Snail Host (snail + host)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts


EVOLUTION, Issue 1 2007
Britt Koskella
Understanding host-parasite coevolution requires multigenerational studies in which changes in both parasite infectivity and host susceptibility are monitored. We conducted a coevolution experiment that examined six generations of interaction between a freshwater snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) and one of its common parasites (the sterilizing trematode, Microphallus sp.). In one treatment (recycled), the parasite was reintroduced into the same population of host snails. In the second treatment (lagged), the host snails received parasites from the recycled treatment, but the addition of these parasites did not begin until the second generation. Hence any parasite-mediated genetic changes of the host in the lagged treatment were expected to be one generation behind those in the recycled treatment. The lagged treatment thus allowed us to test for time lags in parasite adaptation, as predicted by the Red Queen model of host,parasite coevolution. Finally, in the third treatment (control), parasites were not added. The results showed that parasites from the recycled treatment were significantly more infective to snails from the lagged treatment than from the recycled treatment. In addition, the hosts from the recycled treatment diverged from the control hosts with regard to their susceptibility to parasites collected from the field. Taken together, the results are consistent with time lagged, frequency-dependent selection and rapid coevolution between hosts and parasites. [source]

Molluscicides from some common medicinal plants of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India

Sunil Kumar Singh
Abstract Many aquatic snails act as intermediate hosts for the larvae of trematodes, Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, which cause the diseases fascioliasis and schistosomiasis. The WHO has tested several thousands of synthetic compounds for the control of the snail host. Although effective, these molluscicides have so far not proved themselves to be entirely satisfactory. With a growing awareness of environmental pollution, efforts are being made to discover molluscicidal products of plant origin. Being products of biosynthesis, these are potentially biodegradable in nature. Several groups of compounds present in various plants have been found to be toxic to target organisms at acceptable doses ranging from <1 to 100,ppm. Common medicinal plants, i.e. Thevetia peruviana, Alstonia scholaris (Family; Apocynaceae), Euphorbia pulcherima and Euphorbia hirta (Family; Euphorbiaceae), have potent molluscicidal activity against freshwater snails. The toxicological actions of Thevetia peruviana may be due to the presence of apigenin-5-methyl ether (flavonoid) and triterpenoid glycosides, while a number of alkaloids (pseudo-akuammigine in addition to betulin, ursolic acid and ,-sitosterol), steroids and triterpenoids are present in Alstonia scholaris and the diterpenoids, pulcherrol, ,-sitosterol, hentriacontane, ellagic acid and ,-amyrin are present in Euphorbia hirta and in Euphorbia pulcherima. Although, at present very little literature is available on the control of vector snails through plant origin pesticides, an attempt has been made in this review to assemble all the known information on molluscicidal properties of common medicinal plants of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India, which might be useful for the control of harmful snails. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Control of the Trematode Bolbophorus confusus in Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus Ponds Using Salinity Manipulation and Polyculture with Black Carp Mylopharyngodon piceus

Darrel L. Venable
This study evaluated the use of black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus and salinity manipulation for controlling the infection of channel catfish Ictalurus puncratus by a digenetic trematode (tentatively identified as Bolbophorus confusus). Control methods focussed mainly on the eradication of the intermediate snail host, the marsh rams-horn Phanorbella trivolvis (previously referred to as Helisoma trivolvis), and were evaluated in laboratory tests and field experiments at a commercial catfish culture facility in southern Louisiana that was seriously impacted by the trematode. Introduction of fingerling black carp into catfish ponds at a density of 62 carpha resulted in an almost total elimination of P. trivolvis. The farm is now successfully using a facility-wide stocking rate of 40 carp/ha. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of salinity manipulation using NaCl on free-swimming trematode cercariae, the snail P. trivolvis, and catfish fingerlings infected with the cercariae. A salinity of 2.5 ppt had a detrimental effect on snail survival, growth, and reproduction. Salinity did not have a negative effect on the other two aspects of the trematode life cycle tested (in fact, survival of both cercariae and infected catfish fingerlings showed a positive dependence on NaCl over the 0,2.5 ppt range). A field-experiment was then conducted in catfish ponds maintained at three salinities (2.5, 1.25, and 0.25 ppt) with rock salt, NaCl. Snail densities in ponds at 2.5 ppt salinity were consistently lower than in the other treatments and no trematode infection was noted among snails or catfish in the 2.5 ppt salinity ponds. Both the use of 2.5 ppt NaCl and black carp appear valuable management tools for controlling the digenetic trematode in caffish ponds. [source]

Introgressive hybridization of human and rodent schistosome parasites in western Kenya

Abstract Hybridization and introgression can have important consequences for the evolution, ecology and epidemiology of pathogenic organisms. We examined the dynamics of hybridization between a trematode parasite of humans, Schistosoma mansoni, and its sister species, S. rodhaini, a rodent parasite, in a natural hybrid zone in western Kenya. Using microsatellite markers, rDNA and mtDNA, we showed that hybrids between the two species occur in nature, are fertile and produce viable offspring through backcrosses with S. mansoni. Averaged across collection sites, individuals of hybrid ancestry comprised 7.2% of all schistosomes collected, which is a large proportion given that one of the parental species, S. rodhaini, comprised only 9.1% of the specimens. No F1 individuals were collected and all hybrids represented backcrosses with S. mansoni that were of the first or successive generations. The direction of introgression appears highly asymmetric, causing unidirectional gene flow from the rodent parasite, S. rodhaini, to the human parasite, S. mansoni. Hybrid occurrence was seasonal and most hybrids were collected during the month of September over a 2-year period, a time when S. rodhaini was also abundant. We also examined the sex ratios and phenotypic differences between the hybrids and parental species, including the number of infective stages produced in the snail host and the time of day the infective stages emerge. No statistical differences were found in any of these characteristics, and most of the hybrids showed an emergence pattern similar to that of S. mansoni. One individual, however, showed a bimodal emergence pattern that was characteristic of both parental species. In conclusion, these species maintain their identity despite hybridization, although introgression may cause important alterations of the biology and epidemiology of schistosomiasis in this region. [source]

Fine-scale population structure and dispersal in Biomphalaria glabrata, the intermediate snail host of Schistosoma mansoni, in Venezuela

J. Mavárez
Abstract Biomphalaria glabrata is the main intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in America and one of the most intensely studied species of freshwater snails, yet very little is known about its population biology. Here, we used seven highly polymorphic microsatellite loci to analyse genetic diversity in the Valencia lake basin, which represents the core of the endemic area for schistosomiasis in Venezuela. Populations were sampled at short spatial scale (a few kilometres), both inside the lake and in ponds or rivers near the lake. Our results indicate that B. glabrata essentially cross-fertilizes, with little variation in selfing rates among populations. Our markers detected considerable genetic variation, with an average heterozygosity of 0.60. More diversity per population was found within than outside the lake, suggesting an influence of connectivity among populations on the levels of genetic diversity. A marked population structure was detected and lake populations were less structured than other populations. Most individuals were assigned to their population of origin using an assignment test. No strong demographic signal (e.g. bottleneck) was detected, though lake populations are likely to experience bottlenecks more frequently than the other populations analysed. Differences in gene flow therefore seem to play an important role in population differentiation and in the restoring of genetic diversity in demographically unstable populations. [source]

Lack of molluscan host diversity and the transmission of an emerging parasitic disease in Bolivia

C. Meunier
Abstract Fasciolosis is a re-emerging parasitic disease that affects an increasing number of people in developing countries. The most severe endemic affects the Bolivian Altiplano, where the liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) and its hermaphroditic snail host, Lymnaea truncatula, have been introduced from Europe. To achieve a better understanding of the epidemiological situation and the consequences of the colonization event of this invasive species, genetic analysis of Bolivian snail populations was needed. Here we compare the genetic diversity and population structure of snail samples from the Bolivian Altiplano with samples from the Old World at six polymorphic microsatellite loci. Whereas some variability exists in the snail populations from the Old World, we observe only a single genotype of L. truncatula in the Bolivian Altiplano. We discuss the possible explanations for such a reduction in genetic variability, and, given the high natural parasitism pressures exerted on the snail populations, we discuss the relevance of this result for host,parasite interactions. [source]