Baking Process (baking + process)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EGG WHITE PROTEIN AND EGG ALTERNATIVES USED IN AN ANGEL FOOD CAKE SYSTEM

JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION, Issue 2010
MAHMOUD ABU-GHOUSH
ABSTRACT Comparisons of the physical and sensory properties of several commercial egg alternatives in angel food cake formulation were studied. Fourteen samples were investigated for foaming properties at 10 and 20 min whipping time: collagen, Cryogel gelatin, Solugel collagen hydroysates, gelatin, whey protein concentrate, fish protein, whey protein isolate (95% WPI, 90%WPI), hydrolyzed whey protein isolate, pea protein, rice protein concentrate, soy protein, corn zein and casein. However, only eight samples showed potential and were moved forward for further evaluation. Only the WPI alternative was able to maintain a meringue during baking. All other foams collapsed during the baking process. The angel food cake formulated with WPI exhibited a significantly firmer crust and crumb compared with the egg white control. The L value, height and volume of control cake were also significantly higher than the egg alternative. The control significantly outperformed the angel food cake formulated with the egg alternative in all sensory categories evaluated. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS The egg alternatives were used to replace egg as a functional ingredient in angel cake productions. These alternatives can deliver functionality at a lower cost and can be incorporated to produce a suitable angle cake, especially whey protein isolate (WPI). These results may help producers in formulating angle cake that rely on WPI as an egg alternative. [source]


Critical evaluation of the chemical standardization procedure for measuring gastric emptying of solids

JOURNAL OF LABELLED COMPOUNDS AND RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS, Issue 13 2002
P. Goethals
Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the baking process of yolk spiked with octanoate to measure gastric emptying rate of solids. [1- 11C]octanoate was produced by the reaction of [11C]CO2 with heptyl magnesium bromide in tetrahydrofuran (THF), followed by purification with HPLC. The decay corrected radiochemical yield ranged from 24 to 38% (5.9,9.8 GBq EOS, synthesis time: 25 min; specific radioactivity ,90 GBq ,mol,1). To check the evaporation of [1- 11C]octanoate during the baking process of yolk, [1- 11C]octanoate or potassium [1- 11C]octanoate, respectively, was added. An important fraction of the acid evaporated while for the potassium [1- 11C]octanoate <10% disappeared. Conclusion: potassium (1- 13C)octanoate is a better tracer than (1- 13C) octanoate to study gastroenterological phenomena. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


DEVELOPMENT OF DYNAMIC MODULUS AND CELL OPENING OF DOUGH DURING BAKING

JOURNAL OF TEXTURE STUDIES, Issue 1 2005
AJAY PAL SINGH
ABSTRACT The dynamic shear modulus (elastic and viscous modulus) development of dough during baking was studied. Flooded parallel plate geometry was used to monitor the rheological changes of commercially available canned doughs (bread dough, bun dough and biscuit dough). The normal force exerted on the upper plate by the expanding dough was measured to study the cell-opening event. The dough-baking process was simulated in a rheometer oven. The morphology of baked dough was studied using a scanning electron microscope to elucidate the effect of ingredients and process parameters on the properties of the final baked product. Three stages of modulus development were observed during the baking process: bubble growth and packing, rapid expansion/starch gelatinization and final curing. The cell opening coincided with the sudden rise in modulus caused by starch gelatinization. The rate at which starch gelatinization takes place controls the temperature of the cell opening. The type and concentration of various ingredients have a greater effect on the modulus and on the cell opening than the heating rates. Frequency dependence was observed during baking, but the effect on modulus development diminished at higher frequencies. [source]


Simulating the Heat Transfer Process of Horizontal Anode Baking Furnace

ASIA-PACIFIC JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, Issue 3-4 2004
Liqi Zhang
A transient two-dimensional mathematical model of a horizontal baking furnace is presented. The model combines complicated thermal phenomena in the baking process such as air infiltration, evolution and combustion of volatile matter; combustion of packing coke, and heat losses. The predicted results are in good agreement with measured data. Furthermore, the processes are simulated under different operating conditions such as firing cycle time, airflow and air infiltration. The simulated results indicate that the fuel consumption decreases as the firing cycle time decreases, it is also found that reducing the airflow and air infiltration will assist fuel efficiency. The model has proved to be a useful tool in the process optimization of the baking furnace in the aluminum industry. [source]


Evaluation of baking procedures for incorporation of barley roller milling fractions containing high levels of dietary fibre into bread

JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE, Issue 4 2008
Morrison S Jacobs
Abstract BACKGROUND: Roller milling of hull-less barley generates fibre-rich fractions (FRF) enriched in non-starch polysaccharides from the endosperm cell walls (,-glucans and arabinoxylans). This investigation was initiated to compare the suitability of different baking processes and to determine the optimal conditions for incorporation of barley FRF into pan bread. RESULTS: Addition of FRF from waxy and high-amylose starch hull-less barley genotypes was evaluated in pan bread prepared from Canada Western Red Spring (CWRS) and Canada Western Extra Strong (CWES) wheat flour. Three bread processes were used: Canadian short process (CSP), remix-to-peak, and sponge-and-dough. Addition of 20% FRF (equivalent to enrichment with 4.0 g of arabinoxylans and ,-glucans per 100 g of flour) disrupted dough properties and depressed loaf volume. CSP was not suitable for making FRF-enriched bread because dough could not be properly developed. FRF-enriched remix-to-peak bread was better, especially for the stronger CWES flour. The better bread quality compared to CSP was probably due to redistribution of water from non-starch polysaccharides to gluten during fermentation prior to remixing and final proof. The sponge-and-dough process produced the best FRF-enriched bread because of the positive effect of sponge fermentation on gluten development and hydration. FRF was added at the dough stage to fully developed dough. CONCLUSION: The method of bread production strongly influences bread quality. Pre-hydration of FRF improved bread quality. CWRS and CWES flour produced comparable FRF-enriched sponge-and-dough bread. Addition of xylanase to the sponge-and-dough formula improved the loaf volume, appearance, crumb structure and firmness of FRF-enriched bread. Copyright 2007 Society of Chemical Industry [source]