Social Cohesion (social + cohesion)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences


Selected Abstracts


New Tech, New Ties: How Mobile Communication is Reshaping Social Cohesion by Richard Seyler Ling

MUSEUM ANTHROPOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
HEATHER A. HORST
[source]


DIRECTLY INTERVENE OR CALL THE AUTHORITIES?

CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
A STUDY OF FORMS OF NEIGHBORHOOD SOCIAL CONTROL WITHIN A SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION FRAMEWORK
Informal social control is a central concept in the contemporary social disorganization literature, and much attention has been directed at examining community characteristics related to variation in the quantity of informal social control across communities. However, considerably less attention has been paid to variation in forms of informal social control. This study examines the extent to which neighborhood characteristics are related to residents'likelihood of using two different forms of informal social control: direct informal social control (i.e., through direct intervention) and indirect informal social control (i.e., through mobilizing formal authorities). Data for this study are based on surveys of residents in 66 neighborhoods. The analysis uses hierarchical modeling to examine whether neighborhood characteristics central to contemporary social disorganization theory have similar effects on these two forms of neighborhood social control. Findings indicate that social ties increase the likelihood of direct informal social control but not indirect informal social control, whereas social cohesion and trust decreases indirect informal social control but does not have a significant effect on direct informal social control. Faith in the police is not found to affect either form of informal social control. These findings are discussed in terms of current issues in contemporary social disorganization theory. [source]


Social Protection: Defining the Field of Action and Policy

DEVELOPMENT POLICY REVIEW, Issue 5 2002
Andy Norton
This article reviews recent developments in the concept of social protection, beginning with an attempt to establish a working definition of the term. This is set in the context of globalisation and new thinking on connections between the management of vulnerability, risk and poverty on the one hand and long,term economic and social development on the other. The article identifies aspects of the debate which require further development, by exploring the relationship between social protection, equality, social cohesion and rights. It also reviews contemporary definitions of social protection in the policies of donors and international organisations, and summarises lessons to be learnt from experience to date with civil society practices and state policies in the developing world. [source]


Ritual dynamics in humanitarian assistance

DISASTERS, Issue 2010
Paul Richards
Those who intervene in crises must take care to ensure that assistance does not undermine the processes through which social cohesion is generated or restored. From a neo-Durkheimian analytical perspective, feeding creates social loyalties as well as saves lives. Humanitarian agencies provide practical assistance to livelihoods, but they need also to create space for the ritual agency on which social cohesion depends. Attention to the rituals of food distribution helps humanitarian actors to address a potentially damaging dissociation between social and material facts. A post-war food security project in Sierra Leone is used to illustrate the point. The lessons of this intervention have implications for the organisation of humanitarian assistance at all levels, both international and local. The paper argues that establishing space for ritualisation within humanitarian programmes is an obligation for those who wish to do no harm. [source]


Immediate and Delayed Benefits of Play Behaviour: New Evidence from Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

ETHOLOGY, Issue 12 2004
E. Palagi
Evidence for the anticipation of competition at feeding time has been previously documented in both Pan species. Chimpanzees seem to cope with competitive tendency through behavioural mechanisms of tension reduction, and grooming is certainly one of these. Social play and grooming are often matched because they bring animals into close physical contact for long periods, and they have an important role in social cohesion. Our goal was to investigate the occurrence of play behaviour during the pre-feeding period, before a basic maintenance activity is about to take place, in the chimpanzee colony housed in the ZooParc de Beauval (St Aignan sur Cher, France). The group was composed of 10 adults and nine immature individuals. By scan animal sampling (344 h of observation), we recorded play and grooming interactions in all age-class combinations during four different periods (pre-feeding, feeding, post-feeding, control). We found peak levels of grooming interactions among adults during the pre-feeding time. A peak frequency at the pre-feeding time was also found in social play between adults and unrelated immature subjects. This finding suggests that during high tension periods, grooming and play might share similar functions in conflict management. Like grooming, play might have an important role to limit aggression and increase tolerance around food (immediate benefits). Immature animals showed a higher frequency of play in the pre-feeding than in any other condition (feeding, post-feeding, and control). During high excitement periods social play probably represents a safe mechanism for immature subjects to test their personal abilities (self-assessment), the strength/weakness of playmates, and the degree of cooperation/competition with them (social-assessment). In the light of this new evidence, we can assert that play behaviour is far from being a purposeless activity, at least in the chimpanzee colony under study. [source]


What are the Future Prospects for the European Social Model?

EUROPEAN LAW JOURNAL, Issue 3 2010
An Analysis of EU Equal Opportunities, Employment Policy
The aim of our article is to examine the future prospects of the European Social Model (ESM). First, the article defines the ESM as a mixture of hard law, soft law and underlying norms and values. Second, the article analyses the ESM on a more detailed level in the case of the law of equal opportunities and employment through a historical account and the legal dynamics of integration. The results of the analysis indicate a growing integration capacity of the ESM. Yet, this runs counter to the current neoliberal preferences of the Barroso Commission which has moved from a strategy of combining economic growth and social cohesion, to one in which economic growth creates social cohesion. [source]


A European Constitution in a Multinational Europe or a Multinational Constitution for Europe?

EUROPEAN LAW JOURNAL, Issue 3 2006
Vito Breda
How can we transcend our divisions without marginalising those who believe in them? This article critically analyses the theoretical bases of the Treaty Establishing a Constitution for Europe and tries to explain why its ratification is so problematic. Authors such as Habermas have argued that a new European model of social cohesion is needed, and Habermas suggests that the sense of ,community' in a democratic Europe should be founded exclusively on the acceptance of a patriotic constitution. However, this view is criticised by authors such as Weiler and MacCormick. In this article, I explain the limits of these theoretical analyses. I will argue that a European constitutional project can be more than formally legal only if two normative conditions are satisfied: it is the result of public debate and the European Constitution includes the procedures for the recognition of European national diversity. I suggest that a theory of constitutional multinationalism, similar to the one proposed by Tully, might provide an attractive model for a European social integration. The article is divided in two parts. In the first, I explain why Habermas' constitutional patriotism or MacCormick's states based Europe cannot provide a convincing theoretical model for a socially and constitutionally integrated Europe. In the second part, I will give an outline of Tully's idea of multinational democracy as a model for a European constitutional integration. [source]


,Land Moves and Behaves': Indigenous Discourse on Sustainable Land Management in Pichataro, Patzcuaro Basin, Mexico

GEOGRAFISKA ANNALER SERIES A: PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY, Issue 3-4 2003
Narciso Barrera-Bassols
ABSTRACT An ethnoecological study was carried out in the Purhepecha community of San Francisco Pichataro, west central Mexico, with the purpose of investigating how land degradation, in terms of soil erosion and fertility depletion, was (and still is) handled by indigenous farmers so that traditional agriculture could remain sustainable over centuries. After briefly reviewing opposite views on the land degradation issue in the regional context of the Patzcuaro lake basin, the paper focuses on land management at local level. The indigenous concept of land is discussed as an integrated whole, including water cycle, climate, relief and soils. Indigenous people venerate land as the mother of all living beings, including humans. Therefore, people's health and survival require good land care and management. Local knowledge on land management is organized around four basic principles: land position, land behaviour, land resilience and land quality. Fanners recognize land as a dynamic subject, a concept reflected in the expression ,land moves and behaves'. Soil erosion and fertility depletion are perceived as ,normal' processes the farmers control by means of integrated management practices. Farmers recognize several land classes, primarily controlled by landscape position, which require different land care. The example of San Francisco Pichataro demonstrates that traditional agriculture does not necessarily lead to land degradation. But the collective knowledge, or social theory, on land management is increasingly exposed to be fragmented as the community undergoes structural changes and loses its social cohesion under the pressure of externalities such as off-farm activities, out-migrations and governmental intervention, among others. [source]


The Tudor polity and the pilgrimage of grace

HISTORICAL RESEARCH, Issue 207 2007
M. L. Bush
A striking feature of the pilgrimage of grace was its concern for lost or threatened rights and liberties. This article considers the light that this throws on the revolt itself and on early Tudor attitudes towards state and society. It examines the nature of the pilgrims' constitutional concerns and their relationship with the law, the manorial system, the society of orders and the concept of the body politic. It questions the view that the constitution was not in contention at this time by analyzing the concept of tyranny that the pilgrims used. It also suggests that society's general acceptance of the manor and the society of orders did not necessarily result in social cohesion and harmony because commons and gentlemen were inclined to place conflicting interpretations upon the differential rights and obligations that they warranted. It finally proposes that, in spite of being sanctioned by reference to tradition, the rights claimed were far from static but could undergo revision and renovation. [source]


Enlargement and the labour market: perception, theory and fact

INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS JOURNAL, Issue 6 2004
Mike Ingham
ABSTRACT Favourable labour market outcomes are essential for economic and social cohesion within the newly enlarged European Union. However, Eurobarometer evidence indicates that many in the 10 incoming countries are not convinced that membership will deliver such a result. Also, there is no unambiguous theoretical framework that suggests otherwise. A more optimistic scenario can be obtained by reference to the experiences of earlier low-income Community entrants during their first years of membership, although long-term convergence has remained elusive. [source]


Conflict and identity shape shifting in an online financial community

INFORMATION SYSTEMS JOURNAL, Issue 5 2009
John Campbell
Abstract., This paper challenges traditional explorations of online communities that have relied upon assumptions of trust and social cohesion. In the analysis presented here, conflict becomes more than just dysfunctional communication and provides an alternative set of unifying principles and rationales for understanding social interaction and identity shape shifting within an online community. A model is advanced that describes the systematic techniques of hostility and aggression in technologically enabled communities that take the form of contemporary tribalism. It is argued that this tribe-like conflict embodies important rituals essential for maintaining and defining the contradictory social roles sometimes found in online environments. This research offers a critical interpretive perspective that focuses on the link between identity shape shifting behaviours and the power relations within an online financial community. The analysis reveals how conflict between positions of power can help to align the values and ideals of an online community. With this study we seek to motivate a re-examination of the design and governance of online communities. [source]


Do Enlargements Make the European Union Less Cohesive?

JCMS: JOURNAL OF COMMON MARKET STUDIES, Issue 2 2007
An Analysis of Trust between EU Nationalities
This article analyses the impact enlargements have had on the social cohesion of the European Union (EU), measured as generalized interpersonal trust between EU nationalities. Based on a quantitative-dyadic approach, Eurobarometer surveys from 1976 to 1997 are utilized. The key result is that enlargements do not necessarily weaken cohesion, but southern enlargement and the recent eastern enlargement did. The integrative effect of enlargement depends on the extent to which acceding nations differ from existing club members in three main dimensions: the level of modernization (mechanisms: prestige), cultural characteristics (mechanisms: similarity) and their power in the international system (mechanisms: perceived threat). [source]


Religious Attendance and Happiness: Examining Gaps in the Current Literature,A Research Note

JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF RELIGION, Issue 3 2010
Ellen Childs
Two major gaps exist in research examining the positive association between religious attendance and happiness. First, scholars have argued that this association may be because of people's perceived relationship with God or the social cohesion one experiences with other parishioners, but scholars have not studied both pathways simultaneously. Using nationally representative cross-sectional data (General Social Survey), I first examine the influence of one's perceived relationship with God and one's perceived social cohesion within the religious community on happiness. One's perceived relationship with God is more strongly associated with happiness than is social cohesion. Second, scholars overwhelmingly use religious attendance as the independent variable, with happiness as the dependent variable. Using two waves of data from a nationally representative panel study (National Survey of Families and Households), I then examine the relationship between religious attendance and happiness over time, finding that religious attendance has a greater effect on happiness than happiness has on religious attendance. [source]


Entrepreneurial nurses and midwives in the United Kingdom: an integrative review

JOURNAL OF ADVANCED NURSING, Issue 5 2007
Vari Drennan
Abstract Title.,Entrepreneurial nurses and midwives in the United Kingdom: an integrative review Aim., This paper is a report of an integrative literature review to investigate: (a) the extent of entrepreneurial activity by nurses, midwives and health visitors in the United Kingdom and (b) the factors that influenced these activities. Background., Internationally, social and commercial entrepreneurial activity is regarded as important for economic growth and social cohesion. Methods., Seventeen bibliographic databases were searched using single and combined search terms: ,entrepreneur$', ,business', ,private practice', ,self-employ$', ,intrapreneur$',social enterprise$',mutuals', ,collectives', ,co-op' and ,social capital' which were related to a second layer of terms ,Nurs$', ,Midwi$', ,Visit$'. ,Entrepreneur$' Private Midwi$, Independent Midwi$, and ,nursing workforce'. In addition, hand searches of non-indexed journals and grey literature searches were completed. The following inclusion criteria were: (a) describing nurses, midwife and/or health visitor entrepreneurship (b) undertaken in the UK, and (c) reported between January 1996 and December 2005. Results., Of 154 items included only three were empirical studies; the remainder were narrative accounts. While quality of these accounts cannot be verified, they provide as complete an account as possible in this under-researched area. The numbers of nurses, midwives and health visitors acting entrepreneurially were very small and mirror international evidence. A categorization of entrepreneurial activity was inductively constructed by employment status and product offered. ,Push' and ,pull' influencing factors varied between types of entrepreneurial activity. Conclusion., Empirical investigation into the extent to which nurses and midwives respond to calls for greater entrepreneurialism should take account of the complex interplay of contextual factors (e.g. healthcare legislation), professional and managerial experience and demographic factors. [source]


Exploring social capital in rural settlements of an islander region in Greece

JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY & APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
Anastasia Zissi
Abstract This paper reports on a large scale cross-sectional study examining subjective perceptions of community social life held by a randomly selected sample of residents (n,=,428) in all small rural settings (n,=,89) of the region of North Aegean Sea. The notion of social capital was used as a conceptual tool in order to explore different aspects of the relational life of contemporary rural communities. This study has two aims: First to provide an account of rural residents' perceptions of village life in terms of interpersonal support, mutual aid, trust, social cohesion and community competence, and second to examine the suitability of the social capital notion within the specific cultural context. A combination of data collection procedures and a range of sources were employed, such as key informants, rural residents and researchers' field observations. The findings indicate that small farming communities of high devotion with deep roots and strong sense of belonging face severe demographic imbalance and experience low civic power given the limited links with external agents. The mainstream notion of social capital as an unconditionally beneficial factor is thus questioned. The findings call for revisiting its relevance across communities with varying capacities and needs. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Early parenthood in a community context: neighborhood conditions, race,ethnicity, and parenting stress,

JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 5 2010
Lydia M. Franco
Research has highlighted the role of intrapersonal and family characteristics on stress, but less attention has been paid to the potential influence of the community context and racial-ethnic differences in early parental experiences. Using an ecological model, this study examines the impact of neighborhood-level social disorder and social cohesion on parenting stress and whether this is universal across mothers of different race,ethnicities in a sample of mothers of young children in large U.S. cities. Study findings show that neighborhood context is significantly associated with parenting stress and minority parents experience less stress than White parents in higher-disordered neighborhoods. Findings highlight the need to improve community conditions, social support, and resources to reduce parenting stress. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


The informal social control of intimate partner violence against women: Exploring personal attitudes and perceived neighborhood social cohesion

JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 8 2007
Victoria Frye
Intimate partner violence against women is a major public health and social problem. However, our understanding of how the geographic community or neighborhood influences its distribution is underdeveloped. In contrast, there is accumulating evidence that neighborhood characteristics, such as social cohesion and related neighborhood factors, are associated with general violence both at the neighborhood and individual levels. Drawing insights from social disorganization, feminist, and bystander intervention research and theory, this cross-sectional, exploratory study examines influences on the predicted likelihood of intervening in general and intimate partner violence situations, termed enacting informal social control. Specificially, perceptions of neighborhood social cohesion and related neighborhood factors, and personal attitudes toward intimate partner violence are assessed using data from a community sample of 119 New York City residents. Results indicate that perceptions of neighborhood social cohesion were not positively related to predicted likelihood of enacting informal social control of either general violence or intimate partner violence. Personal attitudes towards intimate partner violence were positively associated with predicted informal social control of intimate partner, but not general violence. The need for further research in this area and theoretical and practical implications of the findings for intimate partner violence against women prevention are discussed. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comm Psychol 35: 1001,1018, 2007. [source]


A general model of the public goods dilemma

JOURNAL OF EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY, Issue 6 2010
S. A. Frank
Abstract An individually costly act that benefits all group members is a public good. Natural selection favours individual contribution to public goods only when some benefit to the individual offsets the cost of contribution. Problems of sex ratio, parasite virulence, microbial metabolism, punishment of noncooperators, and nearly all aspects of sociality have been analysed as public goods shaped by kin and group selection. Here, I develop two general aspects of the public goods problem that have received relatively little attention. First, variation in individual resources favours selfish individuals to vary their allocation to public goods. Those individuals better endowed contribute their excess resources to public benefit, whereas those individuals with fewer resources contribute less to the public good. Thus, purely selfish behaviour causes individuals to stratify into upper classes that contribute greatly to public benefit and social cohesion and to lower classes that contribute little to the public good. Second, if group success absolutely requires production of the public good, then the pressure favouring production is relatively high. By contrast, if group success depends weakly on the public good, then the pressure favouring production is relatively weak. Stated in this way, it is obvious that the role of baseline success is important. However, discussions of public goods problems sometimes fail to emphasize this point sufficiently. The models here suggest simple tests for the roles of resource variation and baseline success. Given the widespread importance of public goods, better models and tests would greatly deepen our understanding of many processes in biology and sociality. [source]


Beyond Comfort: German and English Military Chaplains and the Memory of the Great War, 1919,1929

JOURNAL OF RELIGIOUS HISTORY, Issue 3 2005
PATRICK PORTER
How did German and English military chaplains commemorate the Great War? The established historiography broadly interprets war commemoration in the post-war period in two ways. One approach presents commemoration as a ritual of healing that soothed the bereft. The other emphasizes the political function of commemoration, interpreting it as a way of reshaping the war in collective memory to legitimize the status quo , by venerating sacrifices made for the nation, it put the nation beyond question to strengthen allegiance to the established order. Both interpretations treat the language of war commemoration as one of consolation and comfort. Military chaplains, however, espoused a more ambitious mission. For them, the purpose of war commemoration was to inculcate dissatisfaction, guilt, and discomfort. This was because they remembered the war as a contest of ideas embodied in the clash of nations, a contest that was still unsettled. Their purpose was therefore the antithesis to consolation and conventional patriotism: to mobilize the living to honour their "blood debt" to the dead through the language of agitation. They themselves had participated in a war regarded by the churches as a campaign of regeneration through blood, in which sacrifice and suffering would revitalize their nations by bringing them to repentance, piety, and social cohesion. Because they were implicated personally in that incomplete crusade, they were especially anxious to realize the mission and complete the sacrifices of the dead. Anglican ex-chaplains predominantly implored their congregations to ensure a permanent peace that had been purchased by blood, whereas German Protestants invoked a resurrected Volk reclaiming its status as a chosen people. Each articulated a politics of remembrance, one formed on the vision of a war to end all wars, the other on a vision of a war to resurrect the Reich as the Kingdom of God. While the political content of their memories was different, they shared an attitude to the function of remembrance, as a ritual to mobilize and arouse rather than console. Both groups preached that the peace was a continuation of an unfinished moral and spiritual struggle. Furthermore, while always honouring the dead, they stressed that the worth of their sacrifices was no longer guaranteed but contingent upon the conduct of living and future generations. Despite the divergences that emerged from their different confessional and national traditions, and from their respective circumstances, they shared a common moral language. [source]


Toward a Critique of Latin American Neostructuralism

LATIN AMERICAN POLITICS AND SOCIETY, Issue 4 2008
Fernando Ignacio Leiva
ABSTRACT This article offers a critical assessment of the first postneoliberalism development framework that emerged in Latin America after 1990. The ability of neostructuralism to present an attractive narrative about a twenty-first-century "modernity with solidarity" is based on abandoning key tenets of ECLAC's structuralism and the thinking of Raśl Prebisch and Celso Furtado; namely, a focus on the distribution and appropriation of economic surplus and a framing of Latin American development problems in a world capitalist system. This article argues that Latin American neostructuralism's discursive strengths, as well as its analytical weaknesses, stem from the marginalization of power relations from key dimensions of the region's political economy. Since 2000, neostructuralism has exacerbated its descriptive, short-term perspective, further dulling its analytical edge, by focusing on policies that promote social cohesion and state intervention in the cultural and the socioemotional realm. [source]


African Independent Churches in Mozambique: Healing the Afflictions of Inequality

MEDICAL ANTHROPOLOGY QUARTERLY, Issue 2 2002
James Pfeiffer
The recent explosive proliferation of African Independent Churches (AICs) in central Mozambique coincided with rapid growth of economic disparity in the 1990s produced by privatization, cuts in government services, and arrival of foreign aid promoted by Mozambique's World Bank/International Monetary Fund Structural Adjustment Program. Drawing on ethnographic research in the city of Chimoio, this article argues that growing inequality has led to declining social cohesion, heightened individual competition, fear of interpersonal violence, and intensified conflict between spouses in poor families. This perilous social environment finds expression in heightened fears of witchcraft, sorcery, and avenging spirits, which are often blamed in Shona ideology for reproductive health problems. Many women with sick children or suffering from infertility turn to AICs for treatment because traditional healers are increasingly viewed as dangerous and too expensive. The AICs invoke the "Holy Spirit" to exorcise malevolent agents and then provide a community of mutual aid and ongoing protection against spirit threats. [Mozambique, social inequality, African Independent Churches, intrahousehold, health] [source]


Social kin associations and genetic structuring of striped dolphin populations (Stenella coeruleoalba) in the Mediterranean Sea

MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 14 2007
STEFANIA GASPARI
Abstract We investigated hierarchical patterns of genetic subdivision, and assessed kinship within and between social groups of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) in the Tyrrhenian Sea. A total of 165 samples were analysed at eight microsatellite DNA loci, including outgroup samples from the Adriatic, Scotland and Spain for population-level comparisons. We found population genetic structure within the Mediterranean basin, including small but significant differentiation between the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Seas (FST = 0.0047, P = 0.008), and between putative ,inshore' and ,offshore' (FST = 0.0217, P = 0.005) populations in the Tyrrhenian Sea. Assessment of kinship within and among 12 association groups showed higher average kinship for females within than between groups, and smaller groups showed higher average kinship. Comparisons of relatedness for both sexes showed a significant difference between males and females, with females more likely to associate with adult kin. Together these data emphasize the importance of the social cohesion of kin in small groups to the structuring of striped dolphin populations in this environment. [source]


AN EXPLORATION OF MEMBER ROLES AS A MULTILEVEL LINKING MECHANISM FOR INDIVIDUAL TRAITS AND TEAM OUTCOMES

PERSONNEL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 2 2005
GREG L. STEWART
We use data from 220 individuals in 45 teams to examine team member roles as a cross-level linking mechanism between personality traits and team-level outcomes. At the individual level, peer ratings of task role behavior relate positively with Conscientiousness and negatively with Neuroticism and Extraversion. Peer ratings of social role behavior relate positively with Agreeableness and negatively with Openness to Experience. At the team level, a composition process of aggregation operates such that the mean for social roles corresponds with social cohesion. Compilation processes of aggregation also occur, as the variance of social roles corresponds negatively with task performance, and the variance of task roles corresponds negatively with cohesion. Skew of the distribution for social roles within each team,a measure of critical mass of members individually enacting the role,also correlates with social cohesion. [source]


Being a pretty good citizen: an analysis and monetary valuation of formal and informal voluntary work by gender and educational attainment1

THE BRITISH JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY, Issue 1 2008
Muriel Egerton
Abstract This paper is set in the context of macrosocial/macroeconomic theories of the organization of both paid and unpaid work. The specific topic investigated is engagement in unpaid voluntary work, an activity which is thought to be important for social cohesion, civil society and citizenship. Research on the sources of social cohesion has focused on organizational membership and voluntary organization activity. There has been little investigation of informal helping of non-resident kin, friends or acquaintances, an activity which is not measured in most social surveys but is measured in time use surveys. Previous research shows that the highly educated are more likely to engage in formal voluntary organizations and data from the UK 2000 HETUS survey confirm that the highly educated spend more time on formally organised voluntary work. However, the less qualified, particularly women, spend more time on extra-household unpaid helping activities. Since both types of voluntary work are partly dependent on available time, these findings are modelled adjusting for time allocated to paid work, study, family and personal care. The findings remain statistically significant. Drawing on work carried out by the Office for National Statistics, a monetary value is placed on both formally organized and informal voluntary work. Although the median wage rates for formal voluntary work are greater than those for informal helping, the latter is greater in frequency and duration and therefore more economically valuable from a population perspective. This finding is discussed in the light of recent debates on citizenship and gender. [source]


SOCIAL CAPITAL & FAITH-BASED ORGANISATIONS

THE HEYTHROP JOURNAL, Issue 6 2007
CHRISTINE HEPWORTH
This year is the twentieth anniversary of the germinal report ,Faith in the City' which first drew attention to the concerns of religious agencies whose remit is to tackle growing multiple deprivation in the UK. Since then, the role of faith-based organisations (FBOs) as mediators of welfare provision, urban regeneration and community development has attracted little attention from sociologists despite claims that such roles are becoming increasingly important. Successive UK governments have highlighted the potential of religious congregations in enhancing social capital and promoting social cohesion. The seminal work of Greg Smith (University of East London) emphasises this theme while other sociological literature in this area (mainly American, e.g., Putnam) argues that FBOs in the community provide a degree of social support and relationship structures that accumulate as social capital resources. This discussion paper is an attempt to open up the debate on the ways in which FBOs can develop and enhance the social capital value of local community groups. [source]


The fourth level of social structure in a multi-level society: ecological and social functions of clans in hamadryas baboons

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PRIMATOLOGY, Issue 11 2009
Amy L. Schreier
Abstract Hamadryas baboons are known for their complex, multi-level social structure consisting of troops, bands, and one-male units (OMUs) [Kummer, 1968. Social organization of hamadryas baboons. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. 189p]. Abegglen [1984. On socialization in hamadryas baboons: a field study. Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press. 207p.] observed a fourth level of social structure comprising several OMUs that rested near one another on sleeping cliffs, traveled most closely together during daily foraging, and sometimes traveled as subgroups independently from the rest of the band. Abegglen called these associations "clans" and suggested that they consisted of related males. Here we confirm the existence of clans in a second wild hamadryas population, a band of about 200 baboons at the Filoha site in lowland Ethiopia. During all-day follows from December 1997 through September 1998 and March 2005 through February 2006, data were collected on activity patterns, social interactions, nearest neighbors, band fissions, and takeovers. Association indices were computed for each dyad of leader males, and results of cluster analyses indicated that in each of the two observation periods this band comprised two large clans ranging in size from 7 to 13 OMUs. All band fissions occurred along clan lines, and most takeovers involved the transfer of females within the same clan. Our results support the notion that clans provide an additional level of flexibility to deal with the sparse distribution of resources in hamadryas habitats. The large clan sizes at Filoha may simply be the largest size that the band can split into and still obtain enough food during periods of food scarcity. Our results also suggest that both male and female relationships play a role in the social cohesion of clans and that males exchange females within clans but not between them. Am. J. Primatol. 71:948,955, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


We're All in This Together: Context, Contacts, and Social Trust in Canada

ANALYSES OF SOCIAL ISSUES & PUBLIC POLICY, Issue 1 2008
Mai B. Phan
How do conditions of diversity and inequality affect the sense of solidarity with each other that is manifested as social trust? This article brings together the literatures on racial heterogeneity, inter-group contact and relative deprivation to test and enrich the existing theoretical understanding of trust. It explores the effects of city and neighborhood contexts, individual experiences of inter-group relations, and their moderating effects on social trust. Findings suggest that the influence of a city's level of ethnic/racial diversity and income inequality is conditioned by inter-group social ties and experiences of discrimination. By considering the characteristics of neighborhoods, racial diversity of cities no longer has any significant association with trust in others. However, income inequality at the city level interacts with experiences of discrimination to undermine trust. Public policies aimed at improving social cohesion would benefit from considering the joint impact of economic and social policies that regulate resource distribution and hence shape inter-group relations. [source]


The Elephant in the Living Room That No One Wants to Talk About: Why U.S. Anthropologists Are Unable to Acknowledge the End of Culture

ANTHROPOLOGY & EDUCATION QUARTERLY, Issue 1 2009
Greg Tanaka
Findings from a four-year action research project at a highly diverse, West Coast U.S. university reveal that a large percentage of white students cannot trace their identities to a particular nation in Europe and are, as a result, unable to name the shared meanings of a particular ethnic culture. Each time Latino, Asian American, and African American classmates describe their families' ethnic histories, it is the European American student who feels dissociated. Extracted from a polyphonic novelistic ethnography, this essay focuses on an exchange among three students at a town hall meeting and explores the ramifications for social cohesion when members of "the dominant group" appear to be experiencing declining subjectivity. This reflection also raises two larger disciplinary questions: (1) How can 10,000 U.S. anthropologists continue to deploy the concept of culture at field sites outside the United States when so many in their own population cannot claim an ethnic culture of their own? and (2) Given the recent turn in events in the U.S. political scene, shouldn't anthropologists now begin developing new constructs for social analysis after race and culture?,[culture concept, subjectivity, soul] [source]


The "Thin Dividing Line": Prime Ministers and the Problem of Australian Nationalism, 1972,1996

AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF POLITICS AND HISTORY, Issue 4 2002
James Curran
This paper is concerned with the way in which Australian prime ministers gave expression to an idea of "national community" in the post,1972 era. With the declining relevance of the British connection, the departure of "great and powerful" friends from the region, the imperative of engagement with Asia and the emerging concept of Australia as a "multicultural" society, one of the central challenges for these leaders has been whether or not they could offer an alternative myth of community which would preserve social cohesion in the new times. This raises an important historical question concerning Australian political culture at this time , what happened to the need for nationalism? By examining the speeches of Prime Ministers Whitlam, Fraser, Hawke and Keating, it can be seen that far from asserting an old,style, exclusive Australian nationalism, in most cases these leaders expressed great caution and hesitation towards the idea of nationalism itself. [source]


Influence of socioeconomic and cultural factors on rural health

AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF RURAL HEALTH, Issue 1 2009
John R. Beard
Abstract Objective:,To provide a framework for investigating the influence of socioeconomic and cultural factors on rural health. Design:,Discussion paper. Results:,Socioeconomic and cultural factors have long been thought to influence an individual's health. We suggest a framework for characterising these factors that comprises individual-level (e.g. individual socioeconomic status, sex, race) and neighbourhood-level dimensions (population composition, social environment, physical environment) operating both independently and through interaction. Recent spatial research suggests that in rural communities, socioeconomic disadvantage and indigenous status are two of the greatest underlying influences on health status. However, rural communities also face additional challenges associated with access to, and utilisation of, health care. The example is given of procedural angiography for individuals with an acute coronary event. Conclusions:,Socioeconomic and cultural factors specific to rural Australia are key influences on the health of residents. These range from individual-level factors, such as rural stoicism, poverty and substance use norms, to neighbourhood-level social characteristics, such as lack of services, migration out of rural areas of younger community members weakening traditionally high levels of social cohesion, and to environmental factors, such as climate change and access to services. [source]