Spontaneous Action Potentials (spontaneous + action_potential)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The heterogeneous distribution of functional synaptic connections in rat hippocampal dissociated neuron cultures

Suguru N. Kudoh
Abstract The dynamics of functional synaptic connections are critical for information processing systems in the brain, such as perception and learning. Using rat hippocampal cells cultured on multielectrode arrays, we investigated the spatiotemporal pattern of spontaneous action potentials. The neurons developed connections and a characteristic high-frequency bursting (HFB) activity was observed transiently. After the period of HFB activity, the distribution of spontaneous activity changed drastically with the appearance of neurons with frequent electrical activity and neurons with little activity in the network. The functional connections of all the combinations of recorded spike trains were estimated and depicted simultaneously in a Connection Map. This map revealed that each culture contained hublike neurons with many functional connections, suggesting that the cultures of dissociated rat hippocampal neurons on multielectrode arrays formed heterogeneous networks of functional connections. In addition, the functional connections were drastically reorganized after the induction of synaptic potentiation, and novel hub neurons emerged. These results indicate that spontaneous activity is enough to construct dynamic assemblies of neurons connected to each other by functional synaptic connections, and that synaptic potentiation can induce reorganization of such assemblies of neurons. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electron Comm Jpn, 92(6): 41,49, 2009; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/ecj.10063 [source]

Developmental expression of Na+ currents in mouse Purkinje neurons

Mark Fry
Abstract As Purkinje neurons mature during postnatal development, they change from electrically quiescent to active and exhibit high frequency spontaneous action potentials. This change in electrical activity is determined by both alteration in ion channel expression and the acquisition of synaptic input. To gain a better understanding of the development the intrinsic electrical properties of these neurons, acutely isolated Purkinje neurons from mice aged postnatal day 4 (P4) to P18 were examined. This included recording action potential frequency, threshold, height and slope, and input resistance and capacitance. Changes in a number of these properties were observed, suggesting significant changes in voltage-gated Na+ currents. Because voltage-gated Na+ currents, including the transient, resurgent and persistent currents, are known to play important roles in generating spontaneous action potentials, the developmental changes in these currents were examined. A large increase in the density of transient current, resurgent current and persistent current was observed at times corresponding with changes in action potential properties. Interestingly, the developmental up-regulation of the persistent current and resurgent current occurred at rate which was faster than the up-regulation of the transient current. Moreover, the relative amplitudes of the persistent and resurgent currents increased in parallel, suggesting that they share a common basis. The data indicate that developmental up-regulation of Na+ currents plays a key role in the acquisition of Purkinje neuron excitability. [source]

Dopaminergic Neurons in the Ventral Tegmental Area of C57BL/6J and DBA/2J Mice Differ in Sensitivity to Ethanol Excitation

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 7 2000
Mark S. Brodie
Background: The mesolimbic dopamine pathway that originates in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is important for the rewarding effects of ethanol. Ethanol has been shown to excite dopaminergic neurons of the VTA, both in vivo and in vitro, in rats. Behavioral differences in the rewarding effects of ethanol have been observed between C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice. The present electrophysiological study examined the effect of ethanol on individual dopaminergic VTA neurons from these two inbred mouse strains. Methods: Extracellular single unit recordings of spontaneous action potentials were made from dopaminergic VTA neurons in brain slices from either C57BL/6J or DBA/2J mice. Ethanol (10 to 160 mM) was administered in the superfusate and the mean change in firing rate produced by ethanol was measured. Results: There was no significant difference in basal spontaneous firing rate of dopaminergic VTA neurons between these two mouse strains. Ethanol caused a concentration-dependent increase in the firing rate of neurons from both mouse strains. Ethanol excited dopaminergic VTA neurons from DBA/2J mice more potently than those from C57BL/6J mice. Conclusions: The difference in sensitivity to ethanol excitation of dopaminergic VTA neurons in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice may contribute to differences in their behavioral response to ethanol. The fact that a given concentration of ethanol causes greater excitation of dopaminergic VTA (reward) neurons in DBA/2J mice than in C57BL/6J mice could explain why DBA/2J mice show much stronger place preference conditioning with ethanol. The higher voluntary intake of ethanol by C57BL/6J mice may be partly due to the insensitivity of their dopaminergic VTA neurons that requires them to drink a lot of ethanol to achieve sufficient excitation of reward neurons, whereas DBA/2J mice avoid oral ingestion of ethanol, despite its rewarding effect, because of their aversion to its taste. [source]

Effects of imatinib mesylate (Glivec®) as a c-kit tyrosine kinase inhibitor in the guinea-pig urinary bladder

Yasue Kubota
Abstract Aims In the gastrointestinal tract, slow wave activity in smooth muscle is generated by the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). Detrusor smooth muscle strips of most species show spontaneous contractions which are triggered by action potential bursts, however, the pacemaker mechanisms for the detrusor are still unknown. Recently, ICC-like cells have been found in guinea-pig bladder, using antibodies to the c-kit receptor. We have investigated the effects of Glivec, a c-kit tyrosine kinase inhibitor, on spontaneous action potentials in guinea-pig detrusor and intravesical pressure of isolated guinea-pig bladders. Methods Changes in the membrane potential were measured in guinea-pig detrusor smooth muscle using conventional microelectrode techniques. Pressure changes in the bladder were recorded using whole organ bath techniques. Results Smooth muscle cells in detrusor muscle bundles exhibited spontaneous action potentials, and spontaneous pressure rises occurred in isolated bladders. Glivec (10 ,M) converted action potential bursts into continuous firing with no effects on the shape of individual action potentials. Glivec (>50 ,M) reduced the amplitude of spontaneous pressure rises in the whole bladder in a dose dependent manner and abolished spontaneous action potentials in detrusor smooth muscle cells. Conclusions The results suggest that ICC-like cells may be responsible for generating bursts of action potentials and contractions in detrusor smooth muscle. Drugs inhibiting the c-kit receptor may prove useful for treating the overactive bladder. Neurourol. Urodynam. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Origin and propagation of spontaneous excitation in smooth muscle of the guinea-pig urinary bladder

Hikaru Hashitani
1The origin and propagation of waves of spontaneous excitation in bundles of smooth muscle of the guinea-pig bladder were examined using intracellular recording techniques and visualization of the changes in the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). 2Bladder smooth muscle cells exhibited spontaneous transient increases in [Ca2+]i which originated along a boundary of each smooth muscle bundle and then spread to the other boundary with a conduction velocity of 2.0 mm s,1. 3Spontaneous increases in [Ca2+]i were always preceded by action potentials. Nifedipine (10 ,M) abolished increases in both [Ca2+]i and action potentials. Caffeine (10 mM), ryanodine (50 ,M) and cyclopiazonic acid (10 ,M) reduced the amplitude of the associated increases in [Ca2+]i without preventing the generation of action potentials. 4Spontaneous action potentials had conduction velocities of 40 mm s,1 in the axial direction and 1.3 mm s,1 in the transverse direction. The electrical length constants of the bundles of muscle were 425 ,m in the axial direction and 12.5 ,m in the transverse direction. 5Neurobiotin, injected into an impaled smooth muscle cell, spread more readily to neighbouring cells located in the axial direction than those located in the transverse direction. The spread of neurobiotin was inhibited by 18,-glycyrrhetinic acid (18,-GA, 40 ,M), a gap junction blocker. 6Immunohistochemistry for Connexin 43 showed abundant punctate staining on the smooth muscle cell membranes. 7These results suggested that spontaneous action potentials and associated calcium waves occur almost simultaneously along the boundary of bladder smooth muscle bundles and then propagate to the other boundary probably through gap junctions. [source]

Studies on microwaves in medicine and biology: From snails to humans

James C. Lin
Abstract This d'Arsonval Medal acceptance presentation highlights several research themes selected from Dr. Lin's published works, focusing on the microwave portion of the nonionizing electromagnetic spectrum. The topics discussed include investigation of microwave effects on the spontaneous action potentials and membrane resistance of isolated snail neurons, effects on the permeability of blood brain barriers in rats, the phenomenon and interaction mechanism for the microwave auditory effect (the hearing of microwave pulses by animals and humans), the development of miniature catheter antennas for microwave interstitial hyperthermia treatment of cancer, the application of transcatheter microwave ablation for treatment of cardiac arrhythmias, and the use of noninvasive wireless technology for sensing of human vital signs and blood pressure pulse waves. The paper concludes with some observations on research and other endeavors in the interdisciplinary field of bioelectromagnetics. Bioelectromagnetics 25:146,159, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Evolving mechanisms of action of alverine citrate on phasic smooth muscles

M Hayase
Background and purpose: We have investigated the mechanisms underlying the paradoxical ability of the antispasmodic, alverine, to enhance spontaneous activity in smooth muscles while suppressing evoked activity. Experimental approach: The effects of alverine on spontaneous and induced contractile activity were examined in preliminary experiments with various smooth muscles. More detailed effects were also investigated by recording membrane potential, intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and tension from single-bundle detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) of the guinea-pig urinary bladder. Key results: Alverine (10 ,M) increased the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous action potentials, transient increases in [Ca2+]i and associated contractions. Alverine also decreased action potential rate of decay, suggesting inhibition of L -type Ca channel inactivation. Charybdotoxin (50 nM) but neither cyclopiazonic acid (10 ,M) nor Bay K 8644 (10 ,M) attenuated alverine-induced enhancement of spontaneous contractions. Alverine suppressed contractions produced by high K (40 mM) or ACh (10 ,M), without affecting electrical responses and with little suppression of increases in [Ca2+]i. This feature was very similar to that of the effects of the Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 (10 ,M). Conclusions and implications: Alverine may increase Ca influx during action potentials due to inhibition of the inactivation of L -type Ca channels, but may also suppress evoked activity by inhibiting the sensitivity of contractile proteins to Ca2+. The proportional contribution of Ca-dependent and Ca-independent contractions in DSM may differ between spontaneous and evoked activity, necessitating further investigations into the interactions between these pathways for assessing the therapeutic potential of alverine to treat DSM dysfunction. British Journal of Pharmacology (2007) 152, 1228,1238; doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0707496; published online 15 October 2007 [source]