Sorption Capacity (sorption + capacity)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

A thermodynamics-based estimation model for adsorption of organic compounds by carbonaceous materials in environmental sorbents

Paul C. M. van Noort
Abstract A model was developed to estimate Langmuir affinities for adsorption of low-polarity organic compounds from either water or air by carbonaceous sorbents. Sorption enthalpies and entropies provided the basic information for the description of sorption affinities in terms of the entropy of melting and either solubility in water or vapor pressure. For m -xylene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and chlorobenzenes on 10 different sorbents, 80% of the measured sorption affinities fall within a factor of four of the model estimates. Equations for the limiting distribution coefficients in terms of either octanol,air (KOA) or octanol,water partition (Kow) coefficients were derived from regressions of calculated affinities combined with an estimated relation between experimental Langmuir sorption capacities and Kow. Estimated soot,water distribution coefficients were within a factor of three of measured data for polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and lower molecular weight PAHs on automotive soot samples and captured the dependence of PCB distribution coefficients on the extent of ortho substitution. For higher molecular weight PAHs, sorption was underestimated. For soot in sediment,water distribution coefficients of PAHs and PCBs, estimated values captured both the trend of measured data with Kow and the dependence on sorbate planarity. Tentative application to aerosol,air distribution explained the observed independence of distribution coefficient,KOA relations for PCBs on the extent of ortho substitution and suggested nonequilibrium conditions for PAHs in comparison with recent measurements. [source]

The role of mineral and organic components in phenanthrene and dibenzofuran sorption by soil

R. Celis
Summary Improved predictions of sorption of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in soil require a better knowledge of the relative contribution of inorganic and organic soil constituents to the sorption process. In this paper, sorption of a three-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (phenanthrene) and a three-ring heterocyclic,aromatic compound (dibenzofuran) by six agricultural soils, their clay-size fractions, and a series of single, binary, and ternary model sorbents was evaluated to elucidate the relative role of soil mineral and organic components in the retention of these two model HOCs. The sorption coefficients for phenanthrene and dibenzofuran on purified soil organic materials (Kd = 821,9080 litre kg,1) were two orders of magnitude greater than those measured on mineral model sorbents (Kd = 0,114 litre kg,1). This, along with the strong correlation between sorption and the organic C content of the soil clay fractions (r = 0.99, P < 0.01), indicated a primary role of soil organic matter in the retention of both compounds. However, weak relationships between phenanthrene and dibenzofuran sorption coefficients and the organic C content of the bulk soils and variability of Koc values among soils, clay fractions, and model sorbents (1340,21020 litre kg,1 C for phenanthrene and 1685,7620 litre kg,1 C for dibenzofuran) showed that sorption was not predictable exclusively from the organic C content of the materials. Organic matter heterogeneity and domain blockage arising from organic matter,clay interactions and associated pH shifts were identified as the most likely causes of the different organic C-normalized sorption capacities of the soils. A direct contribution from minerals to the sorption of phenanthrene and dibenzofuran by the soils studied was likely to be small. Our results suggested that suitable descriptors for the extent of organic matter,mineral interactions would help to improve current Koc -based sorption predictions and subsequently the assessment of risk associated with the presence of HOCs in soil. [source]

Stochastic Study of Solute Transport in a Nonstationary Medium

GROUND WATER, Issue 2 2006
Bill X. Hu
A Lagrangian stochastic approach is applied to develop a method of moment for solute transport in a physically and chemically nonstationary medium. Stochastic governing equations for mean solute flux and solute covariance are analytically obtained in the first-order accuracy of log conductivity and/or chemical sorption variances and solved numerically using the finite-difference method. The developed method, the numerical method of moments (NMM), is used to predict radionuclide solute transport processes in the saturated zone below the Yucca Mountain project area. The mean, variance, and upper bound of the radionuclide mass flux through a control plane 5 km downstream of the footprint of the repository are calculated. According to their chemical sorption capacities, the various radionuclear chemicals are grouped as nonreactive, weakly sorbing, and strongly sorbing chemicals. The NMM method is used to study their transport processes and influence factors. To verify the method of moments, a Monte Carlo simulation is conducted for nonreactive chemical transport. Results indicate the results from the two methods are consistent, but the NMM method is computationally more efficient than the Monte Carlo method. This study adds to the ongoing debate in the literature on the effect of heterogeneity on solute transport prediction, especially on prediction uncertainty, by showing that the standard derivation of solute flux is larger than the mean solute flux even when the hydraulic conductivity within each geological layer is mild. This study provides a method that may become an efficient calculation tool for many environmental projects. [source]

Preparation and characterization of polymer/multiwall carbon nanotube/nanoparticle nanocomposites and preparation of their metal complexes

Ahmad Nozad Golikand
Abstract Carbon nanotube-polymer nanocomposites were synthesized and characterized successfully. In this work, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were opened using HNO3/H2SO4 mixture and filled by metal nanoparticles such as silver nanoparticles through wet-chemistry method. The oxidized MWCNT were reacted subsequently with thionyl chloride, 1,6-diaminohexane, producing MWNT-amine functionalized. Then the MWCNT containing metal nanoparticles were used as a monomer with different weight percentages in melt polymerization with An and CNCl separately. Furthermore, the polyamide and polytriazine modified MWCNT were used for the preparation of metal ion complexes such as Fe+2 and La+3. The structures and properties of nanocomposites were evaluated by TEM, DSC, TGA, and FT-IR methods. The chelating behavior and sorption capacities of prepared nanocomposites were carried out by using some metal ions. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]

Palladium and platinum sorption on a thiocarbamoyl-derivative of chitosan

A. Butewicz
Abstract Immobilizing thiourea onto chitosan allowed using the polymer for the recovery of platinum groups metals (PGMs) in acidic solutions (up to 1,2M HCl concentrations). At low HCl concentration protonated amine groups may sorb chloroanionic metal species (electrostatic attraction mechanism); however, most of sorption proceeds through chelation on sulfur containing groups (less sensitive to acidic conditions). The bi-site Langmuir equation was used for fitting sorption isotherms. The sorption of PGMs was weakly affected by the composition of the solution (presence of high concentration of anions and base metals). Maximum sorption capacities for Pd(II) and Pt(IV) ranged between 274 and 330 mg g,1 in 0.25M HCl solutions and decreased to 150,198 mg g,1 in 2M HCl solutions: Pd(II) sorption was systematically higher than Pt(IV) sorption. The pseudo-second rate equation was used for modeling the uptake kinetics. Agitation speed hardly affected uptake kinetics indicating that external diffusion resistance is not the rate controlling step. Desorption yield higher than 85% were obtained using thiourea in 0.1M HCl solution. The adsorbents could be reused for at least three cycles. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]

Mercury removal: a physicochemical study of metal interaction with natural materials

Leticia Carro
Abstract BACKGROUND: Mercury is considered one of the most harmful heavy metals to the environment and human health, so recently remediation processes have been developed to eliminate this metal from wastewaters. Metal retention by natural polymers is a good alternative technique to remove heavy metals from solution. RESULTS: A screening of 25 potential mercury sorbents was carried out at three different pH values in order to find appropriate biomass to remove this metal from polluted waters. High sorption capacities were found for many of the materials studied. Four of these materials were selected for further detailed study. Kinetic studies showed short times to reach equilibrium. For S. muticum, sorption isotherms were obtained at several temperatures and a sorption enthalpy value was obtained. Desorption experiments were performed to determine the possibility for recycling of this brown alga. CONCLUSIONS: Different materials have been found to be potentially good adsorbents of mercury. A detailed study showed that S. muticum is an excellent material with a mercury uptake about 200 mg g,1. This brown alga has a fast kinetic process (80% of metal is removed from solution in 30 min), and very high metal uptake over a wide pH range, up to 92% elimination for pH values above 3,4. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Removal of toxic metal ions from aqueous systems by biosorptive flotation

Anastasios I Zouboulis
Abstract Biosorptive flotation was used as a combined operation for the simultaneous abstraction of nickel, copper and zinc ions from aqueous streams. Laboratory-scale batch experiments, as well as pilot-scale continuous experiments, have been conducted. Grape stalks, a by-product of the winery industry, were used as sorbent material. The experimental procedure consisted of two consecutive stages: (i) biosorption, and (ii) flotation. The possibility of reusing biomass, after appropriate elution, was also examined. The main parameters examined were biomass concentration, particle size of sorbent, surfactant concentration, pH and flocculation. Flotation removals, following laboratory-scale experiments, were found to be in the order of 100, 85 and 70% for copper, zinc and nickel, respectively. In pilot-scale experiments, biomass sorption capacities were determined as 25 for copper, 81 for zinc and 7,µmol,dm,3 for nickel. The order of biomass affinity regarding the studied metals was Cu,>,Zn,>,Ni. Short retention time and high effectiveness suggest that biosorptive flotation is a promising treatment process for the removal of toxic metals from contaminated aqueous solutions. © 2002 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Application of a carbon sorbent for the removal of cadmium and other heavy metal ions from aqueous solution

I El-Shafey
Abstract Treatment of flax shive with sulfuric acid produces a carbonaceous material that has been used to remove metal ions from aqueous solution. Metal ions including Cd(II), Cu(II), Cr(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) have been investigated for kinetic behaviour and sorption capacities. These metal ions show fast sorption kinetics following a first order rate equation. Cadmium was chosen as representative of these metal ions and a detailed study was carried out. The effect of pH on sorption was studied and it was found that maximum uptake occurred above pH 3,7, sorption was accompanied by release of protons into the solution and a ratio of [H+] released to [Cd2+] sorbed of approximately 2 was found. The sorption capacity showed no significant increase with increase of temperature. The presence of other metal ions such as K+, Na+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ decreases the Cd(II) capacity, indicating competition for the ion exchange sites. Successive sorption of Cd(II) shows that the capacity exceeds the monolayer capacity calculated from the Langmuir equation. Column studies showed good performance over a total of seven cycles of loading/stripping. These studies indicate that the sorption mechanism for these metal ions is related to a reversible ion exchange process on the carbon surface. © 2002 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Sediment dynamics and pollutant mobility in rivers: An interdisciplinary approach

Ulrich Förstner
Abstract Characteristic dynamic features of sediment-related processes in rivers include dramatic effects of stormwater events on particle transport, rapid and far-reaching effects of sulphide oxidation during resuspension, and biological accumulation and potential release of toxic chemicals. Pollutant mobility is the net result of the stabilizing and mobilizing effects in both hydraulic and chemical fields. In practice, emphasis has to be given to fine-grained sediments and suspended matter as these materials exhibit large surface areas and high sorption capacities. Organic materials are highly reactive. Degradation of organic matter will induce oxygen depletion and might enhance formation of flocs and biofilms. Study of variations of sediment and water chemistry should predominantly include changes of pH and redox conditions, competition of dissolved ions and processes such as complexation by organic substances. Major questions relate to the potential reduction of sorption sites on minerals and degradation of organic carrier materials. All these processes will influence solution/solid equilibrium conditions and have to be studied prior to modelling the overall effects of pollutants on the water body and aquatic ecosystems. With respect to handling and remediation of contaminated river sediments, either in-place or excavated, a chemical and biological characterization of the material, of the (disposal) site and of the long-term processes is crucial. Passive techniques (e.g. in situ stabilization, subaqueous capping) provide economic advantages as there are no operation costs following their installation. However, the success of these ecological and geochemical engineering approaches is mainly based on an in-depth knowledge of the underlying processes. [source]

Oil Spill Cleanup from Sea Water by Sorbent Materials

A. Bayat
Abstract Three sorbents were compared in order to determine their potential for oil spill cleanup. Polypropylene nonwoven web, rice hull, and bagasse with two different particle sizes were evaluated in terms of oil sorption capacities and oil recovery efficiencies. Polypropylene can sorb almost 7 to 9 times its weight from different oils. Bagasse, 18 to 45 mesh size, follows polypropylene as the second sorbent in oil spill cleanup. Bagasse, 14 to 18 mesh size, and rice hull have comparable oil sorption capacities, which are lower than those of the two former sorbents. It was found that oil viscosity plays an important role in oil sorption by sorbents. All adsorbents used in this work could remove the oil from the surface of the water preferentially. [source]

Evaluation of sorbent amendments for in situ remediation of metal-contaminated sediments

Seokjoon Kwon
Abstract The present study evaluated sorbent amendments for in situ remediation of sediments contaminated with two divalent metals. A literature review screening was performed to identify low-cost natural mineral-based metal sorbents and high-performance commercial sorbents that were carried forward into laboratory experiments. Aqueous phase metal sorptivity of the selected sorbents was evaluated because dissolved metals in sediment porewater constitute an important route of exposure to benthic organisms. Based on pH-edge sorption test results, natural sorbents were eliminated due to inferior performance. The potential as in situ sediment amendment was explored by comparing the sorption properties of the engineered amendments in freshwater and saltwater (10 PPT salinity estuarine water) matrices. Self-assembled monolayers on mesoporous supports with thiols (Thiol-SAMMSÔ) and a titanosilicate mineral (ATSÔ) demonstrated the highest sorption capacity for cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), respectively. Sequential extraction tests conducted after mixing engineered sorbents with contaminated sediment demonstrated transfer of metal contaminants from a weakly bound state to a more strongly bound state. Biouptake of Cd in a freshwater oligochaete was reduced by 98% after 5-d contact of sediment with 4% Thiol-SAMMS and sorbed Cd was not bioavailable. While treatment with ATS reduced the small easily extractable portion of Pb in the sediment, the change in biouptake of Pb was not significant because most of the native lead was strongly bound. The selected sorbents added to sediments at a dose of 5% were mostly nontoxic to a range of sensitive freshwater and estuarine benthic organisms. Metal sorbent amendments in conjunction with activated carbon have the potential to simultaneously reduce metal and hydrophobic contaminant bioavailability in sediments. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010;29:1883,1892. © 2010 SETAC [source]

Modelling of colloid leaching from unsaturated, aggregated soil

M. Laegdsmand
Summary The migration of colloids in soils can enhance the leaching of strongly sorbing contaminants. We present a model for the simulation of colloid leaching from unsaturated, aggregated soil media under stationary flow. Transport in the intra-aggregate pores is simulated by convection,dispersion, and transport in the interaggregate pores, and a stagnant layer of water surrounding the aggregates, is simulated by diffusion. The model describes the release of colloids from soil aggregates, sorption and desorption processes at the air,water interfaces, and flocculation and subsequent straining from the flowing water. All three processes were simulated as functions of ionic strength. Transport of ions in intra-aggregate pores was simulated by Fickian diffusion. The model was calibrated against experimental results of colloid leaching from columns packed with natural soil aggregates. The aggregates were of two soils differing in organic matter content. On each soil a single calibrated parameter set could describe the experiments with the three ionic strengths. The parameters for release of colloids from the aggregate surface and the sorption properties of the air,water interface were different for the two soils. The key parameters for leaching were the thickness of the stagnant layer of water surrounding the aggregates, the mechanical dispersion, the maximum concentration of colloids at the surface of the aggregates, the sorption capacity and rate coefficient of the colloids at the air,water interface, and the colloid diffusion coefficient. Simulations were also done with two additional irrigation intensities at one ionic strength. Simulated leaching was greater than measured leaching at both irrigation intensities, but the diffusion-controlled release of colloids from the aggregates was simulated correctly. [source]

Sorption of phosphorus in field-moist and air-dried samples from four weakly developed cultivated soil profiles

T. PeltovuoriArticle first published online: 9 FEB 200
Summary Sorption of phosphorus (P) in complete soil profiles in northern Europe is not adequately documented. I measured the sorption in genetic horizons of four cultivated soils (Inceptisols, Spodosol) in Finland using both field-moist and air-dried soil samples, fitted modified Freundlich equations (Q = a × Ib , q) to the data, and presented the results in quantity/intensity (Q/I) graphs. Least-squares-estimates for the parameters of the modified Freundlich equation (a, b, q) were found to be imprecise measures of sorption. Values derived from the fitted equations (the amount of P sorbed at the P concentration of 2 mg litre,1 and P buffering capacity at the same concentration) were more precise. Both were correlated with concentrations of oxalate-extractable iron and aluminium. In all soils, there was a distinct difference in sorption between the fertilized Ap horizons and the subsurface horizons, which retained P strongly. Most of the sorption capacity was located in the B horizons at depths between 0.3 and 0.7 m. The results demonstrate the effects of soil-forming processes and human impact on the sorption of P in the soils. Drying the samples prior to the sorption experiments altered the shape of the Q/I graphs. It increased dissolution of P at small P concentrations, sorption at large P concentrations, and the estimates for P buffering capacity. The effects of drying soil samples on the results and the imprecision of the parameters estimated with the modified Freundlich equation should be taken into account when interpreting results of Q/I experiments. [source]

Regulating the mobility of Cd, Cu and Pb in an acid soil with amendments of phosphogypsum, sugar foam, and phosphoric rock

F. Garrido
Summary When acid soil has been contaminated by metals as a result of industrial discharges, accidental spills, or acid mine drainage it may be desirable to retain the metals in the soil rather than allow them to leach away. We have investigated the potential of phosphogypsum (PG), sugar foam (SF), and phosphoric rock (PR) to regulate the availability and mobility of Pb, Cd and Cu. We have also identified changes in attenuation during incubation for 1 year and the effect of aging on metal speciation in amended soils. We studied miscible displacement in columns of undisturbed soil previously treated with solutions of the amendments and soluble metals and, subsequently, single and sequential chemical metal extractions. All amendments increased the soil's metal retention capacity. This, in turn, increased the amount of metal extractable by diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). However, over time the amounts of DTPA-extractable metal decreased, particularly for Cu and Pb. Both Cu and Cd were held preferentially within the acetic acid-extractable fraction (operationally defined exchangeable fraction , EX fraction), whereas Pb was associated mainly with the hydroxylammonium-extractable fraction (operationally defined bound to Fe and Al hydroxides , OX fraction). Both Pb and Cu in the oxide and organic fractions increased in the PG- and SF-treated soils. In general, the distribution of metal did not change in the PR-treated columns after the incubation. Finally, scanning electron microscopy in back-scattered electron mode (SEM,BSE) showed the formation of Al-hydroxy polymers which provides the soils with additional cation sorption capacity. In the PG- and PR-treated columns, P and S were associated with these formations. The three metals were associated with the Al polymers, probably through direct coordination or the formation of ternary complexes with the inorganic ligands phosphate and sulphate. [source]

Immobilization of the heavy metals Cd, Cu and Pb in an acid soil amended with gypsum- and lime-rich industrial by-products

V. Illera
Summary In situ stabilization of heavy metals in contaminated soils by the addition of various types of soil amendment is an attractive technique for remediation. We investigated the potential of three industrial by-products (phosphogypsum, red gypsum and dolomitic residue) for boosting the heavy metal sorption capacity of an acid soil (patents pending, Spanish applications no 200201704 and 200201375) by using sorption isotherm experiments. The three by-products were found substantially to increase the retention of lead, cadmium and copper on the solid components of the soil. The increase in lead retention of the soil horizons upon the addition of both phosphogypsum and red gypsum was dominated by the formation of anglesite minerals. The dolomitic residue increased the metal retention capacity of the soil horizons through the precipitation of laurionite-type minerals as well as cadmium and copper hydroxy-chlorides. In addition to the batch sorption study, we used scanning electron microscopy to investigate the metal sorption processes in the soil by the effect of the treatments. Lead was frequently found to be linked to the edge charges of kaolinite minerals. The three metals were found to be associated with organic matter in the Ap horizon treated with the three by-products. Finally, the three metals were found to be associated with undissolved dolomitic residue particles. [source]

Cadmium leaching from some New Zealand pasture soils

C. W. Gray
Summary Cadmium (Cd) inputs and losses from agricultural soils are of great importance because of the potential adverse effects Cd can pose to food quality, soil health and the environment in general. One important pathway for Cd losses from soil systems is by leaching. We investigated loss of Cd from a range of contrasting New Zealand pasture soils that had received Cd predominantly from repeated applications of phosphate fertilizer. Annual leaching losses of Cd ranged between 0.27 and 0.86 g ha,l, which are less than most losses recorded elsewhere. These losses equate to between 5 and 15% of the Cd added to soil through a typical annual application of single superphosphate, which in New Zealand contains on average 280 mg Cd kg,1 P. It appears that Cd added to soil from phosphate fertilizer is fairly immobile and Cd tends to accumulate in the topsoil. The pH of the leachate and the total volume of drainage to some extent control the amount of Cd leached. Additional factors, such as the soil sorption capacity, are also important in controlling Cd movement in these pasture soils. The prediction of the amount of Cd leached using the measured concentrations of Cd in the soil solution and rainfall data resulted in an overestimation of Cd losses. Cadmium concentrations in drainage water are substantially less than the current maximum acceptable value of 3 µg l,1 for drinking water in New Zealand set by the Ministry of Health. [source]

Estimation of the phosphorus sorption capacity of acidic soils in Ireland

R. O. Maguire
Summary The test for the degree of phosphorus (P) saturation (DPS) of soils is used in northwest Europe to estimate the potential of P loss from soil to water. It expresses the historic sorption of P by soil as a percentage of the soil's P sorption capacity (PSC), which is taken to be , (Alox + Feox), where Alox and Feox are the amounts of aluminium and iron extracted by a single extraction of oxalate. All quantities are measured as mmol kg soil,1, and a value of 0.5 is commonly used for the scaling factor , in this equation. Historic or previously sorbed P is taken to be the quantity of P extracted by oxalate (Pox) so that DPS = Pox/PSC. The relation between PSC and Alox, Feox and Pox was determined for 37 soil samples from Northern Ireland with relatively large clay and organic matter contents. Sorption of P, measured over 252 days, was strongly correlated with the amounts of Alox and Feox extracted, but there was also a negative correlation with Pox. When PSC was calculated as the sum of the measured sorption after 252 days and Pox, the multiple regression of PSC on Alox and Feox gave the equation PSC = 36.6 + 0.61 Alox+,0.31 Feox with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.92. The regression intercept of 36.6 was significantly greater than zero. The 95% confidence limits for the regression coefficients of Alox and Feox did not overlap, indicating a significantly larger regression coefficient of P sorption on Alox than on Feox. When loss on ignition was employed as an additional variable in the multiple regression of PSC on Alox and Feox, it was positively correlated with PSC. Although the regression coefficient for loss on ignition was statistically significant (P <,0.001), the impact of this variable was small as its inclusion in the multiple regression increased R2 by only 0.028. Values of P sorption measured over 252 days were on average 2.75 (range 2.0,3.8) times greater than an overnight index of P sorption. Measures of DPS were less well correlated with water-soluble P than either the Olsen or Morgan tests for P in soil. [source]

Gravel-Corrected Kd Values

GROUND WATER, Issue 6 2000
Daniel I. Kaplan
Standard measurements of solute sorption to sediments are typically made on the <2 mm sediment fraction. This fraction is used by researchers to standardize the method and to ease experimental protocol so that large labware is not required to accommodate the gravel fraction (>2 mm particles). Since sorption is a phenomenon directly related to surface area, sorption measurements based on the <2 mm fraction would be expected to overestimate actual whole-sediment values for sediments containing gravel. This inaccuracy is a problem for ground water contaminant transport modelers who use laboratory-derived sorption values, typically expressed as a distribution coefficients (Kd), to calculate the retardation factor (Rf), a parameter that accounts for solute-sediment chemical interactions. The objectives of this laboratory study were to quantify the effect of gravel on strontium Kd and Rf values and to develop an empirical method to calculate gravel-corrected Kdgc values for the study site (Hanford Site in Richland, Washington). Three gravel corrections, Kd values, were evaluated: a correction based on the assumption that the gravel simply diluted the Kd<2mm and had no sorption capacity (Kdgc,g=0), a correction based on the assumption that the Kd of the intact sediment (Kdtot was a composite of the Kd<2mm and the Kd>2mm (Kdgc,g = x), and a correction based on surface area (Kdgc,surf). On average, Kd<2mm tended to overestimate Kdtot by 28% to 47%; Kdgc,g = x overestimated Kdtot by only 3% to 5%; and Kdgc,g = 0 and Kdgc,surf underestimated Kdtot by 10% to 39%. Kdgc,g = x provided the best estimate of actual values (Kdtot); however, Kdgc,g = 0 was appreciably easier to acquire. Although other contaminants will likely have different gravel-correction values, these results have important implications regarding the traditional approach to modeling contaminant transport which uses Kd<2mm values. Such calculations may overestimate the tendency of gravel-containing sediments to retard contaminant migration. [source]

Preparation and sorption studies of ,-cyclodextrin/epichlorohydrin copolymers

Dawn Y. Pratt
Abstract ,-Cyclodextrin (,-CD) copolymer materials were synthesized by reacting different mole ratios (1 : 15, 1 : 25 and 1 : 35) of ,-CD with epichlorohydrin (EP). The products were characterized using N2 porosimetry, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, 13C CP-MAS NMR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry analysis, elemental (C and H) analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The sorption properties in aqueous solution were studied using p-nitrophenol (PNP) with UV,Vis spectrophotometry. Sorption isotherms were obtained at pH 4.6 and three temperatures (22, 35, and 45°C) and at pH 10.3 at 22°C. The isotherms were analyzed using the BET isotherm model and the sorption parameters provided estimates of the surface area, sorption capacity, and isosteric heats of sorption for each polymeric material. The estimated surface areas are as follows: 58.2, 52.1, and 90.1 m2/g at pH 4.6. At pH 10.3, the estimated surface areas are 44.2, 40.5, and 58.5 m2/g, respectively. The removal efficiency of PNP by the polymeric materials ranged between 4.5 and 58% for the conditions investigated whereas the isosteric heats ranged between ,24.5 and ,13.6 kJ/mol. Removal efficiencies were concluded to strongly depend on the sorption conditions such as pH, temperature, and the relative amounts of sorbent and dye in aqueous solution. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]

Effects of Water-Glycerol and Water-Sorbitol Interactions on the Physical Properties of Konjac Glucomannan Films

Lai Hoong Cheng
ABSTRACT Konjac glucomannan (KGM)-edible films were prepared with different amounts of glycerol or sorbitol as a plasticizer. Films were characterized by moisture sorption isotherm, and following conditioning at different relative humidities, by differential scanning calorimetry and tensile tests. Moisture and polyols (sorbitol and glycerol) were found to plasticize KGM-based films with respect to their tensile properties. However, thermal properties and water sorption capacity (WSC) of polyolplasticized KGM films were found to vary with water activity (aw), namely at low aw (< 0.6), WSC and melting enthalpy were decreased with increasing in polyol content and the opposite was true at higher aw (>0.6). This was attributed to extensive interactions between plasticizer and KGM that reduced the available active site (-OH groups) for water adsorption. The presence of polyols at low aw appeared to suppress crystalline structures due probably to restricted molecular mobility. These effects were diminished when the moisture content was >20%. [source]

Sorption of HOC in soils with carbonaceous contamination: Influence of organic-matter composition

Kerstin Abelmann
Abstract Detailed information about structure and composition of organic sorbents is required to understand their impact on sorption capacity and sorption kinetic of organic pollutants. Therefore, the chemical composition of organic material from 18 geosorbents was investigated by solid-state 13C nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Structural parameters such as aromaticity, polarity, and alkyl-C content were related to the Freundlich sorption exponent (1/n) and the sorption coefficient . The geosorbents included three natural and four combusted coals (carbonaceous material), three Histosols, five mineral soils from Germany containing inputs of technogenic carbonaceous material, derived from industrial activities, and four non-contaminated mineral soils from Germany. Equilibrium sorption was measured for five hydrophobic organic compounds and analyzed with the solubility-normalized Freundlich sorption isotherm. With increasing maturation degree, the proportion of polar constituents decreases from the natural soils to the coals. In contrast to the non-polluted mineral soils, the soils with technogenic input are characterized by high aromaticity and low polarity. A positive correlation between sorption coefficient and aromaticity was found. The Freundlich exponent (1/n) is negatively correlated with the aromaticity, denoting an increase of adsorption processes with increasing aromaticity. Likewise, the contribution of partitioning decreases. This sorption mechanism predominates only if the organic matter in the samples contains a high proportion of polar compounds. Sorption von HOC in Böden mit kohleartiger Kontamination: Einfluss der Zusammensetzung des organischen Materials Um den Einfluss von organischen Sorbenten auf die Sorptionskapazität und die Kinetik organischer Schadstoffe zu verstehen, müssen detaillierte Informationen über deren Struktur und Zusammensetzung vorliegen. Aus diesem Grund wurde das organische Material von 18 Geosorbenten mittels der Festkörper- 13C-NMR-Spektroskopie untersucht. Strukturelle Parameter wie zum Beispiel die Aromatizität, die Polarität und der Alkyl-C-Gehalt wurden mit dem Freundlich-Exponenten 1/n und dem Sorptionskoeffizienten korreliert. Die Geosorbenten bestehen aus drei natürlichen und vier thermisch behandelten Kohlen, drei Histosolen und fünf deutschen Mineralböden, die technogenes kohlehaltiges Material aus industriellen Aktivitäten enthalten, sowie vier nicht kontaminierten deutschen Böden. Die Gleichgewichtssorption wurde für fünf hydrophobe, organische Verbindungen gemessen und mit Hilfe der löslichkeitsnormalisierten Freundlich-Isotherme analysiert. Der Anteil der polaren Komponenten nimmt von den natürlichen Böden zu den Kohlen mit zunehmendem Inkohlungsstadium ab. Im Gegensatz zu den nicht kontaminierten Mineralböden weisen die Böden mit technogenen Bestandteilen eine hohe Aromatizität und eine geringe Polarität auf. Zwischen dem und der Aromatizität ergab sich ein positiver Zusammenhang. Der Freundlich Exponent (1/n) korreliert negativ mit der Aromatizität. Dies weist auf eine Zunahme der Adsorptionsprozesse mit Erhöhung der Aromatizität hin. Der Beitrag der Partitionierung sinkt ebenfalls. Dieser Sorptionsmechanismus dominiert nur in den Proben, in denen das organische Material einen hohen Anteil polarer Bestandteile besitzt. [source]

Evaluation of selective composite cryogel for bromate removal from drinking water

Solmaz Hajizadeh
Abstract Bromate, which is a potential carcinogen, should be removed from drinking water to levels of less than 10,,g/L. A chitosan-based molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) and a sol,gel ion-exchange double hydrous oxide (Fe2O3·Al2O3·xH2O) adsorbent (inorganic adsorbent) were prepared for this purpose. The sorption behavior of each adsorbent including sorption kinetics, isotherms, effect of pH and selective sorption were investigated in detail. Sorption experimental results showed that the MIP adsorbents had better selectivity for bromate, even in the presence of high concentrations of nitrate, as compared to the inorganic adsorbent. It was found that pH does not affect the adsorption of bromate when using the inorganic adsorbent. Additionally, both adsorbents were immobilized in a polymeric cryogel inside plastic carriers to make them more practical for using in larger scale. Regeneration of the cryogels either containing MIP or inorganic adsorbents were carried out by 0.1,M NaOH and 0.1,M NaCl, respectively. It was found that the regenerated MIP and inorganic adsorbents could be used at least three and five times, respectively, without any loss in their sorption capacity. [source]

Morphology and surface properties of some siloxane,organic copolymers

Maria Cazacu
Abstract BACKGROUND: It is well known that, due to their extremely low polarity, polysiloxanes are incompatible with almost any organic system. This incompatibility leads to phase separation in mixed siloxane,organic systems. RESULTS: Three siloxane,organic copolymers, poly[(5,5,-methylene-bis-salicylaldehyde)-imine-(1,3-bis(propylene)tetramethyldisiloxane)] (Paz1), poly[(2,5-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone)-imine-(1,3-bis(propylene)tetramethyldisiloxane)] (Paz2) and poly[1,3-bis(propylene)tetramethyldisiloxane diamide] (Pam), were prepared by the reaction of 1,3-bis(3-aminopropyl)tetramethyldisiloxane with appropriate organic partners (5,5,-methylene-bis-salicylaldehyde, 2,5-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone and oxalyl chloride, respectively). The morphologies dictated by the incompatibility between siloxane and polar organic moieties were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy. The surface activity of the copolymers and water vapour sorption capacity were also measured. CONCLUSION: Even though the polar sequences are very short ones, the highly flexible siloxane-containing sequence permits the self-assembly of these into more or less polar domains. Such an organization influences the properties of the resulting materials, an important place being occupied by the surface properties. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Preparation and characterization of biocompatible spongy cryogels of poly(vinyl alcohol),gelatin and study of water sorption behaviour

Dr AK Bajpai
Abstract Porous biocompatible spongy hydrogels of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA),gelatin were prepared by the freezing,thawing method and characterized by infrared and differential scanning calorimetry. The prepared so-called ,cryogels' were evaluated for their water-uptake potential and the influence of various factors, such as the chemical architecture of the spongy hydrogels, pH and the temperature of the swelling bath, on the degree of water sorption by the cryogels was investigated. It was found that the water sorption capacity constantly decreased with increasing concentration of PVA while initially an increase and thereafter a decrease in swelling was obtained with increasing amounts of gelatin in the cryogel. The water sorption capacity decreased with an increase in the number of freeze,thaw cycles. The hydrogels were also swollen in salt solutions and various simulated biological fluids and a fall in swelling ratio was noticed. The effect of the drying temperature of the cryogel on its water sorption capacity was also investigated, and a decrease in swelling was obtained with increasing temperature of drying. The biocompatibility of the prepared materials was assessed by in vitro methods of blood-clot formation, platelet adhesion, and per cent haemolysis. It was noticed that with increasing concentration of PVA and gelatin the biocompatibility increased, while a reduced biocompatibility was noted with an increasing number of freeze,thaw cycles. Copyright © 2005 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Removal of dyes from water by poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) hydrogel,

Bahire Filiz Senkal
Abstract The interaction between polymer and dye leading to polymer-dye complex formation exhibits many interesting and important practical features. For this purpose, a hydrogel was prepared by crosslinking copolymerization of vinyl pyrrolidone with tetraallyl ammonium bromide in aqueous solution, using K2S2O8 as a radical initiator. Dye extraction experiments were carried out simply by contacting wetted gel samples with aqueous dye solutions at room temperature. Capacities were determined by colorimetric analysis of the residual dye contents. The hydrogel swelled in water showing that reasonable high dye sorption capacity (0.71,1.13,g per gram of gel) was achieved. This material is also able to remove the anionic dyes completely even from highly diluted aqueous dye solutions. No trace absorbance was detected in the visible range, after processing. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]