Theoretical Underpinnings (theoretical + underpinning)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

HR practices perceptions, emotional exhaustion, and work outcomes: A conservation-of-resources theory in the Chinese context

Li-Yun Sun
The conservation-of-resources theory provided the theoretical underpinning for the relationship among HR practices perceived by employees, emotional exhaustion, and work outcomes ( job satisfaction and job performance). To fully understand the underlying mechanism of the relationship, the study examined (1) the main and interactive effects of HR practices and employee age on emotional exhaustion and (2) the mediating effect of job satisfaction on the relationship between emotional exhaustion and job performance. Data were obtained from manufacturing workers in a privately owned company in the People's Republic of China. Empirical results lent strong support for the main, moderated, and mediated effects mentioned previously. However, contrary to our hypotheses the research result indicated that the relationship between low-commitment HR practices and emotional exhaustion was stronger for older employees than for younger ones. This contrasting finding demonstrated the criticality of an organization's commitment to employees, particularly to older employees, which further supported and enriched the conservation-of-resources theory in the Chinese context. [source]

Using Multimedia to Introduce Young People to Public Art in Glasgow

Glen Coutts
This paper is based on a presentation at the NSEAD/AAIAD Millennium Conference in Bristol, April 2000 and takes as its focus a recent multimedia publication, a CD-ROM, commissioned by Glasgow 1999, entitled ,Scanning the City'. The commission was to find effective ways that students in schools could interrogate the diverse urban fabric of Glasgow. The electronic revolution has shifted the paradigms of teaching and learning by creating the opportunity to engage interactively with visual and textual data in ways that permit investigation of the built environments at a number of levels of intensity. The paper explains the background to the CD-ROM, describes the design, content and theoretical underpinning of ,Scanning the City' and discusses ways it might be used in a variety of educational contexts. It concludes by looking forward to the next stages of the research including a study of how young people and teachers are using the CD-ROM and other related multimedia publications. [source]

Differential amplifier with improved gain-accuracy and linearity

R. Wu
Abstract A novel circuit design technique is presented which improves gain-accuracy and linearity in differential amplifiers. The technique employs negative impedance compensation and results demonstrate a significant performance improvement in precision, lowering sensitivity, and wide dynamic range. A theoretical underpinning is given together with the results of a demonstrator differential input/output amplifier with gain of 12,dB. The simulation results show that, with the novel method, both the gain-accuracy and linearity can be improved greatly. Especially, the linearity improvement in IMD can get to more than 23,dB with a required gain. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Some Recent Developments in Futures Hedging

Donald Lien
The use of futures contracts as a hedging instrument has been the focus of much research. At the theoretical level, an optimal hedge strategy is traditionally based on the expected,utility maximization paradigm. A simplification of this paradigm leads to the minimum,variance criterion. Although this paradigm is quite well accepted, alternative approaches have been sought. At the empirical level, research on futures hedging has benefited from the recent developments in the econometrics literature. Much research has been done on improving the estimation of the optimal hedge ratio. As more is known about the statistical properties of financial time series, more sophisticated estimation methods are proposed. In this survey we review some recent developments in futures hedging. We delineate the theoretical underpinning of various methods and discuss the econometric implementation of the methods. [source]


Suzanne Bartle-Haring
Using Bowen Family Systems Theory as a theoretical underpinning, in this study, we investigated the hypothesis that clients with higher levels of differentiation would improve more quickly in therapy than clients with lower levels of differentiation. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to analyze the data over nine sessions of therapy in a sample from an on-campus training clinic. The results suggest that there was variation in the initial levels of psychological symptoms and that differentiation was a significant predictor of this variance. The results also suggest that although psychological symptoms decreased over the nine sessions of therapy, there was very little variance in this change. These results are discussed in relation to Bowen Theory. The difficulties of doing this type of research and the lessons learned from this project are also discussed. [source]

Relevant behavioural and social science for medical undergraduates: a comparison of specialist and non-specialist educators

Sarah Peters
Aim, To compare what medical educators who are specialists in the behavioural and social sciences and their non-specialist counterparts consider to be core concepts that medical graduates should understand. Background, Previously perceived as ,nice to know' rather than ,need to know', the General Medical Council (GMC) now places behavioural and social sciences on the same need-to-know basis as clinical and basic sciences. Attempts have been made to identify what components of these topics medical students need to know; however, it remains unknown if decisions over programme content differ depending on whether or not educationalists have specialist knowledge of the behavioural and social sciences. Methods, In a survey of medical educationalists within all UK medical schools, respondents were asked to indicate from a comprehensive list of psychological, sociological and anthropological concepts what they considered a minimally competent graduate should understand. Comparisons were made between the concepts identified by specialist behavioural and social science (BSS) educators and those without such training. Results, Despite different disciplinary backgrounds, non-specialist educators largely concurred with BSS specialist educators in the concepts they considered tomorrow's doctors should know about. However, among BSS specialists there remained disagreement on what BSS content was relevant for graduates. Differences reflect specialist knowledge and recognition of the role of theoretical underpinning of BSS and reveal gaps in non-specialists knowledge. Conclusions, Educationalists with formal training in the full range of behavioural and social sciences should be involved in the development of BSS curriculum content at both national and school levels. [source]

Interventions for preventing obesity in childhood.

A systematic review
Abstract Background The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing worldwide. Obesity in children impacts on their health in both short- and long-term. Obesity prevention strategies are poorly understood. Objective To assess the effectiveness of interventions designed to prevent obesity in childhood. Search strategy Electronic databases were searched from January 1985 to October 1999. Selection criteria Data from randomized control trials and non-randomized trials with concurrent control group were included. A priori, studies with follow up of 1 year minimum were selected however, this was subsequently amended to include studies with a minimum follow up of three months. Data collection & analysis Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed study quality. Main results Seven studies were included, three long-term (>1 years) and four short-term (>3 months and <1 years). The studies included were diverse in terms of study design and quality, target population, theoretical underpinning of intervention approach, and outcome measures. As such, it was not appropriate to combine study findings using statistical methods. Conclusions Two of the long-term studies (one focused on dietary education and physical activity vs. control, and the other only on dietary education vs. control), resulted in a reduction in the prevalence on obesity, but the third, which focused on dietary education and physical activity, found no effect. Of the four short-term studies, three focused simply on physical activity/reduction of sedentary behavious vs. control. Two of these studies resulted in a reduction in the prevalence of obesity in intervention groups compared with control groups, and another study found a non-significant reduction. The fourth study focused on dietary education and physical activity, and did not find an effect on obesity, but did report a reduction in fat intake. Overall, the findings of the review suggest that currently there is limited quality data on the effectiveness of obesity prevention programmes and as such no generalizable conclusions can be drawn. The need for well-designed studies that examine a range of interventions remains a priority. [source]

Use of theory to interpret elements of change

Dr. Henry B. Slotnick PhD, PhD Visiting Professor
Abstract Actions useful in reducing unacceptable variation in physicians' clinical activities have been identified through critical reviews of randomized controlled trials, and, from them, Richard Grol proposed six elements of effective change for mounting programs to improve clinical practice. The elements include consideration of the complex reality of clinical practice, attention to the designated change, analysis of the target group and setting, mixed interventions to address needs, and a plan of action. Although empirically based, the elements lack a theoretical underpinning that explains why the elements work. This article interprets the elements using theories separately advanced by Dewey, Slotnick, and Wenger to suggest ways for understanding what studies have shown. [source]

Modeling Relations in Nature and Eco-Informatics: A Practical Application of Rosennean Complexity


Abstract The purpose of eco-informatics is to communicate critical information about organisms and ecosystems. To accomplish this, it must reflect the complexity of natural systems. Present information systems are designed around mechanistic concepts that do not capture complexity. Robert Rosen's relational theory offers a way of representing complexity in terms of information entailments that are part of an ontologically implicit ,modeling relation'. This relation has corresponding epistemological components that can be captured empirically, the components being structure (associated with model encoding) and function (associated with model decoding). Relational complexity, thus, provides a long-awaited theoretical underpinning for these concepts that ecology has found indispensable. Structural information pertains to the material organization of a system, which can be represented by data. Functional information specifies potential change, which can be inferred from experiment and represented as models or descriptions of state transformations. Contextual dependency (of structure or function) implies meaning. Biological functions imply internalized or system-dependent laws. Complexity can be represented epistemologically by relating structure and function in two different ways. One expresses the phenomenal relation that exists in any present or past instance, and the other draws the ontology of a system into the empirical world in terms of multiple potentials subject to natural forms of selection and optimality. These act as system attractors. Implementing these components and their theoretical relations in an informatics system will provide more-complete ecological informatics than is possible from a strictly mechanistic point of view. This approach will enable many new possibilities for supporting science and decision making. [source]

The role of health professionals in preventing non-accidental head injury

Alison Kemp
Abstract The aim of this paper is to re,ect on the role that the health professions can play in preventing a serious form of physical child abuse. Using research data from a case series study on non-accidental head injury, or shaken baby syndrome, some aspects of child healthcare are reviewed for their potential for prevention. In child protection in the UK, more resources are put into the diagnosis and assessment of child abuse than into interventions designed for prevention. The ,eld of prevention is generally lacking in a theoretical underpinning or systematic means of evaluation and yet the 1996 National Commission of Inquiry into the Prevention of Child Abuse concluded that child abuse ,can almost always be prevented provided the will to do so is there' (National Commission of Inquiry into the Prevention of Child Abuse, 1996). This requires major changes to the way society views and protects children. The focus in this paper is on the very young, mainly babies under 6 months of age. It calls for a lowering of the threshold with which health professionals view a baby's illness for secondary prevention of non-accidental head injury and the need to review approaches to primary prevention, both from the UK and abroad, in order to implement a systematic means to primary prevention. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Maturation of Corporate Governance Research, 1993,2007: An Assessment

Boris Durisin
ABSTRACT Manuscript Type: Review Research Question/Issue: This study seeks to investigate whether governance research in fact is a discipline or whether it is rather the subject of multi-disciplinary research. We map the intellectual structure of corporate governance research and its evolution from 1993,2007. Research Findings/Results: Based on the analysis of more than 1,000 publications and 48,000 citations in Corporate Goverance: An International Review (CGIR) and other academic journals, our study identifies the most influential works, the dominant subfields, and their evolution. Our study assesses the maturation of corporate governance research as a discipline; it finds increasing sophistication, depth and rigor, and consistency in its intellectual structure. Theoretical Implications: There is a large body of accumulated corporate governance research in the US, yet there is an empirical gap on cross-national studies in the literature. Furthermore, hardly any of the top cited works undertake their study in a cross-national setting. Thus, corporate governance research and CGIR in its quest to contribute to a global theory of corporate governance might benefit if articles have a cross-national methodological approach and empirical grounding in their research design and if articles explicitly aim at stating the theoretical underpinnings they draw on. Practical Implications: Globalists find in CGIR an outlet addressing economics and finance (e.g., whether and how compensation or dismissal of CEOs is related to board characteristics), management (e.g., whether and how best practice codes adoption is related to board characteristics and performance), and accounting (e.g., whether and how earnings manipulations is related to board characteristics) issues globally. [source]

Macro Models and Poverty Analysis: Theoretical Tensions and Empirical Practice

Sherman Robinson
This article reviews economy-wide, multisectoral models and the issues involved when using them to analyse macro-poverty linkages in developing countries. It explores the theoretical underpinnings for simple SAM multiplier models, real-economy CGE models, and real-financial CGE models. The latter represent an ,eclectic' approach, which strives to build models that integrate elements from CGE and macro-financial models, the alternative, more applied, ,ecumenical' approach being to keep these models separate but specify ways through which they can communicate. Due to limited knowledge about the data and processes, the ability of analysts to address short-run distributional issues is limited; we therefore expect most progress in the analysis of medium- and long-run issues, using both eclectic and ecumenical approaches. [source]

Connections between species diversity and genetic diversity

Mark Vellend
Abstract Species diversity and genetic diversity remain the nearly exclusive domains of community ecology and population genetics, respectively, despite repeated recognition in the literature over the past 30 years of close parallels between these two levels of diversity. Species diversity within communities and genetic diversity within populations are hypothesized to co-vary in space or time because of locality characteristics that influence the two levels of diversity via parallel processes, or because of direct effects of one level of diversity on the other via several different mechanisms. Here, we draw on a wide range of studies in ecology and evolution to examine the theoretical underpinnings of these hypotheses, review relevant empirical literature, and outline an agenda for future research. The plausibility of species diversity,genetic diversity relationships is supported by a variety of theoretical and empirical studies, and several recent studies provide direct, though preliminary support. Focusing on potential connections between species diversity and genetic diversity complements other approaches to synthesis at the ecology,evolution interface, and should contribute to conceptual unification of biodiversity research at the levels of genes and species. [source]

Separated by a Common Language?

Entrepreneurship Research Across the Atlantic
While recent inventories and assessments of the entrepreneurship field examine the focus, purpose, and methods, one area receiving less attention is the outcome or dependent variable. The outcome variable is of critical importance in scholarship, as it is a leading indicator of the cumulative nature of the scholarship in our field. This paper reviews 389 articles published over the past 3 years in four top entrepreneurship journals; two published in the United States and two published in Europe. It classifies the scholarship by theoretical underpinnings, independent variables, dependent variables, and then looks at the variation in these by origin of the journal. Results indicate that entrepreneurship researchers are using a wide variety of dependent variables, that the most popular unit of analysis is the firm, and that performance, broadly defined, is the most popular dependent variable. Implications for future research are discussed. [source]

Feedforward networks in financial predictions: the future that modifies the present

EXPERT SYSTEMS, Issue 3 2000
Massimo Budcema
The main goal of this paper is to show how relatively minor modifications of well-known algorithms (in particular, back propagation) can dramatically increase the performance of an artificial neural network (ANN) for time series prediction. We denote our proposed sets of modifications as the 'self-momentum', 'Freud' and 'Jung' rules. In our opinion, they provide an example of an alternative approach to the design of learning strategies for ANNs, one that focuses on basic mathematical conceptualization rather than on formalism and demonstration. The complexity of actual prediction problems makes it necessary to experiment with modelling possibilities whose inherent mathematical properties are often not well understood yet. The problem of time series prediction in stock markets is a case in point. It is well known that asset price dynamics in financial markets are difficult to trace, let alone to predict with an operationally interesting degree of accuracy. We therefore take financial prediction as a meaningful test bed for the validation of our techniques. We discuss in some detail both the theoretical underpinnings of the technique and our case study about financial prediction, finding encouraging evidence that supports the theoretical and operational viability of our new ANN specifications. Ours is clearly only a preliminary step. Further developments of ANN architectures with more and more sophisticated 'learning to learn' characteristics are now under study and test. [source]


Noel Hyndman
The concept of governance has been widely discussed in both the business and non-business sectors. The debate has also been entered into within the charity sector, which comprises over 169,000 organizations in the UK. The UK-based Charity Commission, which describes itself as existing to ,promote sound governance and accountability', has taken a lead in this debate by promoting greater regulation and producing numerous recommendations with regard to the proper governance of charitable organizations. However, the concept of what is meant by governance is unclear and a myriad of ideas are placed under the umbrella of ,good governance'. This paper explores the major themes that form the basis of much of this discussion, examining both the theoretical underpinnings and empirical investigations relating to this area (looking from the perspective of the key stakeholders in the charity sector). Based on an analysis of the extant literature, this paper presents a broad definition of governance with respect to charities and outlines a future research agenda for those interested in adding to knowledge in this area [source]


Andy C. Pratt
ABSTRACT. The aim of this article is to critically examine the notion that the creative class may or may not play as a causal mechanism of urban regeneration. I begin with a review of Florida's argument focusing on the conceptual and theoretical underpinnings. The second section develops a critique of the relationship between the creative class and growth. This is followed by an attempt to clarify the relationship between the concepts of creativity, culture and the creative industries. Finally, I suggest that policy-makers may achieve more successful regeneration outcomes if they attend to the cultural industries as an object that links production and consumption, manufacturing and service. Such a notion is more useful in interpreting and understanding the significant role of cultural production in contemporary cities, and what relation it has to growth. [source]

Developing theory-based risk-reduction interventions for HIV-positive young people with haemophilia

HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 1 2001
J. R. Schultz
Eleven haemophilia treatment centres in the United States collaborated in the Hemophilia Behavioural Intervention Evaluation Projects (HBIEP) to develop theory-based interventions to reduce the risk of HIV transmission from seropositive adolescents and young adults with haemophilia. While the Transtheoretical Model of Behaviour Change and the Theory of Reasoned Action provided the theoretical underpinnings, the exact form in which these theories would be applied depended on developmental research. This paper presents the various phases of the process to develop the theory based interventions: literature review, qualitative interviews, quantitative surveys, a provider survey, a materials review, and the actual planning. All or portions of this process could be applied to the development of interventions for many behaviour-change projects. A description of the HBIEP interventions is also provided. [source]

The patient movement as an emancipation movement

Charlotte Williamson OBE MA PhD
Abstract Objective, To suggest that the patient movement is an emancipation movement. Background, The patient movement is young and fragmented; and it can seem confusing because it lacks an explicit ideology with intellectual and theoretical underpinnings. Methods, Drawing mainly on the experiences and the published writings of patient activists, the author identified eight aspects of the patient movement that could be compared with aspects of recognized emancipation movements: the radicalization of activists; the creation of new knowledge; the identification of guiding principles; the sense of direction; the unmasking of new issues; schisms within the movement and allies outside it; and the gradual social acceptance of some of the ideas (here standards of health care) that activists work to promote. Results, Similarities between certain aspects of the patient movement and of the recognized emancipation movements were close. Conclusion, The patient movement can be regarded as an emancipation movement, albeit an immature one. [source]

The Guernica Children's Peace Mural Project

Tom Anderson
This is an exploration of the international Guernica Children's Peace Mural Project, particularly in terms of its theoretical underpinnings and possible impact as a paradigm for ,real life' art education. [source]

Strategic decision-making: Process perspectives

Said Elbanna
This paper reviews the strategic decision-making process literature with respect to the synoptic formalism/political incrementalism debate. Procedural rationality is chosen as a representative of the synoptic formalism perspective; and both intuitive synthesis and political behaviour are employed as representatives of the political-incrementalism perspective. In this paper, the author discusses the theoretical underpinnings of these three process dimensions, as well as the key research efforts gathered together under each perspective. In conducting this review, a number of areas have been identified which could profitably be examined further, and a number of implications for managers will be highlighted and discussed. [source]

Symptom burden in inflammatory bowel disease: Rethinking conceptual and theoretical underpinnings

Dawn Farrell BSC RGN
Farrell D, Savage E. International Journal of Nursing Practice 2010; 16: 437,442 Symptom burden in inflammatory bowel disease: Rethinking conceptual and theoretical underpinnings Symptom control is fundamental to the nursing management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, symptom control can be problematic for individuals with IBD, which could result in symptom burden. Symptom burden is an evolving concept in the discipline of nursing and to date little is known about how the defining characteristics of this concept have been applied to symptom research in IBD. In this discussion paper, the concept of symptom burden and the theory of unpleasant symptoms are explored as a basis for understanding symptom research in IBD. This is followed by a critical examination of previous symptom research in IBD. Our conclusion is that there is a need to rethink conceptual and theoretical underpinnings of symptom burden when researching IBD to take account of its defining characteristics, namely symptom severity, frequency and duration, quality and distress. Research knowledge on these defining characteristics will be important to inform nursing assessment of symptom burden in clinical practice. [source]

Enhancing the quality of hermeneutic research: decision trail

Lisa Whitehead BSc MA RGN
Background., Researchers have ethical and professional obligations to produce research of a high standard. The constituents of quality in research appear to differ between authors, leaving readers unsure about which pathway to follow. This can reflect inadequate consideration of the theoretical framework guiding the study. Many papers fail to consider the theoretical underpinnings of the methodology chosen and the link between these and the methods employed. These need to be accessible to readers in order to assess the trustworthiness of the research. Aim., This paper discusses the development of trustworthiness in hermeneutic phenomenological research. Discussion., Referring to a study on lived experience of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/myalgic encephalitis, I describe the decision trail and discuss the strengths and limitations of the choices made throughout the study. Conclusion., The methodology focused my approach more fully on the importance of recognizing the influences that I brought to the study and the impact of these in generating the data. It highlighted the fact that the process of setting out my horizon can never be complete, the importance of analysing the data at a macro and micro level, acknowledging the evolution of the data over time, and ensuring that analysis does not move beyond the data and out of the hermeneutic circle. In seeking to make the decision trail clear to others, researchers must distill the philosophical principles of the methodology and set these out in a way that is accessible and open to scrutiny. [source]

A concept analysis of malnutrition in the elderly

Cheryl Chia-Hui Chen RN MSN GNP
A concept analysis of malnutrition in the elderly Purpose.,Malnutrition is a frequent and serious problem in the elderly. Today there is no doubt that malnutrition contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Unfortunately, the concept of malnutrition in the elderly is poorly defined. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the meaning of malnutrition in the elderly and to develop the theoretical underpinnings, thereby facilitating communication regarding the phenomenon and enhancing research efforts. Scope, sources used.,Critical review of literature is the approach used to systematically build and develop the theoretical propositions. Conventional search engines such as Medline, PsyINFO, and CINAHL were used. The bibliography of obtained articles was also reviewed and additional articles identified. Key wards used for searching included malnutrition, geriatric nutrition, nutritional status, nutrition assessment, elderly, ageing, and weight loss. Conclusions.,The definition of malnutrition in the elderly is defined as following: faulty or inadequate nutritional status; undernourishment characterized by insufficient dietary intake, poor appetite, muscle wasting and weight loss. In the elderly, malnutrition is an ominous sign. Without intervention, it presents as a downward trajectory leading to poor health and decreased quality of life. Malnutrition in the elderly is a multidimensional concept encompassing physical and psychological elements. It is precipitated by loss, dependency, loneliness and chronic illness and potentially impacts morbidity, mortality and quality of life. [source]

Evidence-based practice and health visiting: the need for theoretical underpinnings for evaluation

Ruth Elkan BA(Hons)
Evidence-based practice and health visiting: the need for theoretical underpinnings for evaluation In this paper we argue that evidence-based practice, which is being introduced throughout the British National Health Service to make decisions about the allocation of limited resources, provides a welcome opportunity for health visitors to demonstrate their efficacy, skills and professionalism. However, the paper argues that to view health visiting as evidence-based is not to reduce health visiting merely to a technology through which scientific solutions are applied to social problems. Rather, health visiting needs to be viewed as a political movement, based on a particular model of society, which shapes the goals which health visitors pursue and influences the strategies they adopt to achieve their goals. The paper describes various models of health visiting as a way of showing how the goals of health visiting are always framed within a particular set of assumptions and causal explanations. The paper then turns to look at the issue of evaluating health visiting services. It is argued that evaluation should properly take account of the models which shape health visitors' goals and intervention strategies, and in turn, health visitors need to be explicit about the theoretical frameworks underpinning their interventions. Finally, it is argued that health visitors' knowledge and understanding of a range of models of society enables them to move between the various models to choose the most appropriate and effective means of intervention. Hence it is concluded that the emphasis on evidence-based practice provides health visitors with a valuable opportunity to show that their unique, professional skills and understanding are the preconditions for effective intervention. [source]

Drivers of ecosystem change and their impacts on human well-being in Lake Victoria basin

Eric O. Odada
Abstract To offer an increased understanding of the spatial patterns, temporal, social and physical predictors of the conversion and transformations of land use in Lake Victoria basin, an assessment of proximate and underlying forces is presented. This study discusses key theoretical underpinnings for the manifold linkages existing between selected drivers of land-use changes around the basin and their consequences on human well-being. Using a meta-analytical research design, the paper analyses ecosystems level cases of the causes of land use and cover changes in the basin, to determine any spatio-temporal or institutional patterns and dynamics. A suite of recurrent core variables has been identified to influence land use and cover changes in the basin. The most prominent of these at the underlying category are climatic factors, economic factors, institutions, national and regional policies, population growth and other remote influences. At the proximate level, these factors drive cropland expansion, overgrazing, infrastructure extension and rates of land degradation. These are supported by empirical evidence from the basin. This assessment is crucial for appropriate local and transboundary policy interventions, which have to be fine-tuned to the locale-specific dynamic patterns associated with the inherent ecosystems changes. [source]

Theorizing TQM: An Austrian and Evolutionary Economics Interpretation

Todd H. Chiles
Born out of management practice, the principles of TQM (total quality management) have had a profound and unparalleled impact on modern business history. However, as a body of practical knowledge, TQM has been largely atheoretical. As a consequence, this important management philosophy has remained amorphous and shrouded in considerable conceptual haziness and ambiguity. Recent theorizing, primarily emphasizing the application of organizational behaviour theories to TQM, has begun to provide greater clarity, but much work remains to be done. This paper attempts to contribute to this nascent theory-building literature by employing theory from market process economics (MPE), namely, Austrian and evolutionary economics, which explains how processes of dynamic change, adaptation, and learning are driven by entrepreneurial creativity. We contend that the patterns in this body of theory match, to a remarkable degree, the patterns of practical knowledge contained in the TQM literature. We demonstrate this ,pattern-matching' by showing that MPE effectively provides the theoretical underpinnings of TQM's three main principles , customer focus, continuous improvement and teamwork , as well as the respective TQM topics of customer perceptions, adaptation in dynamic environments, and knowledge creation. Having established MPE as a credible theoretical lens for interpreting TQM, it can be used to clarify fuzzy areas that have remained in the TQM literature with the potential to take us beyond what we know now. We illustrate this with three examples that show how we can resolve debates in TQM over incentive systems, recognize that TQM embraces methodological pluralism in the collection and analysis of data, and highlight hidden dangers that attend benchmarking. While MPE has no monopoly on theoretical interpretations of TQM, it is unique in its ability to comprehensively cover the incredible breadth of this practical body of knowledge, and in its interpretation of TQM as a dynamic economic endeavour. [source]

Students' science perceptions and enrollment decisions in differing learning cycle classrooms

Ann M.L. Cavallo
This investigation examined 10th-grade biology students' decisions to enroll in elective science courses, and explored certain attitudinal perceptions of students that may be related to such decisions. The student science perceptions were focused on student and classroom attitudes in the context of differing learning cycle classrooms (high paradigmatic/high inquiry, and low paradigmatic/low inquiry). The study also examined possible differences in enrollment decisions/intentions and attitudinal perceptions among males and females in these course contexts. The specific purposes were to: (a) explore possible differences in students' decisions, and in male and female students' decisions to enroll in elective science courses in high versus low paradigmatic learning cycle classrooms; (b) describe patterns and examine possible differences in male and female students' attitudinal perceptions of science in the two course contexts; (c) investigate possible differences in students' science perceptions according to their decisions to enroll in elective science courses, participation in high versus low paradigmatic learning cycle classrooms, and the interaction between these two variables; and (d) examine students' explanations of their decisions to enroll or not enroll in elective science courses. Questionnaire and observation data were collected from 119 students in the classrooms of six learning cycle biology teachers. Results indicated that in classrooms where teachers most closely adhered to the ideal learning cycle, students had more positive attitudes than those in classrooms where teachers deviated from the ideal model. Significantly more females in high paradigmatic learning cycle classrooms planned to continue taking science course work compared with females in low paradigmatic learning cycle classrooms. Male students in low paradigmatic learning cycle classrooms had more negative perceptions of science compared with males in high paradigmatic classrooms, and in some cases, with all female students. It appears that using the model as it was originally designed may lead to more positive attitudes and persistence in science among students. Implications include the need for science educators to help teachers gain more thorough understanding of the learning cycle and its theoretical underpinnings so they may better implement this procedure in classroom teaching. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 38: 1029,1062, 2001 [source]

Risiken im Lebenszyklus: Theorie und Evidenz

Axel BŲrsch-Supan
Do we have the right institutions to cover these risks efficiently? We use the term "institutions" in a broad sense comprising individual saving, family help, private insurance and finally the state with its social insurance systems. Where and when do these institutions work efficiently and effectively? Where and when do they fail? What needs to be done to improve them? What does modern ,social risk management" look like? The article sketches the theoretical underpinnings of saving behavior, portfolio choice and insurance demand and collects the empirical evidence in order to draw economic policy conclusions. [source]

The Sources and Fortunes of Piranesi's Archaeological Illustrations

ART HISTORY, Issue 4 2002
Susan M. Dixon
Susan M. Dixon earned her doctorate from Cornell University in 1991 with a dissertation on the archaeological publications of Giovanni Battista Piranesi. She studies the history of pre,scientific archaeology, from Pirro Ligorio to Piranesi, with a particular focus on illustration as a means to convey historical knowledge. She has published on this subject in a variety of venues, and is beginning a book,length manuscript on the subject. In 1995,96, she was awarded a J. Paul Getty post,doctoral fellowship to study the Accademia degli Arcadi, a society founded in 1690 primarily to restore good taste in literature, and its successes and failures in bringing about the reform of Italian society and architecture. She has written a book entitled The Bosco Parrasio: Performance and Perfectibility in the Garden of the Arcadians, which focuses on their garden meeting place as a breeding ground for a utopian society. Dr Dixon teaches art history at the University of Tulsa in Oklahoma. Giovanni Battista Piranesi (1720,1778) developed a way of representing the archaeological past by using the multi,informational image, an engraved illustration which appears to be a composite of various drawings, on various surfaces, and employing various modes of representation, scale and detail. The cartographic tradition, particularly maps from sixteenth,century Europe, offer a precedent for this type of illustration. Piranesi found theoretical underpinnings for it in contemporary discussions about the workings of the human memory, which was identified as a viable tool for those pursuing historical knowledge. His illustrations make visible the processes of memory on an assemblage of archaeological information, and they were a means to historical reconstruction. Archaeologists of the generation after Piranesi did not use the multi,informational image as the science of archaeology underwent a sea change at the end of the century. However, some compilers of travel literature, in particular Jean,Laurent,Pierre Ho√,el, author and illustrator of Voyage pittoresque des isles de Sicile, de Malte, et de Lipari, found the format suitable to their purposes. Like Piranesi's, HoŁel's multi,informational images reveal the hand of the artist on the information he had diligently collected and ordered; HoŁel's picturesque illustrations of the southern Italian islands' people and places are self,consciously subjective. The format also makes apparent what was so appealing to many a voyager ,the apparent survival of the past in the culture of the present. [source]