Taxonomic Revision (taxonomic + revision)

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Selected Abstracts


Summary This paper contains a revision of the genus Biarum Schott. 21 species and 6 subspecies are recognised. All the taxa (except B. mendax Boyce) are illustrated by line drawings, and most of them are shown as paintings or as photographs in habitat or in cultivation. Distribution maps of all the species are given and a key to all taxa is provided. [source]

A Taxonomic Revision of Illiberis Walker (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae: Procridinae) in Korea

Sung-Soo KIM
ABSTRACT The Korean species of Illiberis Walker are revised. A total of 10 species are recognized, including four species new to Korea: I. rotundata Jordan, I. psychina (OberthÜr), I. consimilis Leech, and I. hyalina (Staudinger). The identities of I. cybele Leech and I. assimilis Jordan, the two ambiguously defined Korean species, are reconfirmed with the examination of type specimens and additional materials. Photos of the adults and type materials are provided, and male and female genitalia of each species are illustrated. Biology and distribution for each species are briefly discussed with the larval host records from Korea. [source]

Taxonomic revision of the genus Dolophilodes subgenus Dolophilodes (Trichoptera: Philopotamidae) of Japan

Naotoshi KUHARA
Abstract Japanese species of the genus Dolophilodes subgenus Dolophilodes are revised taxonomically. Seven described species are recognized: D. japonicus (Banks), D. shinboensis (Kobayashi), D. auriculatus Martynov, D. nomugiensis (Kobayashi), D. babai (Kobayashi), D. iroensis (Kobayashi) and D. commatus (Kobayashi). In addition, two new species, D. angustatus and D. dilatatus, are described. Males of all nine species and females of all but D. babai are described and illustrated. The subgenus Hisaura Kobayashi is synonymized under the subgenus Dolophilodes. Three synonymies of species proposed are Wormaldia triangulata Kobayashi under D. nomugiensis, D. kunashirensis Ivanov under D. iroensis and Sortosa kaishoensis Kobayashi under D. commatus. [source]

Taxonomic revision of Mecyclothorax Sharp (Coleoptera, Carabidae) of Hawaii Island: abundant genitalic variation in a nascent island radiation

James K. Liebherr
Abstract The Hawaii Island fauna of Mecyclothorax Sharp, 1903 is taxonomically revised and found to comprise 30 species, 18 newly described: M. gagnei sp. n., M. nitidus sp. n., M. maunakukini sp. n., M. punakukini sp. n., M. kaukukini sp. n., M. perivariipes sp. n., M. aa sp. n., M. giffini sp. n., M. hephaestus sp. n., M. funebris sp. n., M. granulipennis sp. n., M. rufipennis sp. n., M. blackburnianus sp. n., M. swezeyi sp. n., M. sinuosus sp. n., M. williamsi sp. n., M. purpuripennis sp. n., and M. footei sp. n. New synonymies include: Mecyclothorax parvus Britton, 1948 = M. subunctus (Perkins), 1917; Thriscothorax munroi Perkins, 1937 = M. karschi (Blackburn), 1882; Thriscothorax gracilis Sharp, 1903 and Mecyclothorax proximus Britton, 1948 = M. konanus Sharp, 1903; Mecyclothorax terminalis Britton, 1948 = M. discedens (Sharp) 1903. Mecyclothorax vulcanus (Blackburn) was described from a mixed series, with the cryptic sibling species M. hephaestus newly described to correct the partial misidentification. Species delimitation for the highly variable M. konanus is achieved using a hierarchical analysis based on infraspecifically variable attributes. Extensive male genitalic variation is documented within M. konanus and M. deverilli (Blackburn), and also among the cryptic sibling species pair M. variipes (Blackburn) and M. perivariipes. The observed variation is consistent with various hypotheses of sexual selection, but not with the genitalic lock and key hypothesis. Areas of endemism are tentatively proposed based on the most restricted distributions of Hawaii Island Mecyclothorax, with various flanks of Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa volcanoes identified as distinctive areas. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


Abstract:, Late Quaternary sediments from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 1055B, Carolina Slope, western North Atlantic (32°47.041, N, 76°17.179, W; 1798 m water depth) were examined for deep-sea ostracod taxonomy. A total of 13 933 specimens were picked from 207 samples and c. 120 species were identified. Among them, 87 species were included and illustrated in this paper. Twenty-eight new species are described. The new species are: Ambocythere sturgio, Argilloecia abba, Argilloecia caju, Argilloecia keigwini, Argilloecia robinwhatleyi, Aversovalva carolinensis, Bythoceratina willemvandenboldi, Bythocythere eugeneschornikovi, Chejudocythere tenuis, Cytheropteron aielloi, Cytheropteron demenocali, Cytheropteron didieae, Cytheropteron richarddinglei, Cytheropteron fugu, Cytheropteron guerneti, Cytheropteron richardbensoni, Eucytherura hazeli, Eucytherura mayressi, Eucytherura namericana, Eucytherura spinicorona, Posacythere hunti, Paracytherois bondi, Pedicythere atroposopetasi, Pedicythere kennettopetasi, Pedicythere klothopetasi, Pedicythere lachesisopetasi, Ruggieriella mcmanusi and Xestoleberis oppoae. Taxonomic revisions of several common species were made to reduce taxonomic uncertainty in the literature. This study provides a robust taxonomic baseline for application to palaeoceanographical reconstruction and biodiversity analyses in the deep and intermediate-depth environments of the North Atlantic Ocean. [source]

Molecular phylogeny of icefish Salangidae based on complete mtDNA cytochrome b sequences, with comments on estuarine fish evolution

Phylogenetic relationships among 15 species in the family Salangidae were constructed based on the complete cytochrome b sequence (1141 bp). We confirmed the monophyly of the family Salangidae and defined four primitive lineages within this family: (I) Protosalanx, Neosalanx anderssoni, Neosalanx tangkahkeii, and Neosalanx argentea; (II) Neosalanx reganius, Neosalanx jordani, Neosalanx oligodontis, and Neosalanx sp.; (III) Hemisalanx, Salanx, Leucosoma, and Salangichthys ishikawae; and (IV) Salangichthys microdon. A major finding of our study is the key basal placement of Sg. microdon. According to the tentative estimation, the divergence of the four lineages appears to have been initiated in the early Miocene (21 Mya), with most speciation events occurring 1.05,9.90 Mya. Taxonomic revisions on subfamilial, generic, and specific levels were carried out based on phylogenetic relationships and genetic distance, taking into account some key morphological characters. The speciation mechanism in Salangidae is also discussed, and the evidence shows that geographical isolation, water mass, as well as some ecological factors, may not always play important roles in the speciation of temperate estuarine fish. In the most cases, sympatric salangids are not monophyletic, indicating that their coexistence reflects secondary contact rather than sympatric speciation. © 2007 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2007, 91, 327,342. [source]

Spermatogenesis in Boccardiella hamata (Polychaeta: Spionidae) from the Sea of Japan: sperm formation mechanisms as characteristics for future taxonomic revision

ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 4 2010
Arkadiy A. Reunov
Abstract Reunov, A.A., Yurchenko, O.V., Alexandrova, Y.N. and Radashevsky, V.I. 2009. Spermatogenesis in Boccardiella hamata (Polychaeta: Spionidae) from the Sea of Japan: sperm formation mechanisms as characteristics for future taxonomic revision. ,Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 91: 477,456. To characterize novel features that will be useful in the discussion and validation of the spionid polychaete Boccardiella hamata from the Sea of Japan, the successive stages of spermatogenesis were described and illustrated. Spermatogonia, spermatocytes and early spermatids are aflagellar cells that develop synchronously in clusters united by a cytophore. At the middle spermatid stage, the clusters undergo disintegration and spermatids produce flagella and float separately in coelomic fluid as they transform into sperm. Spermatozoa are filiform. The ring-shaped storage platelets are located along the anterior nuclear area. The nucleus is cupped by a conical acrosome. A nuclear plate is present between the acrosome and nucleus. The nucleus is a cylinder with the implantation fossa throughout its length and with the anterior part of the flagellum inside the fossa. There is only one centriole, serving as a basal body of the flagellum, situated in close vicinity of the acrosomal area. A collar of four mitochondria is located under the nuclear base. The ultrastructure of B. hamata spermatozoa from the Sea of Japan appears to be close to that of B. hamata from Florida described by Rice (Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates, Wiley-Liss, Inc., New York, 1992), suggesting species identity of the samples from the two regions. However, more detailed study of Florida's B. hamata sperm is required for a reliable conclusion concerning the similarity of these two polychaetes. In addition to sperm structure, features such as the cytophore-assigned pattern of spermatogenic cell development, the synchronous pattern of cell divisions, the non-flagellate early spermatogenic stages, and the vesicle amalgamation that drives meiotic cell cytokinesis and spermatid diorthosis will likely be useful in future testing of the validity of B. hamata and sibling species throughout the world. [source]

The identity of Paeonia corsica Sieber ex Tausch (Paeoniaceae), with special reference to its relationship with P. mascula (L.) Mill.

Hong De-Yuan
The taxonomy of the genus Paeonia in central Mediterranean islands has been controversial, with number of recognized taxa changing greatly from one species without infraspecific division to three species or five infraspecific taxa in one species, and with the number of synonyms as great as 30. In the present work, the taxonomic history is thoroughly reviewed and a taxonomic revision is made based on extensive field work, chromosome observation, population sampling, examination of a large amount of herbarium specimens, and subsequent statistic analysis. As a result of the studies P. corsica Sieber ex Tausch, an ignored specific name, is restored at specific rank, and the species is found distinct from all the three subspecies of P. mascula in this region in having mostly nine (vs , 10) leaflets/segments, shorter hairs (1.5 mm vs 3 mm long) on carpels, rather densely holosericeous (vs glabrous or very sparsely hirsute) on the lower surface of leaves. It is a diploid, confined to Corsica France), Sardinia (Italy), Ionian Islands and Akarnania Province of Greece, whereas P. mascula is a tetraploid, widely distributed from Spain to Turkey and Iraq, but not in Corsica, Sardinia and W Greece. In addition, type specimens of four taxa are designated, and 29 botanic names are listed as synonyms of P. corsica in this paper. (© 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) Die Identität von Paeonia corsica Sieber ex Tausch (Paeoniaceae), mit besonderem Bezug auf ihre Verwandtschaft mit P. mascula (L.) Mill. Die Taxonomie der Gattung Paeonia auf den zentralen Mittelmeerinseln ist stets kontrovers gewesen. Die Anzahl der Taxa wechselte zwischen einer Art ohne infraspezifische Differenzierung bis zu drei oder fünf infraspezifische Taxa innerhalb einer Art. Die Anzahl der Synonyme beträgt bis zu 30 Taxa. In vorliegender Arbeit wird die Geschichte der Taxonomie sorgfältig betrachtet und eine taxonomische Revision auf der Basis extensiver Feldstudien, Chromosomen-Bewertung, Sammlungen von Populationen, der Untersuchung zahlreicher Herbarproben und abschließender statistischer Analysen vorgenommen. Im Ergebnis dieser Untersuchungen wird Paeonia corsica Sieber ex Tausch, ein bislang unbeachteter Artname, erneut in den Rang einer Art erhoben. Diese in dieser Region gefundene Spezies wurde als verschieden von den drei Unterarten von Paeonia mascula befunden. Sie hat meist neun (, 10) Blättchen, kürzere Haare (1.5 mm vs 3 mm lang) auf dem Karpell dichtere holoserios (vs glabrous oder selten hirsut) auf der Blattunterseite. Paeoniacorsica ist diploid auf Korsika (Frankreich), Sardinien (Italien), den Ionischen Inseln und der Provinz Akarnania in Griechenland, während Paeonia mascula tetraploid ist und weit verbreitet von Spanien bis in die Türkei und den Irak, fehlt aber auf Korsika, Sardinien und in Westgriechenland. Außerdem werden Typspecimen für 4 Taxa festgelegt. Als Synonyme von P. corsica wurden 29 Namen aufgelistet. [source]

Cotylea (Polycladida): a cladistic analysis of morphology

Kate A. Rawlinson
Abstract. Polyclad flatworms are acoelomate bilaterians found in benthic communities worldwide, predominantly in marine environments. Current polyclad systematics is unstable, with two non-concordant classification schemes resulting in a poor understanding of within-group relationships. Here we present the first phylogenetic framework for the suborder Cotylea using a morphological matrix. Representatives of 34 genera distributed among all cotylean families (except four, excluded due to their dubious taxonomic status) were investigated. The number of families included ranges from a conservative eight to a revisionary 11. Outgroup analysis indicated that the suborder is monophyletic and defined by the presence of a ventral adhesive structure, a short posteriorly positioned vagina, and cement glands. Of the eight to 11 families included, we confirmed that three were monophyletic: Boniniidae, Prosthiostomidae, and Pseudocerotidae. Boniniidae was consistently recovered as the sister group to other Cotylea, based on the retention of the plesiomorphic Lang's vesicle. The clade consisting of Anonymus, Marcusia, and Pericelis is sister to the Boniniidae and the rest of the Cotylea. Above this clade there is little resolution at the base of the sister group. The Euryleptidae are found to be paraphyletic and give rise to the Pseudocerotidae. Neither classification scheme received unequivocal support. The intrafamilial relationships of the diverse Pseudocerotidae and Euryleptidae were examined. Color pattern characters (used for species identification) were highly homoplasious but increased cladogram resolution within genera. The monophyly of seven genera within the Pseudocerotidae and Euryleptidae was not supported and many genera showed no autapomorphies, highlighting the need for taxonomic revision of these families. [source]

Phylogenetic relationships within the tropical soft coral genera Sarcophyton and Lobophytum (Anthozoa, Octocorallia)

Catherine S. McFadden
Abstract. The alcyonacean soft coral genera Sarcophyton and Lobophytum are conspicuous, ecologically important members of shallow reef communities throughout the Indo-West Pacific. Study of their ecology is, however, hindered by incomplete knowledge of their taxonomy: most species cannot be identified in the field and the two genera cannot always be distinguished reliably. We used a 735-bp fragment of the octocoral-specific mitochondrial protein-coding gene msh1 to construct a phylogeny for 92 specimens identified to 19 species of Lobophytum and 16 species of Sarcophyton. All phylogenetic methods used recovered a tree with three strongly supported clades. One clade included only morphologically typical Sarcophyton species with a stalk distinct from the polypary, poorly formed club-shaped sclerites in the colony surface, and large spindles in the interior of the stalk. A second clade included only morphologically typical Lobophytum colonies with lobes and ridges on the colony surface, poorly formed clubs in the colony surface, and interior sclerites consisting of oval forms with regular girdles of ornamental warts. The third distinct clade included a mix of Sarcophyton and Lobophytum nominal species with intermediate morphologies. Most of the species in this mixed clade had a polypary that was not distinct from the stalk, and the sclerites in the colony surface were clubs with well-defined heads. Within the Sarcophyton clade, specimens identified as Sarcophyton glaucum belonged to six very distinct genetic sub-clades, suggesting that this morphologically heterogeneous species is actually a cryptic species complex. Our results highlight the need for a complete taxonomic revision of these genera, using molecular data to help confirm species boundaries as well as to guide higher taxonomic decisions. [source]


B. Gavio
Generic and species concepts within the red algal assemblages Halymeniales and Rhodymeniales are discussed for taxa inhabiting the western Gulf of Mexico. Two principal biogeographic assemblages occur: an off-shore deep-water group (including Coelarthrum cliftonii, Halymenia spp., Botryocladia spp., Gloiocladia) representing remnants of a Tethyan distribution, and a near-shore intertidal flora (comprising Rhodymenia, Grateloupia and Prionitis) which instead reveals biogeographic affinities with the Carolinian Province. These two distinct marine floras will be contrasted phylogenetically based on DNA sequence analysis inferred from chloroplast-encoded rbcL. The generic descriptions of Grateloupia and Prionitis are in need of taxonomic revision based on a survey of species from Caribbean and Pacific Mexico. [source]

New molecular data for tardigrade phylogeny, with the erection of Paramacrobiotus gen. nov.

R. Guidetti
Abstract Up to few years ago, the phylogenies of tardigrade taxa have been investigated using morphological data, but relationships within and between many taxa are still unresolved. Our aim has been to verify those relationships adding molecular analysis to morphological analysis, using nearly complete 18S ribosomal DNA gene sequences (five new) of 19 species, as well as cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) mitochondrial DNA gene sequences (15 new) from 20 species, from a total of seven families. The 18S rDNA tree was calculated by minimum evolution, maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) analyses. DNA sequences coding for COI were translated to amino acid sequences and a tree was also calculated by neighbour-joining, MP and ML analyses. For both trees (18S rDNA and COI) posterior probabilities were calculated by MrBayes. Prominent findings are as follows: the molecular data on Echiniscidae (Heterotardigrada) are in line with the phylogenetic relationships identifiable by morphological analysis. Among Eutardigrada, orders Apochela and Parachela are confirmed as sister groups. Ramazzottius (Hypsibiidae) results more related to Macrobiotidae than to the genera here considered of Hypsibiidae. Macrobiotidae and Macrobiotus result not monophyletic and confirm morphological data on the presence of at least two large groups within Macrobiotus. Using 18S rDNA and COI mtDNA genes, a new phylogenetic line has been identified within Macrobiotus, corresponding to the ,richtersi-areolatus group'. Moreover, cryptic species have been identified within the Macrobiotus,richtersi group' and within Richtersius. Some evolutionary lines of tardigrades are confirmed, but others suggest taxonomic revision. In particular, the new genus Paramacrobiotus gen. n. has been identified, corresponding to the phylogenetic line represented by the ,richtersi-areolatus group'. Zusammenfassung Die Anzahl der Arten im Phylum Tardigrada ist in den letzten 25 Jahren von 500 Arten auf inzwischen fast 1000 Arten angestiegen. Zurzeit besteht die Gruppe aus zwei Klassen (Heterotardigrada und Eutardigrada), vier Ordnungen, 21 Familien, und 104 Gattungen. Trotz der Häufigkeit der Tardigraden wurde ihnen seit ihrer Entdeckung im Jahr 1773 nur wenig Aufmerksamkeit geschenkt. Bis vor wenigen Jahren wurden ausschließlich morphologische Merkmale verwendet, um die Phylogenie der Tardigrada zu untersuchen. Dennoch sind die Verhältnisse zwischen und innerhalb vieler Arten noch nicht eindeutig geklärt. Das Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit war es, die bereits bekannten, morphologischen Verhältnisse mit molekularen Ergebnissen zu belegen. Hierzu wurden nur vollständige Sequenzen der ribosomalen 18S rDNA von 19 Arten verwendet. Fünf neue Sequenzen wurden dabei hinzugefügt. Weiterhin wurden von 15 Arten neue mitochrondriale COI Sequenzen verwendet, die mit fünf bekannten COI Sequenzen zu insgesamt sieben Familien gehören. Der 18S rDNA-Baum wurde durch ME, maximum parsimony (MP) and ML Analysen berechnet. Die für COI kodierenden Sequenzen wurden in Aminosäuren übersetzt und der Baum mit NJ, MP and ML Analysen berechnet. Für beide Bäume (18 rDNA und COI) wurden die Wahrscheinlichkeiten durch MrBayes ermittelt. Dabei ergab sich, dass molekulare Daten mit den morphologischen Untersuchungen bei den Echiniscidae (Heterotardigrada) übereinstimmen. Bei Eutardigrada wurden die Ordnungen Apochela und Parachela als Schwestergruppen bestätigt. Ramazzottius (Hypsibiidae) gehört zu der Familie Macrobiotidae und weniger zu Hypsibiidae, zu der die Gattung gegenwärtig gestellt wird. Die molekularen und morphologischen Daten deuten darauf hin, dass es mindestens zwei großer Gruppen innerhalb von Macrobiotus gibt. Durch die 18 rDNA und COI mtDNA Sequenzen konnte eine neue phylogenetische Linie innerhalb von Macrobiotus, der ,richtersi-areolatus Gruppe' zugehörig, identifiziert werden. Weiterhin sind kryptische Arten innerhalb der Macrobiotus richtersi Gruppe' und innerhalb von Richtersius gefunden worden. Die vorliegende Arbeit verifiziert die in vorangegangene Untersuchungen erarbeitete Phylogenie von Tardigraden. Es konnten einige Entwicklungslinien innerhalb den Tardigraden bestätigt werden, andere deuten zukünftige, taxonomische Revisionen an. So wurde die neue Gattung Paramacrobiotus eingeführt, entsprechend der phylogenetischen Linie, die bisher durch die ,richtersi-areolatus Gruppe' vertreten war. [source]

Genetic tests of the taxonomic status of the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) from the high mountain zone of the Andringitra Massif, Madagascar

Anne D. Yoder
Abstract A recent survey of the high-mountain zone of the Madagascar Parc National (PN) d'Andringitra revealed the presence of an apparently isolated troop of the ring-tailed lemur Lemur catta. These animals display phenotypic and ecological characteristics that are unusual for the monotypic genus Lemur, thus raising the possibility that they are members of a different undescribed species. We present analyses of two mitochondrial genes to test the hypothesis that L. catta from Andringitra should be considered a distinct species. The results indicate that taxonomic revision is not warranted under the expectations of the phylogenetic, coalescent, or biological species concepts. Rather, the genetic patterns observed among the Andringitra and lowland mitochondrial haplotypes are consistent with those expected for a single species. [source]

Revision of the genus Acrochordiceras Hyatt, 1877 (Ammonoidea, Middle Triassic): morphology, biometry, biostratigraphy and intra-specific variability

Abstract:, The family Acrochordiceratidae Arthaber, 1911 ranges in age from latest Spathian to the middle/late Anisian boundary, and it represents a major component of ammonoid faunas during that time. The middle Anisian genus Acrochordiceras Hyatt, 1877 is the most widespread taxon of the family and occurs abundantly worldwide within the low paleolatitude belt. However, there is a profusion of species names available for Acrochordiceras. This excessive diversity at the species level essentially results from the fact that sufficiently large samples were not available, thus leading to a typological approach to its taxonomy. Based on new extensive collections obtained from the Anisian (Middle Triassic) Fossil Hill Member (Star Peak Group, north-west Nevada) for which a high resolution biostratigraphic frame is available, the taxonomy and biostratigraphy of the genus Acrochordiceras Hyatt, 1877 is herein revised with respect to its intra-specific variation. Morphological and biometric studies (c. 550 bedrock-controlled specimens were measured) show that only one species occurs in each stratigraphic level. Continuous ranges of intra-specific variation of studied specimens enable us to synonymize Haydenites Diener, 1907, Silesiacrochordiceras Diener, 1916 and Epacrochordiceras Spath, 1934 with Acrochordiceras Hyatt, 1877. Three stratigraphically successive species are herein recognized in the low paleolatitude middle Anisian faunas from Nevada: A. hatschekii (Diener, 1907), A. hyatti Meek, 1877 and A. carolinae Mojsisovics, 1882. Moreover, an assessment of intra-specific variation of the adult size range does not support recognition of a dimorphic pair (Acrochordiceras and Epacrochordiceras) as previously suggested by other workers (Epacrochordiceras is the compressed and weakly ornamented end-member variant of Acrochordiceras). The successive middle Anisian species of Acrochordiceras form an anagenetic lineage characterized by increasing involution, adult size and intra-specific variation. This taxonomic revision based on new bedrock-controlled collections is thus an important prerequisite before studying the evolution of the group. [source]

Fossil Woods From Williams Point Beds, Livingston Island, Antarctica: A Late Cretaceous Southern High Latitude Flora

Imogen Poole
The wood flora from Williams Point, Livingston Island, contains 12 wood types of gymnosperm and angiosperm origin. Recent collections of material have increased the biodiversity of a postulated species-rich vegetation. The gymnosperm wood can be readily assigned to four form-genera: Araucarioxylon Kraus, Araucariopitys Jeffrey, Podocarpoxylon Gothan and Sahnioxylon Bose and Sah. This indicates a diversity of coniferous araucarian and podocarp trees alongside woods of uncertain affinity (Sahnioxylon; Bennettitales). Two angiosperm morphotypes are assigned to the organ genera Hedycaryoxylon Su¨ss (Monimiaceae) and Weinmannioxylon Petriella (Cunoniaceae). The remaining four taxa of angiosperm wood cannot be confidently placed in extant families as they exhibit features that suggest relationships with the Magnoliidae, Hamamelidae and Rosidae. This paper presents the first comprehensive taxonomic revision of the wood flora from Livingston Island and discusses the palaeoecology that prevailed at a latitude of about 60 degrees south during the Late Cretaceous. Newly described taxa are Araucarioxylon chapmanae sp. nov., Araucariopitys antarcticus sp. nov., Podocarpoxylon chapmanae sp. nov., P. verticalis sp. nov., P. communis sp. nov., Weinmannioxylon ackamoides sp. nov., Antarctoxylon livingstonensis gen. et sp. nov., A. multiseriatum gen. et sp. nov., A. heteroporosum gen. et sp. nov. and A. uniperforatum gen et sp. nov. [source]

A Molecular Phylogenetic Investigation of Opisthonecta and Related Genera (Ciliophora, Peritrichia, Sessilida)

ABSTRACT. The gene encoding 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssu rRNA) was sequenced in the sessiline peritrichs Opisthonecta minima and Opisthonecta matiensis, whose free-swimming, paedomorphic trophonts resemble telotrochs. Using these new sequences, phylogenetic trees were constructed with four different methods to test a previously published association between Opisthonecta henneguyi and members of the families Vorticellidae and Astylozoidae. All trees had similar topologies, with O. minima, O. henneguyi, Vorticella microstoma, and Astylozoon enriquesi forming a well-supported, certainly monophyletic clade. On the basis of genetic evidence, genera of the families Opisthonectidae and Astylozoidae are assigned to the family Vorticellidae, which already includes some species with free-swimming morphotypes. The ssu rRNA sequence of O. matiensis places it in the family Epistylididae; its taxonomic revision will be left to another group of authors. A close association of Ophrydium versatile with members of the family Vorticellidae was confirmed, casting doubt on the validity of the family Ophrydiidae. Epistylis galea, Campanella umbellaria, and Opercularia microdiscum are confirmed as comprising an extremely distinct, monophyletic, but morphologically heterogeneous clade that is basal to other clades of sessiline peritrichs. [source]

Pollen morphology and wood anatomy of the Crudia group (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae, Detarieae)

Pollen from all 12 and wood from 11 genera in the Crudia group have been examined using light, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. This group is currently of systematic interest because it is part of a tribe undergoing taxonomic revision. The pollen grains fall into four groups: (1) Oxystigma, Kingiodendmn, Gossweilerodendron, Bathiaea,.Neoapaloxylon, Stemonocoleus, Guibourlia and Prioria have pollen of a widespread and generalized cacsalpinioid type that are small to medium sized, spheroidal to prolate, tricolporate and with a perforate exine, with some variation in surface ornamentation, aperture margins and ultrastructure. (2) Crudia pollen is tricolporate, coarsely striate with a coarsely scabrate to vcrmiculate aperture membrane. (3) Augouardia is tricolporate and coarsely reticulate. (4) Hardwickia and Colophosperrnum are pantoporate and reticulate or microreticulate-rugulate. The wood of Prioria, Oxystigma, Kingiodendmn and Gossweilerodendron has diffusely arranged axial canals, and these are four genera that have recently been merged into Prioria. Bathiaea has tangentially arranged axial canals. The other genera lack normal axial canals. Crudia is distinct, with banded parenchyma and variably storied short rays, Augouardia has much less abundant axial parenchyma that is mainly scanty paratracheal and vasiccntric, Guibourtia has mainly aliform parenchyma and rays variable in height and width, and Colophosperrnum and Hardwickia have similar paratracheal parenchyma patterns, although the rays tend to be wider in the latter. Our conclusion is that the Crudia group is not monophyletic. [source]

A new model Gondwanan taxon: systematics and biogeography of the harvestman family Pettalidae (Arachnida, Opiliones, Cyphophthalmi), with a taxonomic revision of genera from Australia and New Zealand

CLADISTICS, Issue 4 2007
Sarah L. Boyer
The phylogeny of the temperate Gondwanan harvestman family Pettalidae is investigated by means of a new morphological matrix of 45 characters, and DNA sequence data from five markers, including two nuclear ribosomal genes (18S rRNA and 28S rRNA), one nuclear protein coding gene (histone H3), and two mitochondrial genes,one protein coding (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) and one ribosomal (16S rRNA). Phylogenetic analyses using an array of homology schemes (dynamic and static), criteria (parsimony and maximum likelihood), and sampling strategies (optimal trees versus Bayesian phylogenetics) all agree on the monophyly of Pettalidae as well as several of its subclades, each of which is restricted to a modern landmass. While most genera as traditionally defined are monophyletic, Rakaia and Neopurcellia, distributed across Queensland (Australia) and New Zealand, are not. Instead, the species from Queensland, previously described under three genera, constitute a well-supported clade, suggesting that in this case biogeography prevails over traditional taxonomy. A taxonomic emendation of the genera from Queensland and New Zealand is presented, and the new genus Aoraki is erected to include the species of the New Zealand denticulata group. A biogeographical hypothesis of the relationships of the former temperate Gondwana landmasses (with the exception of Madagascar) is presented, although ambiguity in the deep nodes of the pettalid tree renders such inference provisional. The data suggest that neither the South African fauna, the New Zealand fauna nor the Australian fauna is monophyletic but instead monophyly is found at smaller geographic scales (e.g., Western Australia, Queensland, NE South Africa). © The Willi Hennig Society 2007. [source]

Taxonomy, evolutionary History and Distribution of the middle to late Famennian Wocklumeriina (Ammonoidea, Clymeniida)

R. Thomas Becker
Abstract Old collections, new records, and data from global literature are used for taxonomic revisions and for a new reconstruction of the evolutionary history of the triangularly coiled clymenids, the Wocklumeriaceae, and their ancestors. Epiwocklumeria applanata is first reported from the topmost Wocklum Limestone at Hasselbachtal and Drewer, and this supports the distinction of an applanata Subzone just prior to the global Hangenberg Event which wiped out the whole group. The Wocklumeriaceae and Glatziellidae record of the famous Oberrödinghausen Railway Cut and of other Rhenish sections is revised. The Maïder of Southern Morocco has yielded first Parawocklumeria patens, paprothae, Wocklumeria sphaeroides plana, Kielcensia ingeniens n. sp., and Synwocklumeria mapesi n. sp. Parawocklumeria distributa Czarnocki forms the type-species of Tardewocklumeria n. gen. Lecto- and neotypes for several taxa are designated. The variability and paedomorphic patterns of Wo. sphaeroides are discussed. The Wocklumeriaceae represent the terminal Famennian (Upper Devonian VI-C/D) radiation of a long-ranging lineage which evolved in parallel to other clymenid groups. They are characterized by sutural features and by longidomic and very slowly expanding whorls. The polyphyletic traditional Gonioclymeniina are divided into the suborder Wocklumeriina (with Wocklumeriaceae, Glatziellaceae n.superfam. and Biloclymeniaceae) and into the Gonioclymeniaceae of the Clymeniina. Gyroclymenia Czarnocki is regarded as a junior synonym of Pleuroclymenia Schindewolf which, however, does not include the ,Pleuro.' americana and eurylobica groups. Pleuroclymenia represents the ancestral form of the Wocklumeriina and also the phylogenetical link with Platyclymenia (Varioclymenia) of the Clymeniaceae. The Gonioclymeniaceae had their roots in advanced Platyclymeniidae. Alte Aufsammlungen, Neunachweise und globale Literaturdaten werden für taxonomische Revisionen und für eine neue Rekonstruktion der Evolution der Dreiecksclymenien (Wocklumeriaceae) und ihrer Vorfahren benutzt. Epiwocklumeria applanata wird zum ersten Mal im Hasselbachtal und bei Drewer nachgewiesen, und diese Funde bestätigen die Abtrennung einer applanata -Subzone im unmittelbar Liegenden des Hangenberg-Event, welcher zum Aussterben der gesamten Gruppe führte. Die Verbreitung von Wocklumeriaceae und Glatziellidae im klassischen Profil des Bahneinschnittes bei Oberrödinghausen und an anderen Fundorten im Rheinischen Schiefergebirge wird revidiert. Der Maïder in Süd-Marokko lieferte erstmalig Parawocklumeria patens, paprothae, Wocklumeria sphaeroides plana, Kielcensia ingeniens n. sp. und Synwocklumeria mapesi n. sp. Parawocklumeria distributa Czarnocki bildet die Typus-Art von Tardewocklumeria n.gen. Weiterhin werden die Variabilität und paedomorphe Erscheinungen bei Wo. sphaeroides diskutiert. Die Wocklumeriaceae repräsentieren im höchsten Famennium (UD VI-C/D) die Radiationsphase einer langlebigen phylogenetischen Linie, die sich parallel zu anderen Clymenien entwickelte. Sie ist durch Suturmerkmale und lange Wohnkammern bei niedrigmündigen Gehäusen charakterisiert. Die als polyphyletisch erkannten Gonioclymeniina werden in die Wocklumeriina (mit Wocklumeriaceae, Glatziellaceae n.superfam. und Biloclymeniaceae) und in die Gonioclymeniaceae der Clymeniina geteilt. Gyroclymenia Czarnocki ist ein jüngeres Synonym von Pleuroclymenia Schindewolf, umfasst jedoch nicht die ,Pleuro.' americana -und ,Pleuro.' eurylobica -Artgruppen. Die Gattung ist die ursprünglichste Form der Wocklumeriina und stellt gleichzeitig das Bindeglied zu Platyclymenia (Varioclymenia) der Clymeniaceae dar. Die Gonioclymeniaceae wurzeln in fortgeschrittenen Platyclymeniidae. [source]

A conservation assessment of the freshwater crabs of southern Africa (Brachyura: Potamonautidae)

Neil Cumberlidge
Abstract Recent taxonomic revisions of the freshwater crabs of southern Africa (Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe) allow accurate depictions of their diversity, distribution patterns and conservation status. The southern African region is home to nineteen species of freshwater crabs all belonging to the genus Potamonautes (family Potamonautidae). These crabs show high levels of species endemism (84%) to the southern African region and to the country of South Africa (74%). The conservation status of each species is assessed using the IUCN (2003) Red List criteria, based on detailed compilations of the majority of known specimens. The results indicate that one species should be considered vulnerable, fifteen species least concern and three species data deficient. The results have been utilized by the IUCN for Red Lists, and may prove useful when developing a conservation strategy for southern Africa's endemic freshwater crab fauna. Résumé De récentes révisions de la taxonomie des crabes d'eau douce d'Afrique australe (Afrique du Sud, Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibie, Swaziland, Zambie et Zimbabwe) permettent des descriptions précises de leur diversité, de leur schéma de distribution et de leur statut de conservation. L'Afrique australe accueille 19 espèces de crabes d'eau douce qui appartiennent toutes au genre Potamonautes (famille des Potamonautidae). Ces crabes présentent un degréélevé d'endémisme spécifique (84%) pour la région de l'Afrique australe et pour l'Afrique du Sud elle-même (74%). Le statut de conservation de chaque espèce est évalué selon les critères de la Liste rouge de l'UICN (2003), en se basant sur des compilations détaillées de la majorité des spécimens connus. Les résultats montrent qu'une des espèces devrait être considérée comme «vulnérable», 15 autres comme «préoccupation mineure» et trois n'ont que des «données insuffisantes». Les résultats ont été utilisés par l'UICN pour la Liste rouge et peuvent s'avérer utiles pour le développement d'une stratégie de conservation pour la faune des crabes d'eau douce endémiques d'Afrique australe. [source]


Abstract:, Twenty-nine Arenig and Llanvirn trilobite species, representing 20 genera in the Asaphidae, Cyclopygidae, Dikelokephalinidae, Nileidae, Raphiophoridae, Remopleurididae, Taihungshaniidae and Trinucleidae, are treated in a taxonomic review of the South Chinese Asaphida. This review is based on large collections of trilobite material made from five formations at nine localities in western Hubei, northern Hunan and southern Shaanxi, representing a wide range of benthic marine environments across the Yangtze Platform and Jiangnan Transitional Belt regions of the South China Plate. Most South Chinese representatives of the Asaphidae are reassigned to the Nobiliasaphinae on the basis of cranidial and hypostomal characters, and taxonomic revisions are given for Liomegalaspides and Opsimasaphus pseudodawanicus. Taihungshania shui and T. tachengssuensis are revised and redescribed, and the establishment of lectotypes for these species and T. brevica clarifies the status of the type material of Taihungshania. Nileus walcotti is revised and restricted biogeographically to the South China Plate; material from Xinjiang previously assigned to this species is reassigned to N. sericeus sp. nov. The new raphiophorid species Raphioampyx sinankylosus is described. Aocaspis, Incaia and Raphioampyx are recorded for the first time from South China, and the latter two genera are also recorded for the first time from the Arenig. [source]

Multivariate analysis of morphological variation in Cineraria deltoidea (Asteraceae, Senecioneae)

Cluster analysis and principal coordinates analysis were used to investigate phenetic variation in Cineraria deltoidea, a species that ranges from near sea level in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, to 4300 m a.s.l. on the mountains of East Africa and Ethiopia. Earlier taxonomic revisions reduced nine previously recognized species to synonyms of C. deltoidea. Two closely related species, C. decipiens and C. atriplicifolia, were also included in the analyses. Thirty-six morphological characters were examined on 111 specimens. Phenograms and scattergrams show partial clusters of specimens of C. deltoidea from individual mountains or geographical regions, but no groups are sufficiently distinct to warrant formal recognition at any rank. The East African specimens from 3000 m a.s.l. and higher tend to cluster together. Growth at high altitude in East Africa is correlated with fewer, larger capitula on longer peduncles, and an absence of a cobwebby indumentum comprising long, narrow-based trichomes. Cineraria deltoidea is thus a highly variable species with geographical and clinal variation evident throughout its range. Cineraria atriplicifolia and C. decipiens are maintained as distinct species, distinguished from C. deltoidea by their growth form, life span and auricle shape. © 2007 University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. Journal compilation © 2007 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2007, 154, 497,521. [source]