Skewed Sex Ratio (skewed + sex_ratio)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Skewed sex ratios and multiple founding in galls of the oak apple gall wasp Biorhiza pallida

ECOLOGICAL ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 1 2003
Rachel J. Atkinson
Abstract. 1. The gall wasp Biorhiza pallida (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) reproduces by cyclical parthenogenesis. The adults of the sexual generation develop within galls (oak apples) that contain many larval cells. 2. Folliot [(1964) Annales Des Sciences Naturelles: Zoologie, 12, 407,564] found asexual generation females to be of three reproductive types. Androphores produce only sons, gynophores produce only daughters, and gynandrophores produce both sons and daughters. In nature, most oak apples give rise to either only males or only females but a proportion produces both sexes. These mixed-sex galls could result either from eggs laid by one or more gynandrophores or from eggs laid by androphores and gynophores developing within a single gall (multiple founding). 3.,Here the frequency of mixed- and single-sex galls was quantified, and morphological and genetic analyses were carried out on the adults emerging from 10 galls to determine the frequency of multiple founding in B. pallida. 4. Seventy-five per cent of 627 galls yielded only one sex. The majority of the remaining 25% had a highly skewed sex ratio. Low genetic variation in B. pallida limited the application of allozyme-based genetic techniques, however seven of the 10 galls analysed in detail, including mixed-sex galls, appeared to have been multiply founded. Contributions by the different foundresses in multiply founded galls were highly skewed. 5. The significance of multiple founding is discussed in the light of possible adaptive scenarios (reduction of parasitoid-induced mortality, avoidance of local stochastic extinction and inbreeding) and possible competition for oviposition sites. [source]


Cottage industry, migration, and marriage in nineteenth-century England

ECONOMIC HISTORY REVIEW, Issue 4 2008
NIGEL GOOSE
There has been considerable debate concerning the impact of the industrial employment of women upon their demographic behaviour in nineteenth-century England. This article assesses the impact of employment in the cottage industry of straw plait and hat making in the county of Hertfordshire, comparing and contrasting districts where the industry was prominent with those where it was not. It is discovered that in 1851 the availability of straw industry employment encouraged earlier marriage, most notably in those parishes where the industry was particularly heavily concentrated, although overall levels of nuptiality and proportions ultimately marrying were similar in straw and non-straw areas alike. By 1871, however, the skewed sex ratio that such employment produced among young adults served to offset this positive effect. As the industry waned in the later nineteenth century, the experience of different regions of the county converged, while throughout the period the data suggest that urban/rural contrasts and the suburbanization of London produced more stark contrasts in female marriage patterns than did the availability of cottage industry employment. [source]


The role of males in the dynamics of ungulate populations

JOURNAL OF ANIMAL ECOLOGY, Issue 6 2002
Atle Mysterud
Summary 1In this review, we focus on how males can affect the population dynamics of ungulates (i) by being a component of population density (and thereby affecting interpretation of log-linear models), and (ii) by considering the mechanisms by which males can actively affect the demographic rates of females. 2We argue that the choice of measure of density is important, and that the inclusion or exclusion of males into models can influence results. For example, we demonstrate that if the dynamics of a population can be described with a first-order auto-regressive process in a log-linear framework, the asymmetry between the effects of females on the male dynamics and vice versa can introduce a second order process, much in the same way that the interaction between disease and host or predator and prey can. It would be useful for researchers with sufficient data to explore the affects of using different density measures. 3In general, even in harvested populations with highly skewed sex ratios, males are usually able to fertilize all females, though detailed studies document a lower proportion of younger females breeding when sex ratios are heavily female biased. It is well documented that the presence of males can induce oestrus in females, and that male age may also be a factor. In populations with both a skewed sex ratio and a young male age structure, calving is delayed and less synchronous. We identify several mechanisms that may be responsible for this. 4Delayed calving may lower summer survival and autumn masses, which may lead to higher winter mortality. If females are born light, they may require another year of growth before they start reproducing. Delayed calving can reduce future fertility of the mother. As the proportion of calves predated during the first few weeks of life is often very high, calving synchrony may also be an important strategy to lower predation rates. 5We argue that the effects of males on population dynamics of ungulates are likely to be non-trivial, and that their potential effects should not be ignored. The mechanisms we discuss may be important , though much more research is required before we can demonstrate they are. [source]


The biology of the bigeye grenadier at South Georgia

JOURNAL OF FISH BIOLOGY, Issue 6 2004
S. A. Morley
The biology of the bigeye grenadier Macrourus holotrachys caught as by-catch in the Patagonian toothfish Dissostichus eleginoides longline fishery conducted around South Georgia was investigated to improve data available for fisheries management. Age estimates suggest that M. holotrachys is a moderately slow growing species (K = 010), reaching ages of >30 years and attaining total lengths (LT) >80 cm (L, = 33). The size at which 50% of females had started to mature (Lint50) for M. holotrachys was 21 cm pre-anal length (LPA) and occurred at c. 9 years old. Estimates of natural mortality and Pauly's growth performance index were found to be low (M = 009 and , = 282 respectively). Gonad maturity stage was described from macroscopic and histological investigation. Mature ovaries had oocytes at all developmental stages with between 22 and 55% likely to be spawned each year. Absolute fecundity ranged from 22 000 to 260 000 eggs and was positively correlated with both pre-anal length and mass. A highly skewed sex ratio of 32 : 1, females : males, was found for specimens caught by longlines but not for a small sample of shallower trawl-caught specimens. It is suggested that females are far more susceptible to longline capture than males. Macrourus holotrachys is a bentho-pelagic predator and scavenger that feeds on a wide range of fishes and invertebrates. The fish are long lived, slow-growing species typical of deep-water grenadiers; fisheries management strategies should reflect their probable susceptibility to overfishing. [source]


Demography of an Afrotropical passerine in a highly fragmented landscape

ANIMAL CONSERVATION, Issue 1 2006
M. Githiru
Abstract Demographic attributes of discrete subpopulations of animals and plants that constitute a larger (meta)population network may affect the strength and direction of local population responses to habitat loss or degradation. To address this question in an Afrotropical context, we studied survival rates, population densities, sex ratios and age distributions in seven white-starred robin Pogonocichla stellata populations inhabiting differently sized forest remnants in a highly fragmented Kenyan landscape. Sex ratios were strongly male biased, especially during the non-breeding season, but the level of bias did not differ between age groups nor fragment sizes. Juvenile to adult ratios were smallest in the medium-sized fragment, but did not differ between the largest and smallest fragments. Low population density combined with a skewed sex ratio in the medium-sized fragment pointed towards a local scarcity of females, which was supported by the presence of unmated territorial males. Based on capture,recapture analysis, all populations were considered stable on average. When combining demographic patterns with those emerging from a recent population genetic study and removal experiment, our results support the notion that small populations inhabiting tiny habitat remnants may play an important role in augmenting the long-term survival of spatially structured populations. [source]


Can the extremely female-biased sex ratio of the social spider mites be explained by Hamilton's local mate competition model?

ECOLOGICAL ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 6 2007
YUKIE SATO
Abstract 1.,Extremely female-biased sex ratios are known in the social spider mite species, Stigmaeopsis longus and S. miscanthi. Whether Hamilton's local mate competition (LMC) theory can explain such sex ratios was investigated. 2.,Significant changes of the progeny sex ratios in the direction predicted by the LMC model were found in both species when the foundress number changed. Therefore, LMC can partly explain the skewed sex ratios in these species. 3.,When the foundress number increased, the progeny sex ratio was still female biased and significantly different from the prediction of the LMC model for haplodiploidy. Relatedness between foundresses could not fully explain the female-biased sex ratios. Therefore, these results suggest that there are factors other than LMC skewing the sex ratios of these species toward female. [source]


Existing theories do not explain sex ratio variation at birth in monomorphic roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)

INTEGRATIVE ZOOLOGY (ELECTRONIC), Issue 1 2007
Stefan Jacob VREUGDENHIL
Abstract The phenomenon of skewed sex ratios at birth has been reported in many ungulate species. So far, no consistent trend has emerged for roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), because male-biased, female-biased and equal sex ratios at birth have all been found. Nevertheless, both the Trivers-Willard hypothesis and the theory of local resource competition have gained support. Despite the great number of studies carried out regarding the ecology of roe deer, too many aspects remain unclear, and contradictory results have been produced with respect to several crucial elements. Without further research, the discussion on which theory applies will therefore remain inconclusive. We put forward the argument that eventually the theories of Trivers-Willard and local resource competition can be considered as being not essentially different. After all, both theories explain the observed skewed sex ratios as being due to the effect of the progeny's sex on the mother's body condition and hence her reproductive success in subsequent years. Furthermore, neither theory is likely to prove to be suitable for roe deer, as several assumptions are unlikely to be met. In roe deer, skewed ratios probably only have a temporal character. As a matter of fact, several observations of skewed sex ratios in birds and mammals did not withstand the accumulation of further data, as sex ratios that were initially believed to be biased turned out to be equal in the long term. This is likely to be the case in roe deer as well. We hypothesize that roe deer, as r-strategists, will produce as many offspring as possible, regardless of sex. [source]


The role of males in the dynamics of ungulate populations

JOURNAL OF ANIMAL ECOLOGY, Issue 6 2002
Atle Mysterud
Summary 1In this review, we focus on how males can affect the population dynamics of ungulates (i) by being a component of population density (and thereby affecting interpretation of log-linear models), and (ii) by considering the mechanisms by which males can actively affect the demographic rates of females. 2We argue that the choice of measure of density is important, and that the inclusion or exclusion of males into models can influence results. For example, we demonstrate that if the dynamics of a population can be described with a first-order auto-regressive process in a log-linear framework, the asymmetry between the effects of females on the male dynamics and vice versa can introduce a second order process, much in the same way that the interaction between disease and host or predator and prey can. It would be useful for researchers with sufficient data to explore the affects of using different density measures. 3In general, even in harvested populations with highly skewed sex ratios, males are usually able to fertilize all females, though detailed studies document a lower proportion of younger females breeding when sex ratios are heavily female biased. It is well documented that the presence of males can induce oestrus in females, and that male age may also be a factor. In populations with both a skewed sex ratio and a young male age structure, calving is delayed and less synchronous. We identify several mechanisms that may be responsible for this. 4Delayed calving may lower summer survival and autumn masses, which may lead to higher winter mortality. If females are born light, they may require another year of growth before they start reproducing. Delayed calving can reduce future fertility of the mother. As the proportion of calves predated during the first few weeks of life is often very high, calving synchrony may also be an important strategy to lower predation rates. 5We argue that the effects of males on population dynamics of ungulates are likely to be non-trivial, and that their potential effects should not be ignored. The mechanisms we discuss may be important , though much more research is required before we can demonstrate they are. [source]