Sulfated Polysaccharides (sulfated + polysaccharide)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Sulfated polysaccharides inhibit the catabolism and loss of both large and small proteoglycans in explant cultures of tendon

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 15 2006
Tom Samiric
This study investigated the effects of two highly sulfated polysaccharides, calcium pentosan polysulfate and heparin, on the loss of newly synthesized proteoglycans from the matrix of explant cultures of bovine tendon. The tensional region of deep flexor tendon was incubated with [35S]sulfate for 6 h and then placed in culture for up to 15 days. The amount of radiolabel associated with proteoglycans lost to the medium and retained in the matrix was determined for each day in culture. It was shown that both sulfated polysaccharides at concentrations of 1000 gmL,1 inhibited the loss of 35S-labeled large and small proteoglycans from the matrix and concomitant with this was a retention of chemical levels of proteoglycans in the explant cultures. In other explant cultures that were maintained in culture in the presence of both agents for more than 5 days after incubation with [35S]sulfate, inhibition of the intracellular catabolic pathway was evident, indicating that these highly sulfated polysaccharides also interfered with the intracellular uptake of small proteoglycans by tendon cells. [source]


Developmental change and function of chondroitin sulfate deposited around cerebellar Purkinje cells

JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH, Issue 2 2005
Yumiko Shimazaki
Abstract Chondroitin sulfate is a long sulfated polysaccharide with enormous structural heterogeneity that binds with various proteins, such as growth factors, in a structure-dependent manner. In this study, we analyzed the expression of chondroitin sulfate in the postnatally developing cerebellar cortex by using three monoclonal antibodies against chondroitin sulfate, MO-225, 2H6, and CS-56, which recognize different structural domains in this polysaccharide. During the first postnatal week, the patterns of immunohistochemical staining made by these antibodies were quite similar, and the molecular layer, the granule cell layer, and Bergmann glial fibers in the external granular layer were densely stained. After postnatal day 12 (P12), the expression of 2H6 epitopes was down-regulated in the molecular layer, and the expression of CS-56 epitopes in this layer was also reduced after P16. On the other hand, the strong expression of MO-225 epitopes, GlcA(2S),1,3GalNAc(6S) (D unit)-containing structures, remained until adulthood. These chondroitin sulfate epitopes were observed around Purkinje cells, including cell soma and dendrites. Detailed immunohistochemical analysis suggested that chondroitin sulfate was deposited between Purkinje cell surfaces and the processes of Bergmann glia. Furthermore, the amount of pleiotrophin, a heparin-binding growth factor, in the cultured cerebellar slices was remarkably diminished after treatment with chondroitinase ABC or D unit-rich chondroitin sulfate. With the previous findings that pleiotrophin binds to D unit-rich chondroitin sulfate, we suggest that the D-type structure is important for the signaling of pleiotrophin, which plays roles in Purkinje cell,Bergmann glia interaction, and that the structural changes of chondroitin sulfate regulate this signaling pathway. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


FLORIDOSIDE AS A CARBON PRECURSOR FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF CELL-WALL POLYSACCHARIDE IN THE RED MICROALGA PORPHYRIDIUM SP. (RHODOPHYTA),

JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 5 2002
Shi-Yan Li
Although red algae are known to be obligatory photoautotrophs, the red microalga Porphyridium sp. was shown to assimilate and metabolize floridoside. A pulse-chase experiment with [14C]floridoside showed that at the end of a 240-min pulse, 70% of total 14C-uptake by the cells remained in the floridoside fraction. To evaluate the assimilation of floridoside by Porphyridium sp. cells, we exposed Porphyridium sp. not only to [14C]floridoside but also to its constituents, [14C]glycerol and [14C]galactose, as compared with [14C]bicarbonate. The extent of incorporation of [14C] galactose by the Porphyridium sp. cells was insignificant (50,80 dpmmL,1), whereas uptake of 14C from [14C]glycerol into the algal cells was evident (2.4 103 dpmmL,1) after 60 min of the pulse. The pattern of 14C distribution among the major constituent sugars, xylose, glucose and galactose, of the labeled soluble polysaccharide was dependent on the 14C source. The relative content of [14C]galactose in the soluble polysaccharide was highest (28.8%) for [14C]floridoside-labeled culture and lowest (19.8%) for the [14C]glycerol-labeled culture. Upon incubation of [14C]floridoside with a crude extract of a cell-free system prepared from nonlabeled cells of Porphyridium sp., the label was indeed found to be incorporated into the sulfated polysaccharide. Our results suggested that the carbon metabolic pathway in Porphyridium sp. passes through the low molecular weight photoassimilatory product,floridoside,toward sulfated cell-wall polysaccharide production. [source]


Properties of fucoidan from Cladosiphon okamuranus tokida in gastric mucosal protection

BIOFACTORS, Issue 4 2000
Hideyuki Shibata
Abstract To elucidate the anti-ulcer potential of Cladosiphon fucoidan, anti-peptic activity, bFGF stabilizing activity and inflammatory properties of this and related substances were investigated. Anti-peptic activity was observed with this and other sulfated polysaccharides such as dextran sulfate, carrageenan, and Fucus fucoidan. However, non-sulfated polysaccharides such as mannan and dextran did not exert the anti-peptic activity. The loss of bFGF bioactivity was prevented by all sulfated polysaccharides tested except chondroitin sulfate, at pH 7.4 and at pH 4.0. At pH 2.0, only heparin protected the bFGF activity. The generation of superoxide by macrophages and PMNs was stimulated by dextran sulfate, carrageenan, and Fucus fucoidan, whereas Cladosiphon fucoidan, heparin and chondroitin did not. Dextran sulfate, carrageenan, and Fucus fucoidan also stimulated the secretion of TNF, from macrophages, while Cladosiphon fucoidan did not. Thus, Cladosiphon fucoidan is a sulfated polysaccharide without inflammatory action. These results suggest that Cladosiphon fucoidan is a safe substance with potential for gastric protection. [source]


Sulfated polysaccharides inhibit the catabolism and loss of both large and small proteoglycans in explant cultures of tendon

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 15 2006
Tom Samiric
This study investigated the effects of two highly sulfated polysaccharides, calcium pentosan polysulfate and heparin, on the loss of newly synthesized proteoglycans from the matrix of explant cultures of bovine tendon. The tensional region of deep flexor tendon was incubated with [35S]sulfate for 6 h and then placed in culture for up to 15 days. The amount of radiolabel associated with proteoglycans lost to the medium and retained in the matrix was determined for each day in culture. It was shown that both sulfated polysaccharides at concentrations of 1000 gmL,1 inhibited the loss of 35S-labeled large and small proteoglycans from the matrix and concomitant with this was a retention of chemical levels of proteoglycans in the explant cultures. In other explant cultures that were maintained in culture in the presence of both agents for more than 5 days after incubation with [35S]sulfate, inhibition of the intracellular catabolic pathway was evident, indicating that these highly sulfated polysaccharides also interfered with the intracellular uptake of small proteoglycans by tendon cells. [source]


The role of bacteriolysis in the pathophysiology of inflammation, infection and post-infectious sequelae

APMIS, Issue 11 2002
Review article
The literature dealing with the biochemical basis of bacteriolysis and its role in inflammation, infection and in post-infectious sequelae is reviewed and discussed. Bacteriolysis is an event that may occur when normal microbial multiplication is altered due to an uncontrolled activation of a series of autolytic cell-wall breaking enzymes (muramidases). While a low-level bacteriolysis sometimes occurs physiologically, due to "mistakes" in cell separation, a pronounced cell wall breakdown may occur following bacteriolysis induced either by beta-lactam antibiotics or by a large variety of bacteriolysis-inducing cationic peptides. These include spermine, spermidine, bactericidal peptides defensins, bacterial permeability increasing peptides from neutrophils, cationic proteins from eosinophils, lysozyme, myeloperoxidase, lactoferrin, the highly cationic proteinases elastase and cathepsins, PLA2, and certain synthetic polyamino acids. The cationic agents probably function by deregulating lipoteichoic acid (LTA) in Gram-positive bacteria and phospholipids in Gram-negative bacteria, the presumed regulators of the autolytic enzyme systems (muramidases). When bacteriolysis occurs in vivo, cell-wall- and -membrane-associated lipopolysaccharide (LPS (endotoxin)), lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and peptidoglycan (PPG), are released. These highly phlogistic agents can act on macrophages, either individually or in synergy, to induce the generation and release of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, cytotoxic cytokines, hydrolases, proteinases, and also to activate the coagulation and complement cascades. All these agents and processes are involved in the pathophysiology of septic shock and multiple organ failure resulting from severe microbial infections. Bacteriolysis induced in in vitro models, either by polycations or by beta-lactams, could be effectively inhibited by sulfated polysaccharides, by D-amino acids as well as by certain anti-bacteriolytic antibiotics. However, within phagocytic cells in inflammatory sites, bacteriolysis tends to be strongly inhibited presumably due to the inactivation by oxidants and proteinases of the bacterial muramidases. This might results in a long persistence of non-biodegradable cell-wall components causing granulomatous inflammation. However, persistence of microbial cell walls in vivo may also boost innate immunity against infections and against tumor-cell proliferation. Therapeutic strategies to cope with the deleterious effects of bacteriolysis in vivo include combinations of autolysin inhibitors with combinations of certain anti-inflammatory agents. These might inhibit the synergistic tissue- and- organ-damaging "cross talks" which lead to septic shock and to additional post-infectious sequelae. [source]


Properties of fucoidan from Cladosiphon okamuranus tokida in gastric mucosal protection

BIOFACTORS, Issue 4 2000
Hideyuki Shibata
Abstract To elucidate the anti-ulcer potential of Cladosiphon fucoidan, anti-peptic activity, bFGF stabilizing activity and inflammatory properties of this and related substances were investigated. Anti-peptic activity was observed with this and other sulfated polysaccharides such as dextran sulfate, carrageenan, and Fucus fucoidan. However, non-sulfated polysaccharides such as mannan and dextran did not exert the anti-peptic activity. The loss of bFGF bioactivity was prevented by all sulfated polysaccharides tested except chondroitin sulfate, at pH 7.4 and at pH 4.0. At pH 2.0, only heparin protected the bFGF activity. The generation of superoxide by macrophages and PMNs was stimulated by dextran sulfate, carrageenan, and Fucus fucoidan, whereas Cladosiphon fucoidan, heparin and chondroitin did not. Dextran sulfate, carrageenan, and Fucus fucoidan also stimulated the secretion of TNF, from macrophages, while Cladosiphon fucoidan did not. Thus, Cladosiphon fucoidan is a sulfated polysaccharide without inflammatory action. These results suggest that Cladosiphon fucoidan is a safe substance with potential for gastric protection. [source]


Review: An overview about the structure,function relationship of marine sulfated homopolysaccharides with regular chemical structures,

BIOPOLYMERS, Issue 8 2009
Vitor H. Pomin
Abstract Efforts in both structural and biological studies of sulfated polysaccharides from marine organisms have increased significantly over the last 10 years. Marine invertebrates have been demonstrated to be a source of glycans with particularly well-defined chemical structures, although ordered structural patterns can also be found occasionally in algal sources such as red seaweeds. Clear and regular structural features are essential for a good understanding of the biological activities of these marine homopolysaccharides of which sulfated fucans and sulfated galactans are the most studied. Herein, the main structural features (sugar type, sulfation and glycosylation sites, and orientational binding preferences) of both sulfated fucans and galactans are individually reviewed with regard to their specific contributions to two frequently described biological functions: the acrosome reaction (a physiological event of sea-urchin fertilization), and the anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities (an alternative and highly desirable pharmacological application). 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 91: 601,609, 2009. This article was originally published online as an accepted preprint. The "Published Online" date corresponds to the preprint version. You can request a copy of the preprint by emailing the Biopolymers editorial office at biopolymers@wiley.com [source]