Bacterial Growth Rate (bacterial + growth_rate)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts


EVOLUTION, Issue 1 2008
Virginie Poullain
The evolution of exploitative specificity can be influenced by environmental variability in space and time and the intensity of trade-offs. Coevolution, the process of reciprocal adaptation in two or more species, can produce variability in host exploitation and as such potentially drive patterns in host and parasite specificity. We employed the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 and its DNA phage ,2 to investigate the role of coevolution in the evolution of phage infectivity range and its relation with phage growth rate. At the phage population level, coevolution led to the evolution of broader infectivity range, but without an associated decrease in phage growth rate relative to the ancestor, whereas phage evolution in the absence of bacterial evolution led to an increased growth rate but no increase in infectivity range. In contrast, both selection regimes led to phage adaptation (in terms of growth rates) to their respective bacterial hosts. At the level of individual phage genotypes, coevolution resulted in within-population diversification in generalist and specialist infectivity range types. This pattern was consistent with a multilocus gene-for-gene interaction, further confirmed by an observed cost of broad infectivity range for individual phage. Moreover, coevolution led to the emergence of bacterial genotype by phage genotype interactions in the reduction of bacterial growth rate by phage. Our study demonstrates that the strong reciprocal selective pressures underlying the process of coevolution lead to the emergence and coexistence of different strategies within populations and to specialization between selective environments. [source]

The effect of hfq on global gene expression and virulence in Neisseria gonorrhoeae

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 19 2009
Manuela Dietrich
Hfq is an RNA chaperone that functions as a pleiotropic regulator for RNA metabolism in bacteria. In several pathogenic bacteria, Hfq contributes indirectly to virulence by binding to riboregulators that modulate the stability or translation efficiency of RNA transcripts. To characterize the role of Hfq in the pathogenicity of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, we generated an N. gonorrhoeae hfq mutant. Infectivity and global changes in gene expression caused by the hfq mutation in N. gonorrhoeae strain MS11 were analyzed. Transcriptional analysis using a custom-made N. gonorrhoeae microarray revealed that 369 ORFs were differentially regulated in the hfq mutant, MS11hfq, in comparison with the wild-type strain (202 were upregulated, and 167 were downregulated). The loss-of-function mutation in hfq led to pleiotropic phenotypic effects, including an altered bacterial growth rate and reduced adherence to epithelial cells. Twitching motility and microcolony formation were not affected. Hfq also appears to play a minor role in inducing the inflammatory response of infected human epithelial cells. Interleukin-8 production was slightly decreased, and activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, a mitogen-activated protein kinase, was reduced in MS11hfq- infected epithelial cells in comparison with wild type-infected cells. However, activation of nuclear factor kappa B, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 remained unchanged. The data presented suggest that Hfq plays an important role as a post-transcriptional regulator in N. gonorrhoeae strain MS11 but does not contribute significantly to its virulence in cell culture models. [source]

Growth and pectate-lyase activity of the ruminal bacterium Lachnospira multiparus in the presence of short-chain organic acids

R.A. Paggi
Abstract Aims:, Acetic, propionic, butyric and lactic acids are end products of feed fermentation by rumen microbes. The effects of these short chain acids on growth and pectate-lyase (PL) activity of Lachnospira multiparus were studied. Methods and Results:, The bacterial strain used was L. multiparus D32. Acids were tested between 50 and 300 mmol l,1. Growth and PL activity were measured by the increase in total protein content and by the increase in absorbance at 235 nm in the reaction medium respectively. With the exception of lactic acid, all acids decreased bacterial growth rates; generally, these effects were more pronounced at higher concentrations and with acids of longer chains. PL activity was inhibited by all the acids except by butyric acid at 50 and 100 mmol l,1. Enzyme inhibition increased with the concentrations of the acids and lactic acid was the most inhibitory. Conclusions:, High concentrations of short chain acids can differentially inhibit the growth rate and the PL activity of L. multiparus. Significance and Impact of the Study:, Products of fermentation generated by the ruminal microbiota could modify the degradation of pectic substances by this bacterium. [source]

Pooled faecal culture for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in goats

GJ Eamens
Objective, To evaluate pooled faecal culture for herd diagnosis of caprine Johne's disease and relate these findings to faecal shedding rates of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (Map). Design, Radiometric broth culture was applied to several pooling dilutions, and shedding rates were estimated from a regression equation based on bacterial growth rates and known processing losses during radiometric culture. Procedure, Sixteen faecal samples from goats naturally infected with sheep (n = 3) or cattle (n = 13) strains of Map, were diluted in normal goat faeces from 1 in 5 to 1 in 50. Cultures were confirmed by IS900 polymerase chain reaction and restriction endonuclease analysis, and mycobactin dependency. The numbers of viable Map in the culture inocula were determined by endpoint titration (most probable number) of nine samples and related to a cumulative growth index. Results, A pooling dilution of 1 in 25 with an incubation period of 10 weeks detected 13 of 16 culture positive goats, all shedding , 2 104 Map per gram of faeces. Two samples containing very low numbers of Map (< 2 103/g) were only culture positive from undiluted faeces. Thirteen of 16 goats were considered to be shedding low to moderate concentrations of Map (< 2 105/g faeces). Conclusions, These data support a pooling dilution of 1 in 25 for application of pooled faecal culture as a diagnostic tool in caprine Johne's disease control. A test based on this dilution would reduce laboratory costs of whole herd testing in goats by approximately 40% relative to serology and 75 to 90% relative to individual faecal culture. [source]