Test Battery (test + battery)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Test Battery

  • cognitive test battery
  • neuropsychological test battery

  • Selected Abstracts

    Executive functions as endophenotypes in ADHD: evidence from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB)

    Susan Shur-Fen Gau
    Background:, Little is known about executive functions among unaffected siblings of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and there is lack of such information from non-Western countries. We examined verbal and nonverbal executive functions in adolescents with ADHD, unaffected siblings and controls to test whether executive functions could be potential endophenotypes for ADHD. Methods:, We assessed 279 adolescents (age range: 11,17 years) with a childhood diagnosis of DSM-IV ADHD, 136 biological siblings (108 unaffected, 79.4%), and 173 unaffected controls by using psychiatric interviews, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children , 3rd edition (WISC-III), including digit spans, and the tasks involving executive functions of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB): Intra-dimensional/Extra-dimensional Shifts (IED), Spatial Span (SSP), Spatial Working Memory (SWM), and Stockings of Cambridge (SOC). Results:, Compared with the controls, adolescents with ADHD and unaffected siblings had a significantly shorter backward digit span, more extra-dimensional shift errors in the IED, shorter spatial span length in the SSP, more total errors and poorer strategy use in the SWM, and fewer problems solved in the minimum number of moves and shorter initial thinking time in the SOC. The magnitudes of the differences in the SWM and SOC increased with increased task difficulties. In general, neither persistent ADHD nor comorbidity was associated with increased deficits in executive functions among adolescents with ADHD. Conclusions:, The lack of much difference in executive dysfunctions between unaffected siblings and ADHD adolescents suggests that executive dysfunctions may be useful cognitive endophenotypes for ADHD genetic studies. [source]

    New insights into the pathophysiology of postoperative cognitive dysfunction

    L. KRENK
    There is evidence that postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a significant problem after major surgery, but the pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated. The interpretation of available studies is difficult due to differences in neuropsychological test batteries as well as the lack of appropriate controls. Furthermore, there are no internationally accepted criteria for defining POCD. This article aims to provide an update of current knowledge of the pathogenesis of POCD with a focus on perioperative pathophysiology and possible benefits achieved from an enhanced postoperative recovery using a fast-track methodology. It is concluded that the pathogenesis of POCD is multifactorial and future studies should focus on evaluating the role of postoperative sleep disturbances, inflammatory stress responses, pain and environmental factors. Potential prophylactic intervention may include minimal invasive surgery, multi-modal non-opioid pain management and pharmacological manipulation of the inflammatory response and sleep architecture. [source]

    Comparing Dementia Diagnostic Methods Used with People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Diana B. Burt
    Abstract, Accurate detection of dementia in adults with intellectual disabilities is important for clinical care, program planning, and clinical research. This paper reports on a study that examined two major diagnostic methods that varied in the following ways: (1) the extent to which they relied on clinical judgment; (2) the statistical method used to detect declines; and (3) the sensitivity to declines in functioning. Two methods based on testing were compared with one based on clinical judgment. Data were drawn from annual sequential assessments of 168 adults with intellectual disabilities (78 with Down syndrome and 90 with other etiologies). Agreement between testing and clinical judgment methods was 72,75% depending on testing method used. Clinical judgment produced a higher rate of dementia diagnosis for adults with Down syndrome compared with testing methods, suggesting a possible bias. The authors found that diagnostic criteria were useful both for identifying dementia and for describing its characteristics. Our results suggest that clinical judgment could result in a higher number of adults with Down syndrome diagnosed with dementia than methods based on test batteries. Common results across research studies indicate that combinations of sources of information (interviews/direct testing) would be most useful for dementia diagnosis. Future collaboration across research sites is needed to promote rapid progress in this important area, with emphasis on differential diagnosis. [source]

    A comparison of crop and non-crop plants as sensitive indicator species for regulatory testing

    Robert A McKelvey
    Abstract The effectiveness of regulatory non-target plant testing using crop species to predict the phytotoxicicity of herbicides to non-crop species was evaluated for eleven herbicides. These herbicides were representative of eight chemical classes and six modes of action. Data for non-crop plants from pre-emergence and post-emergence efficacy screening studies were compared with those for the most sensitive crop species defined by regulatory tests conducted to meet US EPA requirements. Testing under pre-emergence conditions for ten compounds indicated that for five of the compounds (K-815910, trifluralin, pyridyloxy A, pyridyloxy B and cyanazine), the most sensitive crop species was more sensitive than all the non-crop species evaluated. For metsulfuron-methyl, chlorimuron-ethyl, hexazinone and bromacil, only one of the non-crop species evaluated was more sensitive than the most sensitive crop species from regulatory tests. Data for the tenth compound, chloroacetamide, showed that four of 32 non-crop species tested in efficacy screens had at least one rate at which greater visual effects were observed than were observed for the most sensitive crop response in a regulatory test. The results of post-emergence exposure comparisons for five of the compounds (pyridyloxy A, cloransulam-methyl, chlorimuron-ethyl, cyanazine and hexazinone) indicated that the most sensitive crop species were more sensitive than all the non-crop species evaluated. Data for pyridyloxy B, metsulfuron-methyl and bromacil indicated that only one of the non-crop species evaluated was more sensitive than the most sensitive crop species. For trifluralin, three of the eight non-crop species were more sensitive than the most sensitive crop species. Data for K-815910 indicated that four of the fourteen non-crop species tested were marginally more sensitive than the most sensitive crop, but were within the same range of sensitivity. These results indicate that the current regulatory test batteries and methods using crop species effectively provide suitable sensitive indicator plants for the eleven diverse herbicides evaluated. This comparison indicates that crop species sensitivity to test substances is likely to be representative of non-crop herbaceous species response, regardless of chemical class, mode of action and magnitude or route of exposure. © 2002 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Practitioner Review: Computerized assessment of neuropsychological function in children: clinical and research applications of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery (CANTAB)

    Monica Luciana
    Background: Computers have been used for a number of years in neuropsychological assessment to facilitate the scoring, interpretation, and administration of a variety of commonly used tests. There has been recent interest in applying computerized technology to pediatric neuropsychological assessment, which poses unique demands based on the need to interpret performance relative to the child's developmental level. Findings: However, pediatric neuropsychologists have tended to implement computers in the scoring, but not administration, of tests. This trend is changing based on the work of experimental neuropsychologists who frequently combine data obtained from test batteries with lesion or neuroimaging data allowing descriptions of brain,behavior relations to be made with increasing confidence. One such battery is the Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery (CANTAB), and current studies in which the CANTAB has been used to measure executive functions in children are reviewed. Conclusions: Computerized batteries of this type can record aspects of performance that are difficult for psychometrists to achieve, and these may reflect activity in developing neural networks with more sensitivity than can be achieved with traditional tests. However, before computerized test administration becomes a routine part of pediatric neuropsychological assessment, several obstacles must be overcome. Despite these limitations, it is concluded that computerized assessment can improve the field by facilitating the collection of normative and clinical data. [source]

    Estimating HIV Incidence Based on Combined Prevalence Testing

    BIOMETRICS, Issue 1 2010
    Raji Balasubramanian
    Summary Knowledge of incidence rates of HIV and other infectious diseases is important in evaluating the state of an epidemic as well as for designing interventional studies. Estimation of disease incidence from longitudinal studies can be expensive and time consuming. Alternatively, Janssen et al. (1998,,Journal of the American Medical Association,280, 42,48) proposed the estimation of HIV incidence at a single point in time based on the combined use of a standard and "detuned" antibody assay. This article frames the problem from a longitudinal perspective, from which the maximum likelihood estimator of incidence is determined and compared with the Janssen estimator. The formulation also allows estimation for general situations, including different batteries of tests among subjects, inclusion of covariates, and a comparative evaluation of different test batteries to help guide study design. The methods are illustrated with data from an HIV interventional trial and a seroprevalence survey recently conducted in Botswana. [source]

    Computerized cognition assessment during acetylcholinesterase inhibitor treatment in Alzheimer's disease

    K. Wesnes
    Wesnes K, Edgar C, Andreasen N, Annas P, Basun H, Lannfelt L, Zetterberg H, Blennow K, Minthon L. Computerized cognition assessment during acetylcholinesterase inhibitor treatment in Alzheimer's disease. Acta Neurol Scand: 2010: 122: 270,277. © 2009 The Authors Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Munksgaard. Objectives,,, Alzheimer's disease assessment scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog) has become a standard clinical trials outcome for cognition, but has been recognized as deficient in areas including coverage of cognitive domains, sensitivity and standardization. Computerized test batteries may address some of these issues. The cognitive drug research computerized assessment (CDR) system is validated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study was designed to further evaluate validity in relation to ADAS-Cog, mini mental state examination (MMSE) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers and psychometric properties, in a population of Alzheimer's patients on stable anticholinesterase treatment. Materials and methods,,, Patients completed cognition assessments, CSF and blood sampling at baseline and 6 months later. Data for 65 patients were evaluated. Results,,, The CDR system demonstrated good psychometric properties in this population. Measures of psychomotor speed showed possible sensitivity to decline over 6 months. Conclusions,,, There are a number of methodological problems with current cognition assessment methodology for clinical trials. Computerized measures and in particular millisecond reaction time measures, may address many of these issues. [source]

    Metacognition as a mediator of the effects of impairments in neurocognition on social function in schizophrenia spectrum disorders

    P. H. Lysaker
    Lysaker PH, Shea AM, Buck KD, Dimaggio G, Nicolò G, Procacci M, Salvatore G, Rand KL. Metacognition as a mediator of the effects of impairments in neurocognition on social function in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Objective:, This study explored whether Mastery, a domain of metacognition that reflects the ability to use knowledge about mental states to respond to psychological challenges, mediated the effects of neurocognition on the frequency of social contact and persons' capacity for social relatedness. Method:, Participants were 102 adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Neurocognition was represented by a single factor score produced by a principal components analysis of a neurocognitive test battery. Mastery was assessed using the metacognitive assessment scale and social functioning by the quality of life scale. Results:, Using structural equation modeling, specifically measured-variable path analysis, a mediational model consisting of neurocognitive capacity linked to mastery and capacity for social relationships and mastery linked with frequency of social contact and capacity for social relatedness showed acceptable fit to the observed data. This persisted after controlling for negative and cognitive symptoms. Conclusion:, Results suggest that certain forms of metacognition mediate the influence of neurocognition upon function in schizophrenia. [source]

    Memory and prefrontal functions in earthquake survivors: differences between current and past post-traumatic stress disorder patients

    E. Eren-Koçak
    Objective:, Many studies reported deficits in cognitive functions in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Most were, however, conducted on man-made trauma survivors. The high comorbidity of alcohol use and depression with PTSD in these studies further complicated the interpretation of their results. We compared prefrontal lobe functions and memory in three earthquake survivor groups: current PTSD, past PTSD and no PTSD. We hypothesized that prefrontal performances of the current and past PTSD groups would be worse than that of control group. Method:, Survivors of the 1999 earthquakes in Turkey were evaluated for current and lifetime PTSD. Memory and prefrontal functions were assessed by a neuropsychological test battery. Results:, Current PTSD patients performed worse on attention, verbal memory, verbal fluency, and psychomotor speed. Past PTSD group was similar to the controls on most cognitive measures, except for their vulnerability to proactive interference and low performance in verbal fluency for animal names. Conclusion:, Our findings indicate that the prefrontal organization and monitorization of verbally processed information are defective in earthquake-related PTSD patients, more so in the current PTSD group. [source]

    Executive functions in children with dyslexia

    DYSLEXIA, Issue 2 2005
    Astrid Reiter
    Abstract There is little data available concerning the executive functions of children with dyslexia. The small number of existing studies in this field focus on single aspects of these functions such as working memory. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess a variety of aspects of executive functioning in children with dyslexia. Forty-two children with dyslexia and 42 non-dyslexic children were examined using a neuropsychological test battery. The test battery consisted of standardised tests examining the assessment of working memory, concept formation, inhibition, flexibility, problem solving and fluency functions. Comparison between the test performance of non-dyslexic children and children with dyslexia revealed obvious difficulties of children with dyslexia in tests measuring working memory. Inhibition of inappropriate reactions was impaired in children with dyslexia in more demanding tests, but not in simple ones. Furthermore, children with dyslexia displayed impairments of both verbal and figural fluency functions. While in comparison to non-dyslexic children no disturbances of concept formation were observed, problem solving seemed to be partially impaired. The present findings suggest that children with dyslexia demonstrate impairments in a variety of executive functions. This should be considered in the development of new concepts in the treatment of dyslexia. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Dyslexia in English as a second language

    DYSLEXIA, Issue 1 2005
    Turid Helland
    Abstract This study focused on English as L2 in a group of Norwegian dyslexic 12 year olds, compared to an age and gender matched control group. Norwegian school children learn English from the first grades on. The subjects were assessed with a test battery of verbal and written tasks. First, they were given a comprehension task; second, a model sentence task; third, two pragmatic tasks, and fourth, three tasks of literacy. The verbal tasks were scored according to comprehension, morphology, syntax and semantics, while the literacy tasks were scored by spelling, translation and reading skills. It was hypothesized that the results of the control group and the dyslexia group would differ on all tasks, but that subgrouping the dyslexia group by comprehension skills would show heterogeneity within the dyslexia group. The data analyses confirmed these hypotheses. Significant differences were seen between the dyslexia group and the control group. However, the subgrouping revealed minor differences between the control group and the subgroup with good comprehension skills, and major differences between the control group and the subgroup with poor comprehension skills. Especially morphology and spelling were difficult for the dyslexia group. The results were tentatively discussed within the framework of biological and cognitive models of how to interpret L2 performance in dyslexia, underlining the importance of further research in L2 acquisition in dyslexia. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    On the relationship between dynamic visual and auditory processing and literacy skills; results from a large primary-school study

    DYSLEXIA, Issue 4 2002
    Joel B. Talcott
    Abstract Three hundred and fifty randomly selected primary school children completed a psychometric and psychophysical test battery to ascertain relationships between reading ability and sensitivity to dynamic visual and auditory stimuli. The first analysis examined whether sensitivity to visual coherent motion and auditory frequency resolution differed between groups of children with different literacy and cognitive skills. For both tasks, a main effect of literacy group was found in the absence of a main effect for intelligence or an interaction between these factors. To assess the potential confounding effects of attention, a second analysis of the frequency discrimination data was conducted with performance on catch trials entered as a covariate. Significant effects for both the covariate and literacy skill was found, but again there was no main effect of intelligence, nor was there an interaction between intelligence and literacy skill. Regression analyses were conducted to determine the magnitude of the relationship between sensory and literacy skills in the entire sample. Both visual motion sensitivity and auditory sensitivity to frequency differences were robust predictors of children's literacy skills and their orthographic and phonological skills. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The Impact of Childhood Epilepsy on Neurocognitive and Behavioral Performance: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 4 2000
    Laura L. Bailet
    Summary: Purpose: To assess neurocognitive and behavioral performance in children with idiopathic epilepsy (CWE, n = 74), their siblings without epilepsy (control, n = 23), and children with migraine (CWM, n = 13), and to identify medical factors related to learning or behavioral problems in CWE. Methods: Subjects, ages 8,13 years with IQs of ,80, completed a neurocognitive test battery annually for ,3 years. For CWE, age at seizure onset, most recent EEG results, seizure type, seizure frequency, current antiepileptic drug (AED), and most recent AED serum levels were documented at each visit. Results: CWE and CWM had high rates of grade retention and placement in special education compared with sibling controls. CWE performed worse than controls on numerous neurocognitive variables. These differences persisted over time. CWE with abnormal EEGs scored lower than CWE with normal EEGs on reading and spelling measures, even with comparable IQs. Age at seizure onset, seizure type, and seizure frequency were not related to neurocognitive or behavioral test scores. CWE taking carbamazepine (CBZ) performed better than CWE taking valproate (VPA) on academic achievement measures, although the study lacked controls necessary to assess this finding thoroughly. CWM did not differ from CWE or controls in cognitive or academic achievement skills. Conclusions: Long-term risk of learning problems exists among CWE as compared with controls, even with normal IQs and well-controlled seizures. Predicting learning problems in CWE based on medical factors remains elusive. Monitoring of educational progress and neurocognitive screening may be most effective in assessing academic risk for CWE. [source]

    Fatigue and processing speed are related in multiple sclerosis

    A. K. Andreasen
    Background:, Fatigue is common in multiple sclerosis (MS) and could be related to impaired processing speed caused by MS specific brain alterations. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between processing speed and fatigue in patients with relapsing remitting MS. Methods:, Patients with EDSS score ,3.5 were grouped as fatigued [Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) score ,5.0] or non-fatigued (FSS score ,4.0). Patients with FSS scores ,5 were categorized as primary or secondary fatigued according to various indices. A cognitive test battery obtained from Wechsler's Adult Intelligence Scale-III/Wechsler's Memory Scale-III was applied. Results:, Processing speed (Digit Symbol Coding) was lower amongst all MS patients being 9.4(2.9) in primary fatigued, 8.3(2.8) in secondary fatigued and 10.3(2.7) in non-fatigued versus 12.3(3.0) in healthy controls. In the combined group of primary and secondary fatigued MS patients, processing speed was slower than that in non-fatigued MS patients and inversely related to fatigue (r = ,0.35; P < 0.05). No such relationship could be established in non-fatigued MS patients or in healthy controls. Conclusion:, The degree of fatigue in MS is related to processing speed impairment and longitudinal studies should clarify their mutual dependency. [source]

    Diagnostic performance of clinical motor and non-motor tests of Parkinson disease: a matched case,control study

    N. I. Bohnen
    Background and purpose:, The diagnosis of Parkinson disease (PD) is made typically on the basis of motor abnormalities. PD is now recognized to have both motor and non-motor manifestations, indicating a need for the development of reliable non-motor diagnostic tests for PD. The aim of the present study was to compare the accuracy of various clinical motor and non-motor tests for the diagnosis of PD. Methods:, Forty-five PD patients (Hoehn and Yahr stages 1,3; mean age 59.5 ± 10.0 years) and 45 healthy controls matched for gender and age completed a clinimetric motor test battery to assess limb bradykinesia, tremor and balance. Non-motor tests consisted of depression, anxiety and smell identification ratings. Area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) analysis was used. Results:, We found that smell identification was the most accurate predictor of the presence of PD within the overall group of patients and matched control subjects (AUC = 0.886) and also in the subgroups of mild severity (Hoehn and Yahr stages 1,1.5; AUC = 0.923), young-onset (AUC = 0.888) and female PD patients (AUC = 0.797). The second best diagnostic test was the grooved pegboard test for the clinically most affected body side. Conclusions:, We conclude that olfactory function is the most accurate diagnostic predictor within a heterogeneous sample of patients with PD. [source]

    Netrin-G2 and netrin-G2 ligand are both required for normal auditory responsiveness

    W. Zhang
    Mice in which netrin-G2 has been genetically inhibited do not startle to an acoustic stimulus, but otherwise perform normally through a behavioral test battery. Light microscopic examination of the inner ear showed no obvious structural abnormalities. Brainstem responses to acoustic stimuli (auditory brainstem responses, ABR) were also present, confirming the lack of any overarching defects in the inner ear or auditory nerve. Genetic inhibition of netrin-G2 ligand produced a nearly identical phenotype, that is, no startle with ABR present, and otherwise normal. This similarity confirms that these two proteins act in the same biological pathway. We have also determined that the affinity between the two proteins is strong, around 2.5 nm, similar to that observed between netrin-G1 and netrin-G1 ligand , 2.3 nm in our hands. The combination of equivalent phenotypes when genetically inhibited coupled with evidence of a strong biochemical interaction supports the notion of a receptor,ligand interaction between these two proteins in vivo. This interaction is critical for auditory synaptic responsiveness in the brain. [source]

    Impaired spatial reference memory and increased exploratory behavior in P301L tau transgenic mice

    L. Pennanen
    The neuropathological hallmark shared between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and familial frontotemporal dementia (FTDP-17) are neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) which are composed of filamentous aggregates of the microtubule-associated protein tau. Their formation has been reproduced in transgenic mice, which express the FTDP-17-associated mutation P301L of tau. In these mice, tau aggregates are found in many brain areas including the hippocampus and the amygdala, both of which are characterized by NFT formation in AD. Previous studies using an amygdala-specific test battery revealed an increase in exploratory behavior and an accelerated extinction of conditioned taste aversion in these mice. Here, we assessed P301L mice in behavioral tests known to depend on an intact hippocampus. Morris water maze and Y-maze revealed intact spatial working memory but impairment in spatial reference memory at 6 and 11 months of age. In addition, a modest disinhibition of exploratory behavior at 6 months of age was confirmed in the open field and the elevated O-maze and was more pronounced during aging. [source]

    Next-day cognition, psychomotor function, and driving-related skills following nighttime administration of eszopiclone

    Julia Boyle
    Abstract Objective To evaluate next-day driving ability, as assessed by brake reaction time (BRT), and cognitive/psychomotor function following nighttime administration of 3,mg eszopiclone. Methods Two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over studies were performed in healthy volunteers (n,=,32) and patients with primary insomnia (n,=,32). Study participants received nighttime dosing of 3,mg eszopiclone or placebo. BRT and a psychometric test battery were used to assess the next-day effects of eszopiclone treatment. Results In both studies, driving ability and measures of cognitive and psychomotor function were not impaired the morning after eszopiclone, as compared to placebo. All eszopiclone subjects reported improved ease in getting to sleep and quality of sleep with no significant changes in behavior upon awakening. A significant increase in next-day feelings of sedation was reported in healthy volunteers, but not in patients with primary insomnia, following eszopiclone treatment relative to placebo. Sleep induction, maintenance, duration, and efficiency, as assessed by PSG, were significantly improved following eszopiclone treatment in patients with insomnia. Conclusions Nighttime administration of 3,mg eszopiclone improved objective and subjective sleep measures in patients with insomnia (and subjective sleep measures in healthy patients) and did not impair next-day driving-related skills or measures of cognition in either study population relative to placebo. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Acute cognitive effects of standardised Ginkgo biloba extract complexed with phosphatidylserine

    D. O. Kennedy
    Abstract Recent data suggest that the complexation of standardised Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) with soy-derived phospholipids enhances the bio-availablity of GBE's active components. The current study therefore aimed to assess the comparative cognitive and mood effects of a low dose of GBE and products complexing the same extract with either phosphatidylserine or phosphatidylcholine. The study utilised a placebo-controlled, multi-dose, double-blind, balanced-crossover design. Twenty-eight healthy young participants received 120,mg GBE, 120,mg GBE complexed with phosphatidylserine (VirtivaÔ), 120,mg GBE complexed with phosphatidylcholine and a matching placebo, on separate days 7 days apart. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerised test battery and Serial Subtraction tasks immediately prior to dosing and at 1, 2.5, 4 and 6,h thereafter. The primary outcome measures were the four aspects of cognitive performance, which have previously been derived by factor analysis of CDR subtests. Levels of terpenoids (bilobalide, ginkgolide A and ginkgolide B) were concomitantly assessed in plasma samples taken pre-dose and at 3 and 6.5,h post-dose. In keeping with previous research utilising the same methodology, 120,mg of GBE was not associated with markedly improved performance on the primary outcomes. However, administration of GBE complexed with phosphatidylserine resulted both in improved secondary memory performance and significantly increased speed of memory task performance across all of the post-dose testing sessions. Enhancement following GBE complexed with phosphatidylcholine was restricted to a modest improvement in secondary memory performance which was restricted to one post-dose time point. All three treatments were associated with improved calmness. There were no significant differences in post-dose levels of terpenoids between the Ginkgo containing treatments, although this latter finding may be attributable to methodological factors. Complexation with phosphatidylserine appears to potentiate the cognitive effects associated with a low dose of GBE. Further research is required to identify whether this effect is due to the complexation of the extracts, their mere combination, or the separate psychopharmacological actions of the two extracts. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Caffeine levels in saliva: associations with psychosocial factors and behavioural effects

    Carolyn Brice
    Abstract The present study had two main aims. The first was to examine associations between psychosocial factors, health-related behaviours, regular level of caffeine consumption, time of day and levels of caffeine in saliva following acute caffeine challenges. The second aim was to determine whether individual differences in changes in performance following ingestion of caffeine were related to levels of caffeine in saliva. One hundred and forty-four young adults participated in the study. Questionnaires were administered prior to the study to measure psychosocial characteristics, health-related behaviours and habitual levels of caffeine consumption. Two double-blind acute caffeine challenges were then carried out 1 week apart. Volunteers were given either placebo or 1.5 or 3,mg/kg of caffeine on each occasion. The challenges were carried out at 8,:,00, 11,:,00, 14,:,00 or 18,:,00,h so that the impact of time of day could be assessed. In the week between the two challenges the volunteers consumed either caffeinated or decaffeinated products. This allowed investigation of the effects of caffeine withdrawal on caffeine metabolism. Prior to each caffeine challenge volunteers performed a range of tasks, and a baseline saliva sample was taken. The tasks were repeated 1,h after ingestion of the caffeine, with saliva samples being taken at the start and end of the 1,h test battery. The results showed that the level of caffeine in the saliva was a good indicator of the dose of caffeine consumed and of compliance with the withdrawal manipulation. Caffeine levels were not influenced by time of day, habitual caffeine consumption, psychosocial factors or health-related behaviours. Individual differences in caffeine levels in saliva were not related to the individual variation in the effects of caffeine on performance. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Mirtazapine and paroxetine: a drug-drug interaction study in healthy subjects

    F. J. L. Ruwe
    Abstract Paroxetine inhibits cytochrome P450 2D6, which is involved in the metabolism of mirtazapine. The possible drug-drug interaction between two pharmacologically distinct antidepressants, mirtazapine and paroxetine, has been investigated in a randomized, three-way crossover study in 24 healthy male and female subjects. After a titration phase of 3 days, each subject received single daily doses of 30,mg mirtazapine, 40,mg paroxetine or the combination for 6 days. Assessments included serial blood sampling for pharmacokinetics at steady state, cognitive testing using the test battery of CDR Ltd, a visual analogue mood rating scale (Bond and Lader) and the Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire. Paroxetine inhibits the metabolism of mirtazapine, as shown by increases of approximately 17% and 25% of the 24,h AUC's of mirtazapine and its demethyl metabolite, respectively. Mirtazapine did not alter the pharmacokinetics of paroxetine. The combined administration of mirtazapine and paroxetine probably does not alter cognitive functioning or result in major changes on the visual analogue mood rating scale and Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire, compared with the administration of either drug alone. The incidence of adverse events was lower during combined administration of mirtazapine and paroxetine than during administration of either drug alone. Fatigue, dizziness, headache, nausea, anxiety and somnolence were the most common adverse events during combined administration. These data suggest that the combination of mirtazapine and paroxetine is unlikely to lead to clinically relevant drug-drug interactions and can be used without dose adjustment of either drug. The combination may even be better tolerated than either drug alone. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Cognitive effects of a Ginkgo biloba/vinpocetine compound in normal adults: systematic assessment of perception, attention and memory

    John Polich
    Abstract A computerized test battery was used in a double-blind design to assess the cognitive effects of a nutrient compound containing Ginkgo biloba in 24 normal adults. Ten tasks (perceptual, attention and short-term memory) were presented in a standardized manner designed to maximize performance, with substantial pre-test practice employed to minimize response variability. Subjects were given either placebo or Ginkgo biloba extract capsules to consume for 14 days, after which they performed all tasks twice. They then received the other condition, and after 14 days completed the final test session. Response time and error rate stabilized after pre-test practice. A ,working memory capacity' paradigm demonstrated a reliable 50,ms response time decrease between the placebo and Ginkgo biloba testing, suggesting that Ginkgo biloba speeds short-term working memory processing in normal adults. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Neural correlates of verbal episodic memory in patients with MCI and Alzheimer's disease,,a VBM study

    Dirk T. Leube
    Abstract Objective The hippocampus is a key area for episodic memory processes. Hippocampal atrophy is a hallmark feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We used a new and automatized morphometric technique to better characterize brain atrophy in subjects with different levels of cognitive deficit. Methods In this study 21 participants with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), 12 patients with early AD and 29 elderly control subjects were subjected to high resolution MRI and a neuropsychological test battery. Brain volume across participants, measured by voxel-based morphometry (VBM), was correlated with verbal memory capacity, measured with a verbal memory test (VLMT). Results Atrophy in the anterior hippocampus, the ento- and perirhinal cortex as well as the parahippocampal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex correlated closely with episodic memory performance. Conclusions These brain areas are known to subserve episodic encoding of verbal material. The data contribute to a better understanding of atrophic brain processes in subjects at risk for AD. A combination of neuropsychological testing and voxel-based morphometry may serve as a diagnostic tool in the future. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Reliability of a telephone-administered cognitive test battery (TACT) between telephone and face-to-face administration

    Neil R. Thompson
    Abstract We have previously described the development and initial validation of a telephone administered cognitive test battery (TACT). This report investigates the retest reliability of the TACT battery between telephone administration and face-to-face administration and measures the concurrent validity of the test components against a standard test of cognitive ability, the WAIS-RUK. Data were collected on 27 participants aged 62,63 years. There was a two- to 10-month interval between time 1 (telephone) and time 2 (face-to-face) administration. Intra-class correlation coefficients for telephone versus face-to-face administration of the TACT were satisfactory for all component measures except for ,object rotation' and WAIS similarities. There was no evidence of systematic cheating on the telephone-administered test. Tests of concurrent validity showed stronger correlations for the TACT battery components with verbal tests rather than performance tests, as measured by the WAIS-RUK. A few administration difficulties are noted and recommendations for change are outlined. The TACT is a convenient assessment tool with potential for measuring cognitive change in epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2001 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

    Depth of anaesthesia and post-operative cognitive dysfunction

    Background: A deep level of anaesthesia measured by the bispectral index has been found to improve processing speed as one aspect of cognitive function after surgery. The purpose of the present study was to assess the possible effect of the level of anaesthesia on post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) 1 week after surgery, as assessed by a neuropsychological test battery. Methods: We included 70 patients >60 years of age scheduled for elective non-cardiac surgery with general anaesthesia. The depth of anaesthesia was monitored using the cerebral state monitor, which provided a cerebral state index (CSI) value. Cognitive function was assessed by the ISPOCD neuropsychological test battery before and at 1 week (or hospital discharge) after surgery and POCD was defined as a Z score above 1.96. Results: Five patients were not assessed after surgery. The mean CSI was 40 and 43 in patients with (N=9) and without POCD (N=56), respectively (P=0.41). The cumulated time of both deep anaesthesia (CSI<40) and light anaesthesia (CSI>60) did not differ significantly, and no significant correlation was found between the mean CSI and the Z score. Conclusion: We were unable to detect a significant association between the depth of anaesthesia and the presence of POCD 1 week after the surgery. [source]

    Neuropsychological test battery in the follow-up of patients with juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis

    S. Lamminranta
    Abstract The aim of the present study was to develop a neuropsychological test battery for patients with juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL) and to study the development of cognitive functions during the first 5 years after diagnosis. Fourteen patients with JNCL entered the study. Nine patients were homozygous for the major mutation, whereas five were compound heterozygotes. All patients were studied annually with a special neuropsychological test battery (NEPSY) adapted from Luria's neuropsychological test, and modified for the visually handicapped; the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children , Revised (WISC-R) was also included. The neurological examinations were scored. Furthermore, 1.OT magnetic resonance imaging scan was performed at the beginning of follow-up and after a mean of 5 years. A decline in verbal IQ (WISC-R) during the follow-up period was found in all subjects except one compound heterozygous male. Short-term memory and digit memory span were already impaired at an early stage of the disease. Orientation to time was found to decline more than orientation to person and place. Motor speed usually became impaired after 10 years of age. Spatial orientation was impaired only in the patients homozygous for the major mutation. The test battery was found to be reliable and easy to use, and offered valuable information on the progress of the disease. It also provided important guidelines for rehabilitation. [source]

    Toward a Neurobehavioral Profile of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 9 2010
    Sarah N. Mattson
    Background:, A primary goal of recent research is the development of neurobehavioral profiles that specifically define fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), which may assist differential diagnosis or improve treatment. In the current study, we define a preliminary profile using neuropsychological data from a multisite study. Methods:, Data were collected using a broad neurobehavioral protocol from 2 sites of a multisite study of FASD. Subjects were children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and unexposed controls. The alcohol-exposed group included children with and without fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). From 547 neuropsychological variables, 22 variables were selected for analysis based on their ability to distinguish children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure from nonexposed controls. These data were analyzed using latent profile analysis (LPA). Results:, The results indicated that a 2-class model best fit the data. The resulting profile was successful at distinguishing subjects with FAS from nonexposed controls without FAS with 92% overall accuracy; 87.8% of FAS cases and 95.7% of controls were correctly classified. The same analysis was repeated with children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure but without FAS and nonexposed controls with similar results. The overall accuracy was 84.7%; 68.4% of alcohol-exposed cases and 95% of controls were correctly classified. In both analyses, the profile based on neuropsychological variables was more successful at distinguishing the groups than was IQ alone. Conclusions:, We used data from 2 sites of a multisite study and a broad neuropsychological test battery to determine a profile that could be used to accurately identify children affected by prenatal alcohol exposure. Results indicated that measures of executive function and spatial processing are especially sensitive to prenatal alcohol exposure. [source]

    Working and Episodic Memory in HIV Infection, Alcoholism, and Their Comorbidity: Baseline and 1-Year Follow-Up Examinations

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 10 2009
    Rosemary Fama
    Background:, Selective memory deficits occur in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and those with chronic alcoholism, but the potential compounded effect of these conditions is seldom considered, despite the high prevalence of alcohol use disorders in HIV infection. Methods:, Here, we examined component processes of working and episodic memory in HIV infection and chronic alcoholism (ALC) in 4 subject groups (HIV, ALC, HIV + ALC, and normal controls) at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Accuracy scores, response times, and rate of information processing were assessed with subtests of the computerized neuropsychological test battery, the MicroCog. Results:, Although individuals with either HIV infection or alcoholism generally performed at normal levels, individuals comorbid with HIV infection and alcoholism were impaired relative to controls and to the single diagnosis groups on selective memory processes. Immediate episodic memory was impaired, whereas working memory remained intact. Ability to retain information over time was not impaired in the clinical groups. Little performance change between groups was detected over 1 year. Results could not be explained by amount of alcohol consumed over a lifetime, CD4 cell count, AIDS diagnosis, or HAART medication. Conclusions:, This study provides behavioral support for adverse synergism of HIV infection and chronic alcoholism on brain function and is consistent with neuroimaging reports of compromised hippocampal and associated memory structures related to episodic memory processes in these 2 conditions. [source]

    Kindergarten Predictors of Math Learning Disability

    Michèle M. M. Mazzocco
    The aim of the present study was to address how to effectively predict mathematics learning disability (MLD). Specifically, we addressed whether cognitive data obtained during kindergarten can effectively predict which children will have MLD in third grade, whether an abbreviated test battery could be as effective as a standard psychoeducational assessment at predicting MLD, and whether the abbreviated battery corresponded to the literature on MLD characteristics. Participants were 226 children who enrolled in a 4-year prospective longitudinal study during kindergarten. We administered measures of mathematics achievement, formal and informal mathematics ability, visual-spatial reasoning, and rapid automatized naming and examined which test scores and test items from kindergarten best predicted MLD at grades 2 and 3. Statistical models using standardized scores from the entire test battery correctly classified ,80,83 percent of the participants as having, or not having, MLD. Regression models using scores from only individual test items were less predictive than models containing the standard scores, except for models using a specific subset of test items that dealt with reading numerals, number constancy, magnitude judgments of one-digit numbers, or mental addition of one-digit numbers. These models were as accurate in predicting MLD as was the model including the entire set of standard scores from the battery of tests examined. Our findings indicate that it is possible to effectively predict which kindergartners are at risk for MLD, and thus the findings have implications for early screening of MLD. [source]

    Impact of preoperative overt hepatic encephalopathy on neurocognitive function after liver transplantation,,

    Eva U. Sotil
    In the current Model for End-Stage Liver Disease allocation system, patients are at risk of suffering repeated episodes of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) while waiting for an orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT); the posttransplantation impact of these episodes has not been well explored. We evaluated the cognitive function and quality of life in a group of OLT recipients (n = 25) who had suffered from overt HE prior to their procedure (HE-PreLT group) and compared their performance to that of a similar group of patients (n = 14) without overt HE (No HE-PreLT group) as well as to controls. Patients were selected from a cohort of 280 patients who underwent OLT during this period; the presence of clinical confounders excluded many of the remaining subjects. Demographic and clinical characteristics were balanced among groups. At an average of 18 months after OLT, we administered 2 neuropsychological batteries [Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy Score (PHES) test battery and Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS)]; a pyschophysiological test (critical flicker frequency); and the SF-36 quality of life score. The HE-PreLT group scored below controls in 5 of 6 cognitive domains tested by RBANS, 3 of 6 PHES subtests, as well as the critical flicker frequency test. The No HE-PreLT group scored below the controls in 1 of the 6 cognitive domains tested by RBANS. The more severe neurocognitive abnormalities seen in the HE-PreLT group did not appear to affect quality of life, as lower values than normative data were only found in 1 of the 8 SF-36 scales. In conclusion, neurocognitive abnormalities were more severe in liver transplant recipients that had suffered from overt HE prior to OLT. Prospective studies of neurocognitive function pre-OLT and post-OLT are needed to fully determine the impact of such abnormalities. Liver Transpl 15:184,192, 2009. © 2009 AASLD. [source]