Shallow Marine Environment (shallow + marine_environment)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Stratigraphic and Morphologic Constraints on the Weichselian Glacial History of Northern Prins Karls Forland, Western Svalbard

Torbjörn Andersson
Uncertainty remains if ice,free marginal areas existed on the west coast of Svalbard during the Late Weichselian. Field mapping and correlation to well dated raised beach sequences on nearby Brøggerhalvøya reveal the existence of two generations of raised beach deposits on northern Prins Karls Forland. Distinct beach ridges rise up to the inferred Late Weichselian marine limit at 18 m a.s.l. Discontinuous pre,Late Weichselian beach deposits rise from the Late Weichselian marine limit up to approximately 60 m a.s.l. Expansion of local glaciers during the Late Weichselian is indicated by the limited distribution of a till that overlies parts of the older beach sequence. Stratigraphic data and chronological control indicate deposition in a shallow marine environment before 50 ka bp. Correlation to stratigraphic sites on western Svalbard suggests deposition at c. 70 ±10 ka. Glaciotectonic structures disclose expansion of local glaciers into the For,landsundet basin during stage 4 or late stage 5 high relative sea level. Palaeotemperature estimates derived from amino acid ratios indicate that during the time interval c. 70 to 10 ka the area was exposed to cold subaerial temperatures with low rates of racemization. Pedogenesis and frost,shattered clasts at the contact between c. 70 ka deposits and Holocene deposits further indicate a prolonged period of subaerial polar desert conditions during this time interval. The evidence suggests that the Barents Sea ice sheet did not extend across northern Prins Karls Forland during the Weichselian. It is inferred that during the Late Weichselian, ice was drained throughout the major fjords on the west coast of Svalbard and that relatively large marginal areas experienced polar desert conditions and minor expansions of local glaciers. [source]

Late Miocene fish otoliths from the Colombacci Formation (Northern Apennines, Italy): implications for the Messinian ,Lago-mare' event

Giorgio Carnevale
Abstract A fish otolith assemblage from the Messinian ,Lago-mare' deposits of the Colombacci Formation cropping out in the Montecalvo in Foglia Syncline, Marche, central Italy, is described. The assemblage displays a low diversity and consists of seven taxa belonging to three families: the Gobiidae, Myctophidae and Sciaenidae. Sciaenid otoliths are the most abundant elements representing 88% of the entire assemblage. The palaeoecological analysis reveals a coastal shallow marine environment strongly influenced by continental outflow. The low diversity and high abundance of the euryecious sciaenids are indicative of a very simplified food web, which probably represented an ecological response to the fluctuating environmental parameters and available food resources. The fish remains documented here provide an unambiguous evidence that normal marine conditions were present in the Mediterranean, at least in the upper part of the ,Lago-mare' event, and unquestionably demonstrate that the marine refilling preceded the Mio-Pliocene boundary. These findings clearly demonstrate that fishes, because of their mobility and migratory behaviour, represent a useful tool for the large-scale interpretation of the environmental conditions of the Messinian Mediterranean water body. The necessity of a new scenario of palaeoenvironmental evolution for the post-evaporitic Messinian of the Mediterranean is also discussed. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The Early and Middle Miocene transgression at the southern border of the North Sea Basin (northern Belgium)

Stephen Louwye
Abstract The Lower,Middle Miocene Berchem Formation of northern Belgium is an essentially sandy sequence with a varying glauconite content and often abundant shelly intervals. The formation was deposited in a shallow marine environment and rests unconformably on stiff Rupelian clays or Chattian sands. The lithological recognition of the four members (Edegem Sands, Kiel Sands, Antwerpen Sands and Zonderschot Sands members) of the Berchem Formation solely based on lithological criteria proved to be difficult, especially in boreholes. The geometry of the Formation in the subsurface of northern Belgium remained largely unknown. Diverse and well preserved dinoflagellate cyst associations have been recovered from the four members in seven boreholes and two outcrops, and allow a refinement of the biostratigraphy of these deposits. A Miocene biozonation defined in mid-latitude shallow marine deposits in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of the USA (Salisbury Embayment, Maryland) is readily applicable to this material, and has led to a detailed stratigraphic assessment of each member. Three detailed profiles depicting the distribution of the biozones in the subsurface of northern Belgium allow the reconstruction of the geometry and depositional history of the Berchem Formation. The oldest Miocene deposits are of early Burdigalian age and they testify to a transgression, which invaded Belgium from a north,northwestern direction. The maximum flooding took place during early Serravallian times. The upper boundary of the formation is a major erosional surface of late Serravallian or (slightly) younger age. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

AVO investigations of shallow marine sediments

M. Riedel
Amplitude-variation-with-offset (AVO) analysis is based on the Zoeppritz equations, which enable the computation of reflection and transmission coefficients as a function of offset or angle of incidence. High-frequency (up to 700 Hz) AVO studies, presented here, have been used to determine the physical properties of sediments in a shallow marine environment (20 m water depth). The properties that can be constrained are P- and S-wave velocities, bulk density and acoustic attenuation. The use of higher frequencies requires special analysis including careful geometry and source and receiver directivity corrections. In the past, marine sediments have been modelled as elastic materials. However, viscoelastic models which include absorption are more realistic. At angles of incidence greater than 40°, AVO functions derived from viscoelastic models differ from those with purely elastic properties in the absence of a critical angle of incidence. The influence of S-wave velocity on the reflection coefficient is small (especially for low S-wave velocities encountered at the sea-floor). Thus, it is difficult to extract the S-wave parameter from AVO trends. On the other hand, P-wave velocity and density show a considerably stronger effect. Attenuation (described by the quality factor Q) influences the reflection coefficient but could not be determined uniquely from the AVO functions. In order to measure the reflection coefficient in a seismogram, the amplitudes of the direct wave and the sea-floor reflection in a common-midpoint (CMP) gather are determined and corrected for spherical divergence as well as source and streamer directivity. At CMP locations showing the different AVO characteristics of a mud and a boulder clay, the sediment physical properties are determined by using a sequential-quadratic-programming (SQP) inversion technique. The inverted sediment physical properties for the mud are: P-wave velocity ,=1450±25 m/s, S-wave velocity ,=90±35 m/s, density ,=1220±45 kg/m3, quality factor for P-wave QP=15±200, quality factor for S-wave QS=10±30. The inverted sediment physical properties for the boulder clay are: ,=1620±45 m/s,,=360±200 m/s,,=1380±85 kg/m3,QP=790±660,QS=25±10. [source]

Palaeoecology and depositional environments of the Tendaguru Beds (Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous, Tanzania)

Martin Aberhan
Abstract The Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous Tendaguru Beds (Tanzania, East Africa) have been well known for nearly a century for their diverse dinosaur assemblages. Here, we present sedimentological and palaeontological data collected by the German-Tanzanian Tendaguru Expedition 2000 in an attempt to reconstruct the palaeo-ecosystems of the Tendaguru Beds at their type locality. Our reconstructions are based on sedimentological data and on a palaeoecological analysis of macroinvertebrates, microvertebrates, plant fossils and microfossils (ostracods, foraminifera, charophytes, palynomorphs). In addition, we included data from previous expeditions, particularly those on the dinosaur assemblages. The environmental model of the Tendaguru Beds presented herein comprises three broad palaeoenvironmental units in a marginal marine setting: (1) Lagoon-like, shallow marine environments above fair weather wave base and with evidence of tides and storms. These formed behind barriers such as ooid bar and siliciclastic sand bar complexes and were generally subject to minor salinity fluctuations. (2) Extended tidal flats and low-relief coastal plains. These include low-energy, brackish coastal lakes and ponds as well as pools and small fluvial channels of coastal plains in which the large dinosaurs were buried. Since these environments apparently were, at best, poorly vegetated, the main feeding grounds of giant sauropods must have been elsewhere. Presumably, tidal flats and coastal plains were visited by dinosaurs primarily during periods of drought. (3) Vegetated hinterland. Vegetation of this environment can only be inferred indirectly from plant material transported into the other depositional environments. Vegetation was dominated by a diverse conifer flora, which apparently formed part of the food source of large herbivorous sauropods. Evidence from various sources suggests a subtropical to tropical palaeoclimate, characterised by seasonal rainfall alternating with a pronounced dry season during the Late Jurassic. In Early Cretaceous times, sedimentological and palaeontological proxies suggest a climatic shift towards more humid conditions. Die Tendaguru-Schichten von Tansania in Ostafrika (Oberjura bis Unterkreide) sind als Lagerstätte oberjurassischer Dinosaurier seit nahezu einem Jahrhundert weltweit bekannt. Anhand von sedimentologischen und paläontologischen Daten, die während der Deutsch-Tansanischen Tendaguru Expedition 2000 im Typus-Gebiet der Tendaguru-Schichten gewonnen wurden, werden Paläo-Ökosysteme rekonstruiert. Grundlage der Rekonstruktionen sind die Auswertung sedimentologischer Daten sowie die paläo-ökologische Analyse von Makroinvertebraten, Mikrovertebraten, pflanzlichen Fossilien und Mikrofossilien (Ostrakoden, Foraminiferen, Charophyten, Palynomorphen). Darüber hinaus werden Informationen über Dinosaurier berücksichtigt, die bei früheren Expeditionen gewonnen wurden. Das hier vorgestellte Ablagerungsmodell der Tendaguru-Schichten umfaßt drei Teilbereiche eines randlich marinen Sedimentationsraumes, die wie folgt gekennzeichnet werden können: (1) Lagunen-artige, marine Flachwasserbereiche, die oberhalb der Schönwetter-Wellenbasis lagen und unter deutlichem Einfluß von Gezeiten und Stürmen standen. Sie waren vom offenen Meer durch Barrieren, wie Ooidbarren und siliziklastischen Sandbarrenkomplexen, getrennt und wiesen einen leicht schwankenden Salzgehalt auf. (2) Ausgedehnte Wattgebiete und flache Küstenebenen. Dort befanden sich niedrig-energetische, brackische Strandseen und Teiche sowie Tümpel und kleinere Flußrinnen, in denen die großen Dinosaurier eingebettet wurden. Da diese Lebensräume bestenfalls dürftig bewachsen waren, müssen die Nahrungsquellen und der eigentliche Lebensraum der riesigen Sauropoden anderswo gelegen haben. Vermutlich wurden die Wattgebiete und Flachküsten von Dinosauriern vorrangig in den Trockenzeiten aufgesucht. (3 ) Bewachsenes Hinterland. Die Vegetation dieses Lebensraumes kann nur indirekt aus Pflanzenresten erschlossen werden, die in die anderen Ablagerungsraume transportiert wurden. Die Vegetation wurde von einer diversen Koniferenflora dominiert, die zumindest teilweise die Nahrungsgrundlage der großen, herbivoren Sauropoden bildete. Sedimentologische und paläontologische Indikatoren sprechen für ein subtropisches bis tropisches Klima wahrend der späten Jurazeit mit einem jahreszeitlichen Wechsel von Regenfällen und ausgeprägten Trockenzeiten. In der frühen Kreidezeit deutet sich ein Wechsel zu starker humiden Bedingungen an. [source]

From the intra-desert ridges to the marine carbonate island chain: middle to late Permian (Upper Rotliegend,Lower Zechstein) of the Wolsztyn,Pogorzela high, west Poland

Hubert Kiersnowski
Abstract The tectonic Wolsztyn,Pogorzela palaeo-High (WPH) is the south-eastern termination of the Brandenburg,Wolsztyn High (western Poland), which during Late Permian times was an intra-basin ridge surrounded by Upper Rotliegend sedimentary basins within the Southern Permian Basin. The geological history and structural framework of the WPH are complex. The High belongs to the Variscan Externides, consisting at present of strongly folded, faulted and eroded Viséan to Namurian flysch deposits capped by a thick cover of Upper Carboniferous,Lower Permian volcanic rocks. This sedimentary-volcanic complex was strongly fragmented and vertically differentiated by tectonic movements and subsequently eroded, resulting in the deposition of coarse clastics surrounding uplifted tectonic blocks. During late Rotliegend time, arid climatic conditions significantly influenced occurrences of specific facies assemblages: alluvial, fluvial, aeolian and playa. Sedimentological study helped to recognize the interplay of tectonic and palaeoclimatic factors and to understand the phenomenon of aeolian sandstones interbedded with coarse deposits of alluvial cones close to fault scarps. Subsequent tectonic and possible thermal subsidence of the studied area was synchronous with inundation by the Zechstein Sea. The rapid inundation process allowed for the preservation of an almost perfectly protected Uppermost Rotliegend landscape. Based on 3D seismic data from the base Zechstein reflector, a reconstruction of Rotliegend palaeogeomorphology was carried out, which shows examples of tectonic rejuvenation of particular tectonic blocks within the WPH area before inundation by the Zechstein Sea. The inundation led to the deposition of the marine Kupferschiefer Shale followed by the Zechstein Limestone. In the deeper parts of the basin the latter is developed in thin basinal facies: in shallow parts (e.g. uplifted tectonic blocks forming in some cases islands), carbonate buildups were formed. The remarkable thickness of those buildups (bryozoan reefs) is interpreted as due to stable tectonic subsidence together with a rise of sea level. A detailed study of carbonate buildups has showed that their internal structure reflects changes in shallow marine environments and even emersion events, caused by sea-level oscillations and tectonic movements of the reef substrate. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]