conflicting. Accordingly, we investigated if a particular correlation exists between BMI and echocardiographic markers of ventricular function. Methods: A total of 122 patients, referred for routine transthoracic echocardiography, were included in this prospective pilot study using a 3:1 randomization approach. Patient demographics were obtained using a questionnaire. Results: Group I consisted of 80 obese (BMI was >30 kg/m2), Group II of 16 overweight (BMI between 26 and 29 kg/m2), and Group III of 26 normal BMI (BMI < 25 kg/m2) individuals. No difference was found in left ventricular wall thickness, LV end-systolic cavity dimension, fractional shortening (FS), or pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) among the groups. However, mean LV end-diastolic cavity dimension was greater in Group I (5.0 ± 0.9 cm) than Group II (4.6 ± 0.8 cm) or Group III (4.4 ± 0.9 cm; P < 0.006). LV mass indexed to height2.7 was also significantly larger in Group I (61 ± 21) when compared to Group III (48 ± 19; P < 0.001). Finally, left atrial diameter (4.3 ± 0.7 cm) was also larger (3.8 ± 0.6 and 3.6 ± 0.7, respectively; P < 0.00001).Discussion: We found no correlation between BMI and LV wall thickness, FS, or PASP despite the high prevalence of diabetes and hypertension in obese individuals. However, obese individuals had an increased LV end-diastolic cavity dimension, LV mass/height2.7, and left atrial diameter. These findings could represent early markers in the sequence of cardiac events occurring with obesity. A larger prospective study is needed to further define the sequence of cardiac abnormalities occurring with increasing BMI. [source]

    The Dependence of the Sensitivity and Reliability of Contactless Conductivity Detection on the Wall Thickness of Electrophoretic Fused-Silica Capillaries

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 3-5 2009
    Petr T
    Abstract A contactless conductivity detector (C4D) performance has been tested on a simple capillary electrophoretic separation in a standard fused-silica capillary with an external diameter of 360,,m and in a thin-walled capillary (an external diameter of 150,,m); the internal diameters of the two capillaries were identical, equal to 75,,m. Potassium and sodium ions have been separated in a morpholinoethanesulfonic acid/histidine background electrolyte (MES/His), over a wide range of its concentrations (0,100,mM). At low MES/His concentrations, the C4D response, obtained from the height of the potassium peak, is by 100 to 200 per cent higher for the thin-walled capillary and the calibration dependences are linear, in contrast to the thick-walled capillary. These differences between the two capillaries decrease with increasing MES/His concentration, the C4D response in the thin-walled capillary is then higher by mere 20 per cent and the calibration dependences are linear in both the capillaries. The highest sensitivities have been obtained at a MES/His concentration of 50,mM, with LOD values for potassium ion of 2.0 and 2.6,,M, in the thin- and thick-walled capillaries, respectively. The signal-to-noise ratios and the plate counts are generally similar for the two capillaries. It follows from the results that special thin-walled capillaries can be advantageous when background electrolytes with very low conductivities must be employed. [source]

    Colloidal Crystals as Templates for Macroporous Carbon Electrodes of Controlled Thickness

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 2-3 2007
    Stéphane Reculusa
    Abstract Macroporous carbon films were synthesized using colloidal crystals as a template and were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The colloidal crystals were elaborated by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique and were infiltrated with carbon by a controlled chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) process. After removal of the template, thin free-standing carbon membranes whose thicknesses match perfectly those of the templates were obtained. Their ability to act as electrodes was checked by carrying out cyclic-voltammetry experiments. [source]

    Genetic Malformations of the Cerebral Cortex and Epilepsy

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 2005
    Renzo Guerrini
    Summary:, We reviewed the epileptogenic cortical malformations for which a causative gene has been cloned or a linkage obtained. X-linked bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia (BPNH) consists of typical BPNH with epilepsy in female patients and prenatal lethality in most males. About 90% of patients have focal epilepsy. Filamin A mutations have been reported in all families and in ,20% of sporadic patients. A rare recessive form of BPNH also has been reported. Most cases of lissencephaly,pachygyria are caused by mutations of LIS1 and XLIS genes. LIS1 mutations cause a more severe malformation posteriorly. Most children have isolated lissencephaly, with severe developmental delay and infantile spasms, but milder phenotypes have been recorded. XLIS usually causes anteriorly predominant lissencephaly in male patients and subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) in female patients. Thickness of the band and severity of pachygyria correlate with the likelihood of developing Lennox,Gastaut syndrome. Mutations of the coding region of XLIS are found in all reported pedigrees and in 50% of sporadic female patients with SBH. Autosomal recessive lissencephaly with cerebellar hypoplasia; accompanied by severe delay, hypotonia, and seizures, has been associated with mutations of the RELN gene. Schizencephaly has a wide anatomoclinical spectrum, including focal epilepsy in most patients. Familial occurrence is rare. Initial reports of heterozygous mutations in the EMX2 gene need confirmation. Among several syndromes featuring polymicrogyria, bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria shows genetic heterogeneity, including linkage to Xq28 in some pedigrees, autosomal recessive inheritance in others, and association with 22q11.2 deletion in some patients. About 65% of patients have severe epilepsy, often Lennox,Gastaut syndrome. Recessive bilateral frontal polymicrogyria has been linked to chromosome 16q12.2,21. [source]

    Formation of Nickel Oxide Nanotubes with Uniform Wall Thickness by Low-Temperature Thermal Oxidation Through Understanding the Limiting Effect of Vacancy Diffusion and the Kirkendall Phenomenon

    Yi Ren
    Abstract In this work, the step-wise oxidation mechanism of nickel (Ni) nanowires is elucidated. Rapid vacancy diffusion plays a significant role at low temperatures in forming heterostructures of nickel oxide (NiO) nanotubes with Ni nanowires. Subsequent investigations of Ni nanowire oxidation at higher temperatures and faster temperature ramp rates show that it is difficult to bypass this rapid vacancy diffusion stage, which affects the formation of the final structure. Therefore, it is unlikely to form solid NiO nanowires or NiO nanotubes with uniform wall thickness through the conventional annealing/oxidation process of Ni nanowires. Instead, a step-wise oxidation process by combining low temperature oxidation with a chemical etching step is utilized to produce for the first time NiO nanotubes with uniform wall thickness from Ni nanowires. [source]

    Capacitors with an Equivalent Oxide Thickness of <0.5 nm for Nanoscale Electronic Semiconductor Memory

    Seong Keun Kim
    Abstract The recent progress in the metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitor technology is reviewed in terms of the materials and processes mostly for dynamic random access memory (DRAM) applications. As TiN/ZrO2 -Al2O3 -ZrO2/TiN (ZAZ) type DRAM capacitors approach their technical limits, there has been renewed interest in the perovskite SrTiO3, which has a dielectric constant of >100, even at a thickness ,10 nm. However, there are many technical challenges to overcome before this type of MIM capacitor can be used in mass-production compatible processes despite the large advancements in atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology over the past decade. In the mean time, rutile structure TiO2 and Al-doped TiO2 films might find space to fill the gap between ZAZ and SrTiO3 MIM capacitors due to their exceptionally high dielectric constant among binary oxides. Achieving a uniform and dense rutile structure is the key technology for the TiO2 -based dielectrics, which depends on having a dense, uniform and smooth RuO2 layer as bottom electrode. Although the Ru (and RuO2) layers grown by ALD using metal-organic precursors are promising, recent technological breakthroughs using the RuO4 precursor made a thin, uniform, and denser Ru and RuO2 layer on a TiN electrode. A minimum equivalent oxide thickness as small as 0.45 nm with a low enough leakage current was confirmed, even in laboratory scale experiments. The bulk dielectric constant of ALD SrTiO3 films, grown at 370 °C, was ,150 even with thicknesses ,15 nm. The recent development of novel group II precursors made it possible to increase the growth rate largely while leaving the electrical properties of the ALD SrTiO3 film intact. This is an important advancement toward the commercial applications of these MIM capacitors to DRAM as well as to other fields, where an extremely high capacitor density and three-dimensional structures are necessary. [source]

    Monodisperse Polymer Capsules: Tailoring Size, Shell Thickness, and Hydrophobic Cargo Loading via Emulsion Templating

    Jiwei Cui
    Abstract The preparation of monodisperse polymer (polydopamine, PDA) capsules by a one-step interfacial polymerization of dopamine onto dimethyldiethoxysilane (DMDES) emulsion droplets and removal of the DMDES templates with ethanol is reported. The diameters of the PDA capsules can be tailored from 400,nm to 2.4,µm by varying either the DMDES emulsion condensation time or the emulsion concentration used for templating. Further, capsules with defined nanometer-scale shell thicknesses (ranging from ,10 to 30,nm) can be prepared by adjusting the emulsion concentration. This shell thickness can be increased by repeated interfacial polymerization of dopamine, with three cycles yielding capsules with a shell thickness of up to 140,nm (for a 0.6% v/v suspension). Functional substances, such as organically stabilized magnetic (Fe3O4) nanoparticles, quantum dots (CdSe/CdS), and hydrophobic drugs (thiocoraline), can be preloaded in the emulsion droplets, and following PDA coating and DMDES removal, these materials remain encapsulated in the polymer capsules. All of the unloaded and loaded PDA capsules are monodisperse and do not aggregate. This work provides new avenues for the preparation of polymer capsules with defined size and shell thickness and for the encapsulation of a range of hydrophobic substances. [source]

    The Critical Role of the Underlayer Material and Thickness in Growing Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers on Metallic Substrates by Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Gilbert D. Nessim
    Abstract Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes and nanofibers are grown on metallic Ta and Pd underlayers at temperatures below 500,°C. Controlling the size of the grains of the underlayer film is critical because this leads to a more uniform distribution of catalyst dots, which in turn results in vertical alignment of the carbon nanostructures. Rapid and limited heating and appropriate materials selection can also be used to limit catalyst/underlayer reactions that hinder or suppress carbon nanostructure growth or that lead to entangled growth. Control of catalyst reactivity with metallic underlayers is significant because growth on conductive substrates is notoriously difficult, but needed for many applications such as the use of carbon nanostructures in microelectronic circuits. [source]

    Thickness of the lithosphere east of the Dead Sea Transform

    Ayman Mohsen
    SUMMARY We use the S receiver function method to study the lithosphere at the Dead Sea Transform (DST). A temporary network of 22 seismic broad-band stations was operated on both sides of the DST from 2000 to 2001 as part of the DESERT project. We also used data from six additional permanent broad-band seismic stations at the DST and in the surrounding area, that is, in Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Egypt and Cyprus. Clear S -to- P converted phases from the crust,mantle boundary (Moho) and a deeper discontinuity, which we interpret as lithosphere,asthenosphere boundary (LAB) have been observed. The Moho depth (30,38 km) obtained from S receiver functions agrees well with the results from P receiver functions and other geophysical data. We observe thinning of the lithosphere on the eastern side of the DST from 80 km in the north of the Dead Sea to about 65 km at the Gulf of Aqaba. On the western side of the DST, the few data indicate a thin LAB of about 65 km. For comparison, we found a 90-km-thick lithosphere in eastern Turkey and a 160-km-thick lithosphere under the Arabian shield, respectively. These observations support previous suggestions, based on xenolith data, heat flow observations, regional uplift history and geodynamic modelling, that the lithosphere around DST has been significantly thinned in the Late Cenozoic, likely following rifting and spreading of the Red Sea. [source]

    Thickness of dentine in mesial roots of mandibular molars with different lengths

    T. S. Sauáia
    Sauáia TS, Gomes BPFA, Pinheiro ET, Zaia AA, Ferraz CCR, Souza-Filho FJ, Valdrighi L. Thickness of dentine in mesial roots of mandibular molars with different lengths. International Endodontic Journal, 43, 555,559, 2010. Abstract Aim, To measure the minimum thickness of the distal (furcal) root dentine associated with the buccal and lingual canals of the mesial roots of mandibular first molars with different lengths. Methodology, The mesial roots of 285 mandibular first molars were allocated into three groups according to their length: group I , long (24.14 mm ± 0.85), group II , medium (22.10 mm ± 0.65) and group III , short (19.97 mm ± 0.75). The minimum thickness of the distal (furcal) root dentine associated with the buccal and lingual canals of the mesial roots 2 mm below the furcation was measured. The distance between the buccal and lingual canals, and the depth of concavity in the distal surface of the mesial roots were also measured. anova and Tukey,Kramer were used to test for significant differences among the groups. Results, The minimum thickness of the distal wall of the mesiobuccal canal was significantly different (P < 0.05) between group I (long) and III (short), with long teeth having the smallest mean values. No significant difference was found in the thickness of the distal wall of the mesiolingual canal among the groups studied (P > 0.05). The shortest distance between the mesiobuccal and the mesiolingual canals was observed in group III (P < 0.05). The distal (furcal) concavity was deeper in group I (P < 0.05) when compared with the other groups. Conclusion, There was a significant difference in the minimum thickness of the distal (furcal) root wall of the mesiobuccal canal of mandibular first molars 2 mm below the furcation between group I (long) and group III (short) teeth. The thinnest walls were found in the longest teeth. The deepest concavities in the distal (furcal) walls of the mesial roots were found in the longest roots. [source]

    Thickness and continuity of the adherent colonic mucus barrier in active and quiescent ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease

    V. Strugala
    Summary Background:, The colon is covered by a mucus barrier that protects the underlying mucosa and alterations in this mucus barrier have been implicated in the aetiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study investigated the thickness and continuity of the mucus barrier in ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) in comparison to normal controls. Methods:, Rectal biopsies were taken from 59 patients and cryostat sections stained with periodic acid-Schiff's/Alcian blue to visualise the mucus layer. Mucus thickness and continuity and goblet cell density were measured using light microscopy. Results:, An essentially continuous adherent mucus layer was observed in normal human rectum and there was no change in the mucus barrier in quiescent UC. In active UC there was a trend for the mucus layer to become progressively thinner and significantly more discontinuous as disease severity increased. In severe active UC the mucus layer thickness and goblet cell density were significantly reduced compared with normal controls while the percentage discontinuity significantly increased. Conclusion:, It is not until severe UC that there is a global change in mucosal protection as a consequence of large regions lacking mucus, a decrease in secretory potential caused by a loss of goblet cells and a thinner, less effective mucus layer even when it is present. [source]

    Structural changes and shrinkage of potato during frying

    Rui M. Costa
    Summary Light microscopy was used to study changes in cell size, blister formation and crust evolution during potato frying. Frying experiments with both French fries and crisps of different thickness (1,5 mm) were performed at temperatures of 140 and 180 °C. Thickness, volume and density changes were also measured. The formation of crust in French fries starts after the potato surface reached approximately 103 °C, and then the crust thickness increased linearly with the square root of frying time, this increase being faster at 180 °C. The potato volume decreased during frying, although in the late stages the volume may increase because of oil uptake and cell separation caused by entrapped water vapour. Shrinkage was adequately described by the Weibull model with a residual value, with shrinkage rate increasing with temperature and decreasing with potato thickness. The residual volume was not affected by temperature (65% for French fries and 59,30 for crisps, depending on thickness). Volume appeared to decrease mainly as the result of water loss, except for very low water content, and thus potato density changes were very small. [source]

    Osteoblast-Specific Targeting of Soluble Colony-Stimulating Factor-1 Increases Cortical Bone Thickness in Mice,,

    SL Abboud
    Abstract The soluble and membrane-bound forms of CSF-1 are synthesized by osteoblasts and stromal cells in the bone microenvironment. Transgenic mice, generated to selectively express sCSF-1 in bone, showed increased cortical thickness in the femoral diaphysis caused by new bone formation along the endosteal surface. The ability of sCSF-1 to enhance bone cell activity in vivo is potentially relevant for increasing cortical bone in a variety of disorders. Introduction: The soluble form of colony-stimulating factor-1 (sCSF-1) and the membrane-bound form of CSF-1 (mCSF-1) have been shown to support osteoclastogenesis in vitro; however, the effect of each peptide on bone remodeling in vivo is unclear. To determine the effect of sCSF-1, selectively expressed in bone, the skeletal phenotype of transgenic mice harboring the human sCSF-1 cDNA under the control of the osteocalcin promoter was assessed. Methods: At 5 and 14 weeks, mice were analyzed for CSF-1 protein levels, weighed, and X-rayed, and femurs were removed for peripheral quantitative computed tomography, histology, and histomorphometry. Results: High levels of human sCSF-1 were detected in bone extracts and, to a lesser extent, in plasma. Adult transgenic mice showed normal body weight and increased circulating monocytic cells. At 5 weeks, the femoral diaphysis was similar in CSF-1T and wt/wt littermates. However, by 14 weeks, the femoral diaphysis in CSF-1T mice showed increased cortical thickness and bone mineral density. In contrast to the diaphysis, the femoral metaphysis of CSF-1T mice showed normal cancellous bone comparable with wt/wt littermates at each time point. Histological sections demonstrated increased woven bone along the endosteal surface of the diaphysis and intracortical remodeling. Fluorochrome-labeling analysis confirmed endocortical bone formation in CSF-1T, with a 3.1-fold increase in the percentage of double-labeled surfaces and a 3.6-fold increase in the bone formation rate compared with wt/wt mice. Although remodeling resulted in a slightly porous cortex, sCSF-1 preferentially stimulated endocortical bone formation, leading to increased cortical thickness. Conclusions: These findings indicate that sCSF-1 is a key determinant of bone cell activity in the corticoendosteal envelope. [source]

    Thickness of gingiva in association with age, gender and dental arch location

    K. L. Vandana
    Abstract Background: It has been long known that the clinical appearance of healthy marginal periodontium differs from subject to subject and even among different tooth types. Many features are genetically determined; others seem to be influenced by tooth size, shape and position and biological phenomena such as gender, growth and age. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the thickness of facial gingiva among Indians and its association with age, gender and dental arch. Methods: The study group included 16 males and 16 females with an age range of 16,38 years. Gingival thickness was assessed in the maxillary and mandibular anteriors by transgingival probing. Results: It was observed that the younger age group had significantly thicker gingiva than that of the older age group. The gingiva was found to be thinner in females than males and, in the mandibular arch than the maxilla. Conclusion: In the present study, it was concluded that gingival thickness varies according to age, gender and dental arch. [source]

    DES Design: Theoretical Advantages and Disadvantages of Stent Strut Materials, Design, Thickness, and Surface Characteristics

    F.A.C.C., F.A.H.A., F.S.C.A.I., STEVEN R. BAILEY M.D.
    Endovascular stents have historically been manufactured using metals and metal composites. While metallic implants in nonvascular locations have been biologically well tolerated, endovascular implants have been plagued by neointimal proliferation resulting in recurrent stenosis. Using prior in vitro and in vivo outcomes, novel research projects are under way to improve vascular implants. This review summarizes prior investigations of metal stents, analyzes new biopolymeric systems, and examines emerging technologies and manufacturing processes for surface modifications as well as bioabsorbable stent materials. Limitations of these new materials and manufacturing processes will be discussed along with potential new biologic applications. [source]

    Determination of mean free path for energy loss and surface oxide film thickness using convergent beam electron diffraction and thickness mapping: a case study using Si and P91 steel

    Summary Determining transmission electron microscope specimen thickness is an essential prerequisite for carrying out quantitative microscopy. The convergent beam electron diffraction method is highly accurate but provides information only on the small region being probed and is only applicable to crystalline phases. Thickness mapping with an energy filter is rapid, maps an entire field of view and can be applied to both crystalline and amorphous phases. However, the thickness map is defined in terms of the mean free path for energy loss (,), which must be known in order to determine the thickness. Convergent beam electron diffraction and thickness mapping methods were used to determine , for two materials, Si and P91 steel. These represent best- and worst-case scenario materials, respectively, for this type of investigation, owing to their radically different microstructures. The effects of collection angle and the importance of dynamical diffraction contrast are also examined. By minimizing diffraction contrast effects in thickness maps, reasonably accurate (±15%) values of , were obtained for P91 and accuracies of ±5% were obtained for Si. The correlation between the convergent beam electron diffraction-derived thickness and the log intensity ratios from thickness maps also permits estimation of the thickness of amorphous layers on the upper and lower surfaces of transmission electron microscope specimens. These estimates were evaluated for both Si and P91 using cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and were found to be quite accurate. [source]

    The influence of some different factors on the accuracy of shade selection

    H. Dagg
    summary, The purpose of this study was to elucidate some of the factors on which accurate shade taking depends. Custom shade tabs (0·5, 1·0 and 1·5 mm porcelain thickness) were fabricated from selected Vita and Shofu porcelains. Four main factors were investigated, namely, the difference between the two types of porcelain used, the effect of light quality, the effect of porcelain thickness and the experience of the observer. The chi-square test for independence at a probability level of P < 0·05 was used to analyse the results. The results indicated that in ideal light there was no difference between the two porcelains (P=0·58). The experienced observers proved better than the novice observers in ideal light conditions (P=0·003). Thickness was also significant in the overall results (P=0·0001), in that thicker samples gave more accurate results. The results indicate that in adverse light, there was an overall difference between the two porcelains (P=0·046), but no difference between the experienced and novice observers. The thickness made no difference to the experienced or the novice observer in adverse light. These results indicate that the most influential factor on shade taking was the light quality (P < 0·0001); better results were obtained overall for the ideal light situation. In ideal light thicker samples gave better results (P=0·0001). [source]

    Effects of Individual Layer Thickness on the Microstructure and Optoelectronic Properties of Sol,Gel-Derived Zinc Oxide Thin Films

    Noureddine Bel Hadj Tahar
    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were prepared under different conditions on glass substrates using a sol,gel process. The microstructure of ZnO films was investigated by means of diffraction analysis, and plan-view and cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the preparation conditions strongly affected the structure and the optoelectronic properties of the films. A structural evolution in morphology from spherical to columnar growth was observed. The crystallinity of the films was improved and columnar film growth became more dominant as the zinc concentration and the substrate withdrawal speed decreased. The individual layer thickness for layer-by-layer homoepitaxy growth that resulted in columnar grains was <20 nm. The grain columns are grown through the entire film with a nearly unchanged lateral dimension through the full film thickness. The columnar ZnO grains are c -axis oriented perpendicular to the interface and possess a polycrystalline structure. Optical transmittance up to 90% in the visible range and electrical resistivity as low as 6.8 × 10,3·,·cm were obtained under optimal deposition conditions. [source]

    Novel Biomarkers for Diagnosis and Therapeutic Assessment of Overactive Bladder: Urinary Nerve Growth Factor and Detrusor Wall Thickness

    LUTS, Issue 2009
    Hann-Chorng KUO
    Clinical diagnosis of overactive bladder (OAB) varies greatly and is based on subjective symptoms. A better way to diagnose and assess therapeutic outcome in patients who present with OAB needs to be developed. Evidence has shown that urinary proteins, such as nerve growth factor (NGF) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels increase in patients with OAB, bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) and detrusor overactivity (DO). Urinary NGF level increases physiologically in normal subjects at urge to void, but increases pathologically in OAB patients at small bladder volume and at urgency sensation. Patients with OAB dry and OAB wet have significantly higher urinary NGF levels compared to controls and patients with increased bladder sensation. Urinary NGF levels decrease after antimuscarinic therapy and further decrease after detrusor botulinum toxin injections in refractory OAB. A higher urinary NGF level could be a biomarker for sensory nerve-mediated DO. Urinary NGF levels could be a potential biomarker for diagnosis of OAB and serve for the assessment of the therapeutic effect of antimuscarinic therapy. Another potential biomarker for the diagnosis of OAB is detrusor wall thickness. It has been hypothesized that the bladder wall increases in thickness in patients with OAB. The thickened detrusor wall might decrease in response to antimuscarinic treatment, and measurement of detrusor wall thickness might be a useful biomarker for the evaluation of OAB. However, current investigations do not yet provide a uniform observation among various studies. [source]

    AFM measurement of the stiffness of layers of agarose gel patterned with polylysine

    Marco Salerno
    Abstract Films of agarose gel microspotted with polylysine aqueous solution have been characterized by atomic force microscopy carried out in deionized water. Thickness and surface morphology of the layers have been checked, and the effect of polylysine impregnation on the local elasticity has been investigated. An increase in contact stiffness of the organic layer at the spotted areas has been observed, correlated with the polylysine concentration. For the considered agarose layer thickness of ,0.9 ,m in dry condition, the concentration threshold at which stiffening appears is ,0.1 mg/mL. Above this threshold, the stiffening coefficient becomes approximately twofold and seems not to increase significantly with concentration in the range 0.3,0.7 mg/mL. For concentrations above the stiffening threshold, this effect is also accompanied by a locally lower film thickness. For quantitative determination of the stiffness, force,distance curves extracted from the regions of interest of spots and agarose substrate have been selected and processed. These curves were fitted to the Hertz model of purely elastic tip-surface interaction, under appropriate assumptions on both tip shape and optimum indentation depth. In this way, we could determine the Young's modulus of the agarose layer to be ,50 kPa and quantitatively confirm the stiffening due to polylysine. Microsc. Res. Tech. 73:982,990, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Spectral optical coherence tomography: a new imaging technique in contact lens practice

    omiej J. Ka
    Abstract Purpose:, Spectral optical coherence tomography (SOCT) is a new non-invasive, non-contact, high-resolution technique, which provides cross-sectional images of objects that weakly absorb and scatter light. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the application of SOCT to imaging of eyes fitted with contact lenses. Methods:, Nine eyes of six different subjects fitted with various contact lenses have been examined with a slit-lamp and a prototype SOCT instrument. Results:, Our SOCT system provides high-resolution (4,6 ,m longitudinal, 10 ,m transversal) tomograms composed of 3000,5000 A-scans with acquisition time of 100,250 ms. The quality of the images is adequate for detailed evaluation of contact lens fit. Design, shape and lens edge position were assessed, and complications of contact lens wear could be visualized. Thickness of the lens, corneal epithelium and stroma as well as the space between the lens and the eye surface have been measured. Conclusions:, SOCT allows high-resolution, cross-sectional visualization of the eye fitted with a contact lens. The ability to carry out a detailed evaluation of the fitting relationship between the lens and the ocular surface might be useful in research and optometric practice. SOCT can also be helpful in diagnosis, evaluation and documentation of contact lens complications. [source]

    Interatrial Septum Thickness and Difficulty with Transseptal Puncture during Redo Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation

    Background:Patients undergoing catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) frequently require redo procedures, but there are no data reporting interatrial septum thickness (IAS) and difficulty during repeat transseptal puncture (TSP). Methods:Patients undergoing two separate AF ablation procedures had preprocedural fossa ovalis (FO) thickness measured using transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). "Difficult" TSP was defined by two observers as requiring excessive force, or conversion to TEE guidance. Results:The study comprised 42 patients (37 male) with mean ± SD age 55 ± 9 years. Mean FO thickness was significantly greater at the time of redo TSP (2.2 ± 1.6 mm vs 2.6 ± 1.5 mm at redo, P = 0.03); however, this finding was limited to those who underwent initial dual transseptal sheath procedures, FO thickness 2.0 ± 1.5 mm and 2.5 ± 1.4 mm for TEE 1 and 2, respectively (P = 0.048). There was a trend for more frequent difficult redo TSP procedures, 7/42 (17%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 8,31) redo, versus 4/42 (10%; 95% CI 3,23) first TSP. On univariate analysis, FO thickness was not predictive of TSP difficulty; the only predictor of difficult redo TSP was diabetes. Conclusions:IAS thickness at the FO increased following catheter ablation of AF, yet on subgroup analysis this was limited to initial procedures utilizing dual transseptal sheaths. There was a trend toward more frequent difficulty during redo TSP, yet this was not associated with FO thickening. Diabetes may predispose to difficulty during redo TSP; this finding requires confirmation in a larger study population. [source]

    In-situ IR synchrotron mapping ellipsometry on stimuli-responsive PAA-b-PS/PEG mixed polymer brushes

    Dennis Aulich
    Abstract A binary polymer brush consisting of weak polyelectrolytes was investigated with infrared synchrotron mapping ellipsometry in-situ under the influence of different aqueous solutions. Thickness of the brush layer in dry state was ,15 nm. The brush, consisting of poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(acrylic acid)-b-poly(styrene) in a 50/50 composition was switched between two different states by changing the pH of the solution. An IR mapping ellipsometer at the IRIS beamline located at the BESSY II synchrotron facility in Berlin, Germany, was used for high lateral resolution in-situ measurements. The results show strong chemical changes in the brush layer due to COOH , COO, conversion of the PAA's carboxylic groups. Measurements with spot sizes of ,1 mm on different positions on the samples proved good homogeneity of the brush layer and the qualification of this method for investigation of ultrathin organic films in aqueous solutions in-situ with IR ellipsometry. (© 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Subclinical Atherosclerosis: Evolving Role of Carotid Intima-Media Thickness

    FRCPC, Farouk Mookadam MD
    Cardiovascular risk factors have utility in risk prediction but have limitations in predicting individual risk. Identifying an individual's risk remains a challenge. Emerging technologies such as carotid artery ultrasonography and measures of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) may be useful in identifying the susceptible patient who may benefit from more aggressive preventive therapy. This screening test is noninvasive, reproducible, inexpensive, and radiation-free. Recent data have improved our understanding of the application of CIMT as a screening tool for cardiovascular disease. CIMT measurement may place an individual into a higher- or lower-risk category, allowing for appropriate institution of preventive strategies. Prev Cardiol. 2010;13:186,197.©2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    The "Null Effect" of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Lowering on a Modest Baseline Intima-Media Thickness: Lessons Learned From the ENHANCE Trial

    Barry A. Franklin PhD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]