Soluble Solids (soluble + solid)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Soluble Solids

  • total soluble solid

  • Terms modified by Soluble Solids

  • soluble solid content

  • Selected Abstracts


    Effect of three lipid/hydrocolloid coatings on shelf life stability of Golden Delicious apples

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 9 2007
    Frank D. Conforti
    Summary The shelf life quality of freshly harvested Golden Delicious apples coated with three individually developed lipid/hydrocolloid coatings was assessed throughout refrigerated storage. The apples were monitored for 8 weeks. The coatings resulted in low internal O2 and the least loss of fruit firmness when compared with the non-coated apple group. The coated apples had very little starch breakdown, minimum flesh colour development, or loss of titratable acidity content. Soluble solids and fresh weight loss remained unchanged for both the non-coated and coated groups. Sensory analysis confirmed that the coated apples maintained consistent quality in firmness, crispness and juiciness throughout the storage period. [source]


    WATER ABSORPTION, LEACHING and COLOR CHANGES DURING the SOAKING FOR PRODUCTION of SOY-BULGUR

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESS ENGINEERING, Issue 2 2004
    MUSTAFA BAYRAM
    ABSTRACT In this study, the soaking process, which is the first step of soy-bulgur production to develop a new type food product, was investigated. the soaking operation was conducted at 30, 50 and 70C for 120 min and samples were taken from the soybean and soaking water at 10 min intervals. Moisture content and color (L, a, b and YI values) of soybean were measured, as well as soluble solids content and color (L, a, b and YI values) of soaking water during the soaking process. the results were analyzed by using ANOVA and Duncan test. Soaking time and temperature were significantly effective (P < 0.05) on all variables, except the time effect on the YI-value. During the soaking, moisture content, lightness (L) and yellowness (b) increased and, redness (a) and yellowness index (YI) of soybean decreased. Soluble solids content, yellowness and yellowness index increased in contrast to a decrease in the lightness and greenness of the soaking water. As a result, soluble solids content in the soaking water increased, which illustrated the leaching of soluble solids from soybean to water. Color of soybean turned to lights, in contrast to darkening and opaqueness of water during soaking. Results showed that the moisture content, soluble solid content, L, a, b and YI values can be successfully modeled using polynomial equations, which can be used to estimate their changes during the soaking operation. [source]


    PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL AND SENSORY QUALITY EVALUATION OF POTATO VARIETIES (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM L.)

    JOURNAL OF FOOD QUALITY, Issue 2 2000
    J.E. PARDO
    ABSTRACT Seven table potato varieties were studied for pH, soluble solids content, moisture, firmness, color, external appearance of raw tubers and flavor and texture of the fried and boiled product. Monalisa was the most appreciated variety regarding external appearance, Bartina was preferred for the flavor of the fried product while Victoria and Desiree were the best for flavor and texture of boiled potatoes. The different scores by variety depending on frying or boiling suggest a specific use for each variety. Soluble solids content, pH, and moisture determinations showed minimal differences between varieties. Firmness was highest in the two varieties with the least moisture (Desiree and Victoria) and lowest in varieties with a high degree of moisture (Bartina and Caesar); fresh potato firmness had a positive correlation with these sensorial parameters when the product was boiled. All colorimetric parameters were useful to discriminate red skin from yellow-white skin varieties. [source]


    Effect of Hot Water Surface Pasteurization of Whole Fruit on Shelf Life and Quality of Fresh-Cut Cantaloupe

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 3 2008
    X. Fan
    ABSTRACT:, Cantaloupes are associated with recent outbreaks of foodborne illnesses and recalls. Therefore, new approaches are needed for sanitization of whole and cut fruit. In the present study, whole cantaloupes were submerged into water in the following 3 conditions: 10 °C water for 20 min (control), 20 ppm chlorine at 10 °C for 20 min, and 76 °C water for 3 min. Populations of microflora were measured on the rinds of the whole cantaloupes. Quality and microbial populations of fresh-cut cantaloupes prepared from whole fruit were analyzed after 1, 6, 8, 10, 13, 16, and 20 d of storage at 4 °C. The hot water significantly reduced both total plate count (TPC) and yeast and mold count on rind of whole fruits while chlorine or cold water wash did not result in a significant reduction of microbial population. Fresh-cut pieces prepared from hot water-treated cantaloupes had lower TPC than the other 2 treatments in the later storage periods (days 13 to 20) in 2 of 3 trials. The hot water treatment of whole fruits was inconsistent in reducing yeast and mold count of fresh-cut pieces. Soluble solids content, ascorbic acid content, fluid loss, and aroma and appearance scores were not consistently affected by either hot water or chlorine treatment. Our results suggested that hot water pasteurization of whole cantaloupes frequently resulted in lower TPCs of fresh-cut fruit during storage and did not negatively affect quality of fresh-cut cantaloupes. [source]


    Crop thinning (hand versus mechanical), grape maturity and anthocyanin concentration: outcomes from irrigated Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) in a warm climate

    AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF GRAPE AND WINE RESEARCH, Issue 1 2006
    PAUL R. PETRIE
    Abstract Crop thinning subsequent to fruit set can help regulate yield and improve fruit composition at harvest. Accordingly, an experiment was established in two vineyards (Site 1 Riverland District of South Australia; Site 2 Sunraysia District of Victoria) to investigate effects of crop removal after fruit set (when berries were pea size) using a machine harvester. Specific zones of the canopy were targeted for thinning to remove a predetermined percentage of the fruit and avoid over-thinning. Cropping responses to mechanical thinning were compared with control (un-thinned) vines, and with hand thinned vines (where fruit was removed from a similar portion of the canopy as for mechanical thinning). In a fourth treatment, bunches damaged by mechanical thinning were removed by hand. Inclusion of hand thinning treatments enabled us to distinguish between the potential benefits of reduced yield and the potential damage caused by the mechanical harvester to foliage and/or remaining fruit. Both the mechanical and the hand thinning treatments reduced bunch number as well as yield by a similar amount (approximately 24% on Site 1 and approximately 45% on Site 2) and advanced fruit maturity (soluble solids accumulation at harvest), relative to un-thinned controls, by approximately 1.6 % and 1.7% respectively. Soluble solids accumulated at a similar rate for all treatments at sites, despite differences in yield, implying that the impact of thinning treatments originated prior to veraison. Berry weight was increased by hand thinning at Site1, and by all thinning treatments at Site 2. Anthocyanin concentration (berry fresh weight basis) was higher in fruit from the mechanically thinned vines compared to controls (un-thinned). Mechanical thinning successfully reduced crop level to the target yield, and improved fruit quality. Mechanical thinning, via modified use of a machine harvester, thus offers some potential to regulate yield over large and minimally pruned vineyards, in a timely and cost-effective fashion. [source]


    Berry size and vine water deficits as factors in winegrape composition: Anthocyanins and tannins

    AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF GRAPE AND WINE RESEARCH, Issue 2 2004
    GASPAR ROBY
    Abstract Soluble solids, seed tannin, skin tannin, and skin anthocyanin were measured in fruit from Cabernet Sauvignon vines that had experienced either High, Control or Low water status during ripening. Berries from each treatment were segregated into 6 size categories at harvest in order to test independently for relationships due to size compared with those due to water deficits. Berry content of all solutes increased approximately in proportion to the increase in berry size. Deviations from proportionality caused Brix and anthocyanin concentration (mg per unit berry fresh mass) to decrease, and the concentration of skin tannin to remain unchanged or decrease slightly with increasing berry size. The concentration of seed tannin did not decrease and appeared to increase with berry size in multiple-seeded berries. In comparison with skin tannin or anthocyanin content, seed tannin content varied more with berry size and less with vine water status. In addition to decreasing berry size, water deficits increased the amount of skin tannin and anthocyanin per berry and the concentrations of skin tannin and anthocyanins, but did not significantly affect the content or concentration of seed tannin. The results show that there are effects of vine water status on fruit composition that arise independently of the resultant differences in fruit size. The effect of vine water status on the concentration of skin tannin and anthocyanin was greater than the effect of fruit size on those same variables. However, the increases in skin tannin and anthocyanin that accompanied water deficits appear to result more from differential growth sensitivity of inner mesocarp and exocarp than direct effects on phenolic biosynthesis. [source]


    THE EFFECT OF ENZYMATIC MASH TREATMENT, PRESSING, CENTRIFUGATION, HOMOGENIZATION, DEAERATION, STERILIZATION AND STORAGE ON CARROT JUICE

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESS ENGINEERING, Issue 4 2007
    HONGMEI LIAO
    ABSTRACT The enzyme preparation Pectinex Smash XXL was employed to macerate the carrot pulp, the effect of enzymatic mash treatment (EMT), pressing, centrifugation, homogenization, deaeration, sterilization and storage on carrot juice was investigated. As compared with the control sample, an increase of juice yield, total soluble solid (TSS) and carotenoids in carrot juice was close to 20%, 1% and 26 mg/kg, respectively, after EMT. The EMT also increased the color parameters CIEL*, a*and C*values in carrot juice. However, it significantly decreased the viscosity from 2.54 to 2.09 mPa·s. The centrifugation resulted in a significant decline in turbidity from 240.33 to 187.33 NTU and a significant increase in the color parameters in carrot juice. After homogenization, the turbidity and the carotenoids in carrot juice were significantly reduced from 187.33 to 161.67 NTU and from 61.87 to 58.76 mg/kg, respectively. The turbidity and carotenoids in carrot juice decreased during storage, and all the color parameters had a closer relationship with storage temperature and time; higher storage temperature and longer storage time caused greater loss of color. [source]


    PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND FLAVOR CHANGES OF FRAGRANT BANANA (MUSA ACUMINATA AAA GROUP "GROSS MICHEL") DURING RIPENING

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION, Issue 3 2010
    SOMRUEDEE THAIPHANIT
    ABSTRACT The objective of this research was to characterize the physicochemical and flavor changes that occur in ripe Hom Thong (Musa acuminata AAA Group "Gross Michel") flesh at stage 6,8. It was found that the higher fresh maturity stage of Hom Thong at P < 0.05 has the following results: the antioxidant activities, moisture content and reducing sugar are significantly increased. The titratable acidity, total soluble solid and prebiotic activities' score for Lactobacillus acidophilus LA5 and Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12 are significantly decreased. The total dietary fiber remains unchanged. Using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography,mass spectrometry to characterize volatile compound found that the flavor 20 volatile compounds (11 esters, 5 alcohols, 3 carbonyls and 1 ketone) are varied on Hom Thong maturity stage. The compounds with the most aroma impact for ripe Hom Thong flesh at stage 6,8 were 3-methylbutyl butanoate, 3-methyl-1-butyl acetate, 3-methylbutyl 3-methylbutanoate and 2-methylpropyl ethanoate. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Ripe banana Musa acuminata, AAA Group "Gross Michel," locally known in Thailand as Hom Thong, is a popular food item consumed as fruit, snacks or food ingredients for confections, spreads and other banana products. Using a suitable ripening stage of the banana flesh is the most critical step among many steps of unit operations for achieving high-quality banana products. This study not only characterizes the physicochemical and flavor changes that occur in ripe Hom Thong flesh at stage 6,8, but also studies antioxidant activities and prebiotic activities. Manufacturers can utilize the data presented in this article to select the suitable ripening stage in order to avoid product failure and to produce the best quality products for functional food, pharmafood, medifood or vitafood that are rich in natural banana flavor. [source]


    The post harvest sensory and chemical characteristics of cold-stored pineapples pretreated with different Fruitone concentrations

    JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE, Issue 13 2006
    Zaulia Othman
    Abstract The effects of Fruitone CPA [2-(3-chlorophenoxy)propionic acid] (0-44 ppm) on post-harvest storage, chemical characteristics and sensory evaluation of pineapples for fresh consumption after storage at 10 ± 1 °C were studied. Pre-harvest Fruitone treatment beneficially affected the physical characteristics of pineapples, namely increased fruit weight, reduced texture loss, reduced crown size and delayed ripening, but adversely affected their chemical characteristics. Almost all parameters analysed (total soluble solid, titratable acidity, pH and sugars) showed that Fruitone concentrations between 35.2 and 44 ppm were most effective in delaying the ripening of pineapples compared to other concentrations. At these concentrations, Fruitone significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the total soluble solid and pH, but significantly (P < 0.05) increased the titratable acidity. Fruitone treatment was effective in maintaining the TSS and reduced the fluctuation of sugar and the sugar,acid ratio during storage and between fruits. Sensory scores showed that there was a slight increase in the score for odour after 3 weeks of storage between Fruitone-treated pineapples and control pineapples, while all other sensory attributes (sourness, sweetness, flavour and overall acceptability) were insignificantly different. All sensory attributes correlated positively with pH and sucrose at low concentrations of Fruitone (0,8.8 ppm and 0,26.4 ppm, respectively); with glucose at intermediate Fruitone concentration (17.6,26.4 ppm); with total soluble solid at higher Fruitone concentrations (35.2,44 ppm); and with sugar,acid ratio at all concentrations (except at 44 ppm Fruitone). Copyright © 2006 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


    Effect of Plant Factors, Sugar Contents, and Control Methods on the Top Borer (Scirpophaga nivella F.) Infestation in Selected Varieties of Sugarcane

    ENTOMOLOGICAL RESEARCH, Issue 3 2005
    Abdul KHALIQ
    ABSTRACT Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) varieties CP-43/33 and L-118 susceptible, BF-162 and SPSG-26 resistant while CP-72/2086 as intermediate were screened for studies on top borer, Scirpophaga nivella Fabricus (Pyralidae: Lepidoptera). Morpho-physio chemical plant factors as well as quality of sugar were examined to elucidate the relationship between pest infestations. The observations on leaf thickness 0.735* and moisture contents 0.771* showed positive and significant correlation with the pest infestation at tillering stage. Total minerals, manganese and copper contents did not show significant correlation with the pest infestation, whereas nitrogen, potassium, calcium, magnesium and ferrous contents manifested positive and significant correlation with the pest infestation. Phosphorous, carbohydrates, fats and zinc produced significant and adverse effect on the pest infestation at tillering stage. Zinc contents with contrasting behaviors appeared to be the most important character with co-efficient value of 0.764 followed by ferrous with positive sign. The effect of borer infestation was significantly negative on pol (sucrose), Brix contents (total soluble solids), and CCS (commercial cane sugar). The coefficient of determination value was 0.821, obtained by computing fiber content, pol, Brix and CCS factors together for multivariate regression models. Application of trash mulching at the time of sowing proved to be the most effective treatment with minimum infestation (3.91%) of borer and maximum protection level (62.87%) followed by Furadan®, removal of dead hearts + spike thrust, hand collection of egg masses, and cutting of shoots at 15 days interval. [source]


    Consumer acceptance and physicochemical quality of osmodehydrated carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) slices

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CONSUMER STUDIES, Issue 1 2006
    Lauren K. Maharaj
    Abstract Consumer acceptability and physicochemical properties of candied osmodehydrated (OD) carambola were evaluated in an effort to increase consumption of the fruit. Fresh carambola slices (Averrhoa carambola L.) were soaked in either 15% or 20% or 25% NaCl brine for 18 h, then in 40 °Brix sucrose for 18 h, followed by 60 °Brix sucrose for 18 h and dried at 55°C for 18 h. Slices soaked in 15% NaCl were most preferred by a focus group. Decreases in pH, total soluble solids (TSS) and increase in salinity were recorded in sucrose solutions after soaking carambola. During osmosis, carambola became less green and more orange-yellow (P < 0.05). The pH of candied OD products varied between 3.62 and 4.16, salinity 16,28 ppt, TSS of 67,70 °Brix and 18.8,20.8% moisture. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in flavour or texture for products brined in 15% NaCl and soaked in either refined white sucrose (RS) solutions or brown unrefined sucrose (URS) syrups, but differences (P < 0.05) in appearance, colour and overall acceptability. Candied RS carambola had higher (P < 0.05) overall acceptability (6.2 , liked slightly to moderately) to products from URS (5.6 , neither liked nor disliked to liked slightly), which was also supported by paired preference testing. Flavour was most liked (P < 0.05) of all sensory attributes. [source]


    Determination of biochemical properties of foam-mat dried mango powder

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 8 2010
    Dattatreya M. Kadam
    Summary Investigations were carried out to see the impact of drying air temperature (65, 75 and 85 °C) and milk as foaming agent in different concentration levels (0%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%) on the chemical properties of foam-mat dried mango juice powder. Chemical properties such as total sugars, ascorbic acid, total carotenes, minerals, total acid, pH, total soluble solids (TSS) and microbial load (fungal and bacterial) of foam-mat dried mango powder were determined. Data were analysed as per two-way anova, Duncan's multiple range test and l.s.d. of AgRes Software statistical package. Almost all chemical properties show decreasing trend with increase in drying air temperature. Microbial load was not detected in foam-mat dried mango powder. It was found that addition of 10% milk as foaming agent and drying at 65 °C temperature gave better results. [source]


    Distribution of degradative enzymatic activities in the mesocarp of two melon groups

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 5 2010
    Marco Chisari
    Summary The differences in polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, pectin methylesterase and polygalacturonase activities as well as the main physical and chemical attributes of nine different slice portions (from the inner to the outer end and from the blossom to the stem end) of two groups of melon (Cucumis melo var. cantalupensis,Galia' cv. and inodorus,Piel de sapo' cv.) at commercial maturity were studied. Moving from the inner to the outer end of the pulp, physico-chemical properties, such as pH, total soluble solids and phenolics increased whereas titratable acidity, firmness and Chroma decreased in both types, reflecting different degrees of maturity within the same fruit. As for physico-chemical attributes, the enzymatic activities responsible for browning and softening phenomena showed an increasing trend moving from the inner to the outer end of mesocarp in both cv., except for polygalacturonase in cantalupensis type. [source]


    The optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of decursin from Angelica gigas Nakai root

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 7 2006
    Gee-Dong Lee
    Summary Response surface methodology was used to display the characteristics of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of soluble solids and decursin from Angelica gigas Nakai root, thereby allowing MAE conditions to be optimized. These included ethanol concentration, microwave power and extraction time. The maximal solid yield was predicted to be 44.2% under conditions of 44.9% ethanol concentration, 115.6 W microwave power and 5.8 min extraction time. Decursin content of the extract was estimated to be maximal at 2.52% using 97.7% ethanol, 90.2 W microwave power, and 6.1 min extraction time. The estimated optimal MAE conditions (67% ethanol, 100 W and 6 min) to maximize both components were verified by comparing estimated values with experimental values (42.2% soluble solids, 2.2% decursin), which were higher than those (35.8% solids, 2.0% decursin) obtained by conventional reflux extraction (60% ethanol, 95 °C and 6 h). [source]


    The effects of 1-methylcyclopropene on peach fruit (Prunus persica L. cv. Jiubao) ripening and disease resistance

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 1 2005
    Hongxia Liu
    Summary In order to learn how 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) affects ripening and disease-resistance of peach fruit (Prunus persica L. cv. Jiubao) after harvest, they were treated with 1-MCP and some were inoculated with Penicillium expansum. Treating peach fruit with 0.2 ,L L,1 of 1-MCP at 22 °C for 24 h effectively slowed the decline in fruit firmness. The minimal concentration of 1-MCP able to inhibit fruit softening was 0.6 ,L L,1. Changes in other parameters related to peach ripening, such as content of soluble solids, total soluble sugar, titratable acidity, soluble pectin and ethylene production were also significantly reduced or delayed by 1-MCP. Repeated treatment of peach with 1-MCP resulted in more effective inhibition of ripening. Post-harvest decay of peach fruit was reduced by treatment with 1-MCP and disease progress in fruit inoculated with P. expansum was reduced. The activities of phenylalanine ammonialyase, polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase in the inoculated fruit were also enhanced by 1-MCP. [source]


    The quality of orange juice processed by coupling crossflow microfiltration and osmotic evaporation

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 1 2005
    Mady Cisse
    Summary Crossflow microfiltration (CFM) and osmotic evaporation (OE) were implemented on a semi-industrial pilot scale to obtain clarified orange juice concentrates at 450 and 620 g kg,1 of total soluble solids. The characteristics of the juice were then assessed and compared with fresh juice and commercial concentrates. With CFM, most aroma compounds and vitamin C remained in the permeate while the more apolar compounds such as terpenic hydrocarbons and carotenoids were strongly retained by the membrane. With OE, significant losses of vitamin C and aroma compounds occurred at first, with losses progressively decreasing during treatment. Pre-conditioning the membrane and cold regeneration of the brine reduced losses drastically, with the aroma composition tending towards that of the initial juice. The quality of pulp, a blend of the CFM retentate and OE concentrate, was high and much closer to that of the initial fresh juice than to the commercial thermal concentrate. [source]


    Effects of heat treatment on the quality of fresh-cut Chinese water chestnut

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 2 2004
    Litao Peng
    Summary A heat treatment to inhibit browning and maintain the quality of fresh-cut Chinese water chestnut was developed. Slices of Chinese water chestnut, cv. Guilin, were immersed in boiling water for 30 s, placed into film-wrapped trays and then stored at 4 °C for up to 12 days. Changes in browning, eating quality and disease incidence were measured. The effect of heat treatment on the content of total phenolics and activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) was also evaluated. The heat treatment effectively prevented browning associated with PAL, PPO and POD activities and total phenolic content and delayed the decrease in eating quality, which is associated with reduced total soluble solids, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid, compared with fresh-cut Chinese water chestnut. Inhibition of browning by heat treatment without microbial growth was achieved for 12 days of storage at 4 °C. These results showed that heat treatment effectively maintained the quality of fresh-cut Chinese water chestnut. [source]


    Clarification of date juice

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 3 2003
    Mohamed A. Al-Farsi
    Summary This study was initiated to utilize a variety of low quality dates (Qish-Habash) so that high quality syrup could be produced by modifying the clarification process of the date juice. Five different clarification treatments were used: (1) filtration, (2) hot liming and filtration, (3) cold liming and filtration, (4) powder-activated carbon and filtration, and (5) granular-activated carbon and filtration. The sugar content, total soluble solids, total ash, pH, colour and purity were analysed to determine the clarification effects. The clarified juices produced by these treatments were evaporated under constant conditions to produce date syrup. Filtration, and activated carbon and filtration were the most successful treatments for the clarification of the date juice. Filtration gave the highest improvement in syrup purity (97.7%), due to the reduction of total ash by 19.5% and colour by 44.6%. Activated carbon removed the juice colour to give the lowest amount (60% in powder form and 57% in granular form), as well as reducing total ash, which led to an improved syrup purity, 92.2% in powder form and 91.4% in granular form. Liming clarification had undesirable effects, by increasing the total ash (15% in hot and 17% in cold lime), and increasing the colouring matter produced by decomposition. [source]


    WATER ABSORPTION, LEACHING and COLOR CHANGES DURING the SOAKING FOR PRODUCTION of SOY-BULGUR

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESS ENGINEERING, Issue 2 2004
    MUSTAFA BAYRAM
    ABSTRACT In this study, the soaking process, which is the first step of soy-bulgur production to develop a new type food product, was investigated. the soaking operation was conducted at 30, 50 and 70C for 120 min and samples were taken from the soybean and soaking water at 10 min intervals. Moisture content and color (L, a, b and YI values) of soybean were measured, as well as soluble solids content and color (L, a, b and YI values) of soaking water during the soaking process. the results were analyzed by using ANOVA and Duncan test. Soaking time and temperature were significantly effective (P < 0.05) on all variables, except the time effect on the YI-value. During the soaking, moisture content, lightness (L) and yellowness (b) increased and, redness (a) and yellowness index (YI) of soybean decreased. Soluble solids content, yellowness and yellowness index increased in contrast to a decrease in the lightness and greenness of the soaking water. As a result, soluble solids content in the soaking water increased, which illustrated the leaching of soluble solids from soybean to water. Color of soybean turned to lights, in contrast to darkening and opaqueness of water during soaking. Results showed that the moisture content, soluble solid content, L, a, b and YI values can be successfully modeled using polynomial equations, which can be used to estimate their changes during the soaking operation. [source]


    THE INFLUENCE of FIELD STRENGTH, SUGAR and SOLID CONTENT ON ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY of STRAWBERRY PRODUCTS

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESS ENGINEERING, Issue 1 2003
    I. CASTRO
    ABSTRACT The effects of field strength, soluble solids (from 14 to 59.5 °Brix) and particle size (using two size distributions) on electrical conductivity were investigated. Electrical conductivity increased with temperature for all the products and conditions tested following linear or quadratic relations. Electrical conductivity was found to vary greatly between strawberry-based products. an increase of electrical conductivity with field strength was obvious for fresh strawberries and strawberry jelly but not for strawberry pulp, probably due to the presence of texturizing agents. This parameter decreases with the increase of solids and sugar content. For some of the formulations tested (solid content over 20% w/w and over 40 °Brix) a different design of ohmic heater may be necessary because of the low values of electrical conductivity. [source]


    REUSE OF SUCROSE SYRUP IN PILOT-SCALE OSMOTIC DEHYDRATION OF APPLE CUBES

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESS ENGINEERING, Issue 2 2002
    A. VALDEZ-FRAGOSO
    ABSTRACT Osmotic dehydration (OD) treatments of apple cubes were carried out in a pilot plant, which consisted of an OD vessel, a filter, a vacuum evaporator, and recirculating pumps. The osmotic solution (OS) was maintained at 59.5 ± 1.5 °Brix and 50C by reconcentration in the evaporator, and suspended particles were eliminated by filtration. OS was reused to process 20 batches of apple cubes, maintaining a constant OS/fruit ratio of 5/1 (w/w) by addition of new OS. Evolution of pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids, water activity, color, reducing sugars, and microbial load in the OS was evaluated along the OD process. The OD parameters and the apple color were determined. Values of the physicochemical properties of the OS stabilized after 10 treated batches. A microbial load of 2590 ± 330 CFU/mL was observed in the OS at the end of 20 OD treatments. Water loss, solids gain and color of dehydrated apple cubesobtained in OD process with reuse of the OS were similar to those found in an OD process carried out with a nonrewed OS. [source]


    EXTENDING SHELF LIFE OF FRESH-CUT PERSIMMON BY HONEY SOLUTION DIPS

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION, Issue 1 2010
    MUHARREM ERGUN
    ABSTRACT Ripe persimmon fruit (Diospyros kaki L) cv. "Hachiya" were diced, then treated with 10,20% w/v diluted honey solution or water as the control, followed by cold storage at 4C until loss of acceptable quality. The persimmon cubes were subject to assessments during the storage of organoleptic and visual quality, softness and exuding juice, soluble solids content (SSC), and absorbance at 436, 440, 675 and 760 nm, respectively. Honey treatments prevented off-aroma development and delayed jelling. Softness and exuding juice of the fresh-cut persimmon cubes increased with time, with the increase in both parameters being significantly suppressed by honey solution dips. Changes in SSC, pH and the absorbance at 436, 440, 675 and 760 nm, respectively, during storage were minor and there was little effect of the honey treatments on these parameters. Overall, the shelf life of fresh-cut persimmon cubes was extended by honey solution dips, which delayed off-aroma development, firmness loss and jelling. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS New products and changing trends make today's food marketplace alive, and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables seem to be on top of list of these products. Although fresh-cut produce has been on the market for a long time, preserving their quality attributes has not been completely successful especially in the case of fruit. This study focuses on a new alternative fresh-cut produce, fresh-cut persimmon, with adapting a potentially safe organic method, use of honey dips. The present study demonstrated that honey solution dip treatments could preserve the fresh-like quality of typical flavor or aroma of persimmon fruit by causing no changes in aroma and taste attributes and extending shelf life. Therefore, honey dip treatment may be used, depending on commodity, to preserve and extend shelf life of fresh-cut produce in fresh-cut processing industry. [source]


    STORAGE QUALITY OF PASTEURIZED AND UV TREATED APPLE CIDER

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION, Issue 1 2003
    KAWALJIT TANDON
    Two studies were conducted to assess the effect of hot-fill pasteurization at 63C and UV irradiation at 14 mJ/cm2 on the quality and shelf-life of apple cider packaged under controlled conditions with minimal packaging contamination, and under pilot plant conditions resembling commercial operations. The processed cider was stored at 7C for up to 14 weeks in the first study and 4 weeks in the second. Microbiological, chemical and sensory tests were conducted weekly on cider samples. There were no significant differences among the fresh processed ciders with regard to taste and preference. All treatments achieved a reasonable reduction in microbial counts, although hot-fill pasteurization provided longer shelf-life. There were significant changes in pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids and turbidity of samples during storage. Hot-fill at 63C is a comparable alternative to flash pasteurization at 71C for 6 s for the production of safe quality cider at small cider mills. [source]


    OPTIMIZATION OF GUAVA JUICE AND POWDER PRODUCTION

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION, Issue 6 2001
    CHETAN A. CHOPDA
    Enzyme treatment of guava puree was optimized for yield and clarity by first determining the most effective concentration, then varying both incubation time and temperature. Application of Pectinex Ultra SP-L® was optimal using 700 ppm enzyme for 1.5 h at 50C. Clarified guava juice was clearer (89.6%) when prepared using ultrafiltration (MW cut-off 40,60 kDa) rather than plate and frame filtration (82.8%); however, the latter was higher in both soluble solids and ascorbic acid. Clarified guava juice powders were made using freeze-drying, spray drying and tunnel drying. The freeze-dried product had superior quality; however, the spray-dried product was stable and may be more economical. Sensory panelists ranked the cloudy juice prepared from aseptic guava puree highest, and there were no significant differences between the juices from pasteurized, clear nectar, freeze-dried puree powder or juice powder. [source]


    EFFECTS of CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE ON QUALITY of MINIMALLY PROCESSED APPLE (cv. JONAGORED)

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION, Issue 6 2000
    ADA MARGARIDA CORREIA NUNES ROCHA
    Controlled atmosphere (2% O2+ 4% to 12% CO2) storage was found to be advantageous over air storage in terms of overall preservation of fresh-cut apple (cv. Jonagored). After 3 days, CA-stored apple cubes were firmer, showed better color and higher content of fructose and soluble solids content than air-stored cubes. In relation to color preservation this benefit was increased when CO2 in the atmosphere was increased to 12% CO2. Controlled atmosphere storage showed no advantage over air storage in relation to sensory evaluation of firmness and flavor. [source]


    EFFECT OF STORAGE TEMPERATURE AND TIME ON QUALITY IN MINIMALLY PROCESSED LITCHI FRUIT (LITCHI CHINENSIS SONN.)

    JOURNAL OF FOOD QUALITY, Issue 3 2010
    ELIA NORA AQUINO BOLAÑOS
    ABSTRACT Rind browning is the most serious marketing problem for litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit, although it has no effect on the quality of the edible aril portion. Physicochemical, biochemical and subjective quality evaluations were done in minimally processed (peeled and vacuum-packed) litchi cv. Racimo Rojo fruit stored 18 days at 2, 5 or 10C. Little change was observed in total soluble solids, titratable acidity and pH, independent of storage temperature. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity decreased, total phenolic compound content remained unchanged and peroxidase (POD) activity increased during storage. Correlation was low (<0.63) between color parameters (L*, a*and b*) and PPO and POD activities, and phenolic compounds. The minimally processed fruit stored at 2C exhibited characteristics similar to fresh fruit, whereas those stored at 5 and 10C emitted disagreeable odors that lowered their subjective quality. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS The insignificant physicochemical changes observed here suggest that when stored at 2C, litchi fruit can be offered as a minimally processed product with characteristics similar to fresh fruit. Unlike most other minimally processed fruit products and other litchi varieties, pulp browning was not a significant problem in litchi cv. Racimo Rojo after peeling, providing it a potential commercial advantage. [source]


    EFFECT OF 1-METHYLCYCLOPROPENE ON NUTRITIONAL QUALITY AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF TOMATO FRUIT (SOLANUM LYCOPERSICON L.) DURING STORAGE

    JOURNAL OF FOOD QUALITY, Issue 2 2010
    MENG WANG
    ABSTRACT The effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on postharvest quality and nutritional compounds in tomato (Solanum lycopersicon Mill.) fruit during storage was determined. The green mature tomato was exposed to 1 µL/L 1-MCP for 24 h. Thereafter, the fruit were stored at 20C and 85,95% relative humidity for 20 days. The results indicated that 1-MCP treatment significantly delayed the decrease of firmness, total soluble solids, and titratable acidity, inhibited the increase of weight loss, and suppressed the rise in respiration rate and ethylene production. Moreover, 1-MCP treatment also inhibited the lycopene accumulation and chlorophyll degradation. Ascorbic acid and soluble phenolic contents in 1-MCP-treated fruit were significantly higher than those in the control fruit. 1-MCP treatment enhanced the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. These results suggested that 1-MCP can be used as a commercial technology due to its ability to improve nutritional value of tomato fruit as well as to delay fruit ripening. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Tomato fruit are often harvested at mature green stage to minimize damage during transport to market, and then allowed to ripen before or during presentation in retail outlets. A limitation to marketing of tomato fruit is the time that ripe fruit remain in an acceptable condition for consumers. 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) can extend the storage life and improve postharvest quality of tomato fruit. Recently, nutritional quality is of increasing interest to the consumers because of their potential health benefits in protecting against various diseases. However, the effects of 1-MCP on nutritional compounds and antioxidant activity of tomato fruit are still unclear and need to be more precisely determined. This study can provide information on the effect of 1-MCP treatment on postharvest quality and nutritional compounds in tomato fruit during storage. The results could be applicable to improve the quality and nutritional value of tomato fruit for commercial purpose. [source]


    COMPARISON OF VOLATILE COMPOUNDS AND CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES IN ORANGE JUICE FROM DIFFERENT PARTS OF JINCHEN FRUIT

    JOURNAL OF FOOD QUALITY, Issue 2 2010
    YU QIAO
    ABSTRACT Jinchen is a native sweet cultivar of Citrus sinensis and one of the most important varieties used in orange juice processing in China. The study of flavor components of Jinchen orange juice has not been carried out before. In this paper, the color characteristics, pH value, total soluble solids, total acids, as well as organic acids and sugars were determined in Jinchen orange juice from different parts of fruit (peeled juice, pulp juice, whole fruit juice). The color characteristics were significantly different among three types of Jinchen orange juice. The level of vitamin C and total soluble solids/total acids ratio (TSS/TA) is higher in whole fruit juice. The organic acids and sugars also changed. Pulp juice is rich in the highest amounts of organic acids and sugars. Volatiles from three juices were studied using the solid phase microextraction (SPME) combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The whole fruit juice has the highest amount of volatile compounds (53.07 mg/L) followed by peeled juice (51.044 mg/L) and pulp juice (27.107 mg/L). Some differences in the constituents of the volatile compounds of three type juices were observed. These results indicated that volatile compounds and quality properties differed in Jinchen orange juice from different parts of fruit. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS The peeled orange fruits are usually used for juice processing. Great amounts of aroma components with intensive odor are located in the peel of orange. The aroma of pulp possessing weak fresh citrus odor is different from peel. The different parts of the orange utilized in processing have direct impact on juice quality. It is very essential to obtain the data of chemical and physical properties in juice from different parts of orange fruit. The quality information could be used to modify the orange aroma. [source]


    EFFECT OF METHOD OF PRESERVATION OF PULP ON THE QUALITY OF CARBONATED AND NONCARBONATED BEVERAGES PREPARED FROM PEACH FRUIT

    JOURNAL OF FOOD QUALITY, Issue 6 2009
    SHEETU ARORA
    ABSTRACT Peach pulp preserved by different methods, i.e., processing at 100C for 30 min, potassium metabisulphite (KMS; 2,000 ppm), sodium benzoate (750 ppm) and mixture of KMS and sodium benzoate (1,000 and 375 ppm) had no significant effect on total soluble solids (TSS), acidity, TSS : acid ratio, pH of carbonated as well as noncarbonated beverages. Carbonated beverages prepared from pulp with 750 ppm of sodium benzoate retained significantly (P , 0.05) higher carbon dioxide (CO2) content and CO2 gas : volume during storage. Color of the beverages prepared from peach pulp containing KMS was better but the beverages prepared from peach pulp preserved by processing and addition of sodium benzoate were organoleptically more acceptable. Both carbonated and noncarbonated drinks remained organoleptically acceptable throughout storage. Suspension of carbonated beverages was significantly (P , 0.05) higher during storage as compared with noncarbonated beverages. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Peaches are valued as a table fruit for a short period of time from end of April to end of May. The acceptability and utilization of this fruit can be increased by processing it into delicious carbonated and noncarbonated beverages. This will provide nutritious drink to the consumers and also help in increasing the fruit cultivation resulting in good returns to the growers. This study will also help to give a fillip to the establishment of a peach beverage industry world wide. [source]


    EFFECT OF OXYGEN CONCENTRATION ON THE BIOCHEMICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES OF STORED LONGAN FRUIT

    JOURNAL OF FOOD QUALITY, Issue 1 2009
    G. CHENG
    ABSTRACT Longan fruits were stored for 6 days in atmosphere of 5, 21 (air) or 60% O2 (balance N2) at 28C and 90,95% relative humidity to examine effects of low and high O2 concentration on enzymatic browning and quality attributes of the fruit. Changes in pericarp browning, pulp breakdown, disease development, total phenol content, activities of phenol metabolism-associated enzymes, relative leakage rate, ,,, -diphenyl- , -picrylhydrazy (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, and contents of total soluble solids, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid were evaluated. Storage of fruit in a 5% O2 atmosphere markedly delayed pericarp browning in association with maintenance of high total phenolic content and reduced activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase. Moreover, the fruit stored in a 5% O2 atmosphere exhibited a lower relative leakage rate and higher DPPH radical scavenging activity than fruit stored in air. This presumably was beneficial in maintaining compartmentation of enzymes and substrates, and thus, reducing pericarp browning. Pulp breakdown and disease development were also reduced by exposure to a 5% oxygenatmosphere. On the contrary, exposure of longan fruit to a 60% O2 atmosphere accelerated pericarp browning, pulp breakdown and decay development. PPO and POD activities and relative leakage rate were similar for control and 60% O2 -treated fruit after 4 and 6 days of storage. Furthermore, treatment with 60% O2 significantly decreased the phenolic content and DPPH scavenging activity of fruit. In addition, exposure to 5 or 60% O2 resulted in a higher level of total soluble solids, but a lower level of ascorbic acid of longan fruit flesh. In conclusion, exposure to a 5% O2 atmosphere showed great potential to reduce pericarp browning and extend shelf life of longan fruit. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Pericarp browning and pulp breakdown are the major causes of deterioration in postharvest longan. Conventional controlled atmosphere with low O2 and high CO2 is effective in maintaining quality and extending shelf life of fruits and vegetables, including inhibition of tissue browning. In this study, 5%-controlled atmosphere reduced significantly pericarp browning, pulp breakdown and rot development. It could potentially be useful as a postharvest technology of longan fruit for reducing or replacing the use of chemicals such as SO2 and fungicides, but it requires further investigation. [source]