Self-completion Questionnaire (self-completion + questionnaire)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Under-reporting of alcohol consumption in household surveys: a comparison of quantity,frequency, graduated,frequency and recent recall

ADDICTION, Issue 8 2004
Tim Stockwell
ABSTRACT Aim To compare alternative survey methods for estimating (a) levels of at risk alcohol consumption and (b) total volume of alcohol consumed per capita in comparison with estimates from sales data and to investigate reasons for under-reporting. Setting The homes of respondents who were eligible and willing to participate. Participants A total of 21 674 Australians aged 14 years and older. Design A 2001 national household survey of drug use, experiences and attitudes with weights applied for age, sex, geographic location and day of week of interview. Measures Self-completion questionnaire using quantity,frequency (QF) and graduated,frequency (GF) methods plus two questions about consumption ,yesterday': one in standard drinks, another with empirically based estimates of drink size and strength. Results The highest estimate of age 14 + per capita consumption of 7.00 l of alcohol derived from recall of consumption ,yesterday' or 76.8% of the official estimate. The lowest was QF with 49.8%. When amount consumed ,yesterday' was recalled in standard drinks this estimate was 5.27 l. GF questions yielded higher estimates than did QF questions both for total volume (5.25 versus 4.54 l) and also for the proportion of the population at risk of long-term alcohol-related harm (10.6%versus 8.1%). With the detailed ,yesterday' method 61% of all consumption was on high risk drinking days. Conclusions Questions about typical quantities of alcohol consumed can lead to underestimates, as do questions about drinking ,standard drinks' of alcohol. Recent recall methods encourage fuller reporting of volumes plus more accurate estimates of unrecorded consumption and the proportion of total alcohol consumption that places drinkers at risk of harm. However, they do not capture longer-term drinking patterns. It is recommended that both recent recall and measures of longer-term drinking patterns are included in national surveys. [source]

Knowledge, attitudes and health outcomes in HIV-infected travellers to the USA

HIV MEDICINE, Issue 4 2006
M Mahto
Background The USA bans entry to non-citizens unless they obtain a waiver visa. Aim To establish how many people with HIV infection travelled to the USA, whether they were aware of the travel restriction, whether they travelled with a waiver visa and HIV inclusive medical insurance and how they managed with their antiretroviral medication (ARV). Design Collation of data from cross-sectional studies conducted independently at three different medical centres, Manchester, Brighton and London, using a structured self-completion questionnaire. Results The overall response rate was 66.6% (1113 respondents). 349 (31%) had travelled to the USA since testing HIV positive, of whom only 14.3% travelled with a waiver visa. 64% and 62% of the respondents at Manchester and Brighton were aware of the need of a waiver visa. 68.5% (212) were on ARV medication at the time of travel and, of these, 11.3% stopped their medication. Of those taking ARV medication, only 25% took a doctors' letter, 11.7% posted their medication in advance. Of those discontinuing treatment (n=27), 55.5% sought medical advice before stopping, 11 were on NNRTI-based regimen and one developed NNRTI-based mutation. Only 27% took up HIV inclusive medical insurance. Many patients reported negative practical and emotional experiences resulting from travel restrictions. Conclusion The majority of HIV patients travel to the USA without the waiver visa, with nearly half doing so with insufficient planning and advice. A significant minority (11.3%) stop their medication in an unplanned manner, risking the development of drug resistence. [source]

Assessment of patient satisfaction with pharmaceutical services in a Nigerian teaching hospital

Azuka C. Oparah lecturer
ABSTRACT Objective To assess patients' satisfaction with pharmaceutical services using an"ideal referent" model, and to further explore the validity of an existing patient satisfaction instrument. Method A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a sample of 500 outpatients recruited consecutively at the University of Benin teaching hospital, Nigeria. A self-completion questionnaire that employed a Likert-type scale was used. Data were used to calculate scores on a scale that ranged from 20 to 100, with an assumed midpoint of 60. Descriptive statistics on the sample characteristics and questionnaire items were computed including means, standard deviations and frequency distributions. Varimax rotation with Kaiser normalisation was employed in principal factor analysis. Student's t -test and one-way ANOVA were used for inferential statistics. Key findings The instrument reliability was determined to be 0.9641 and was comparable to the reference study. Nearly half of the patients (46%) rated the amount of time the pharmacist offered to spend with them as poor. About one-third rated promptness of prescription service as poor. Only 49% felt satisfied with the pharmaceutical services. Overall, pharmacy services received a satisfaction rating of 56.0424.49, below the midpoint. Perceived satisfaction was significantly higher in "friendly explanation" than in "managing therapy" (t=3.916; P<0.0001). Conclusion The study provides evidence that patients experience low satisfaction with current pharmaceutical services at the study hospital. The sociodemographic characteristics of patients were not associated with their level of satisfaction. We further confirm the validity of the patient satisfaction questionnaire in a Nigerian practice setting. [source]

Do new roles contribute to job satisfaction and retention of staff in nursing and professions allied to medicine?

BA (HONS), K. Collins RGN
Background Studies have suggested that job dissatisfaction is a major factor influencing nurses' and occupational therapists' intention to leave their profession. It has also been related to turnover of qualified nurses. However, literature relating to these factors among nurses and professions allied to medicine in innovative roles is scarce. Aims This paper considers the views of 452 nurses and 162 professionals allied to medicine (PAMs) in innovative roles, on job satisfaction, career development, intention to leave the profession and factors seen as hindering and enhancing effective working. Methods,A self-completion questionnaire was developed as part of a larger study exploring new roles in practice (The ENRiP Study). Findings Overall there was a high level of job satisfaction in both groups (nurses and PAMs). Job satisfaction was significantly related to feeling integrated within the post-holder's own professional group and with immediate colleagues, feeling that the role had improved their career prospects, feeling adequately prepared and trained for the role, and working to protocol. Sixty-eight percent (n=415) of respondents felt the role had enhanced their career prospects but over a quarter of respondents (n=163; 27%) said they would leave their profession if they could. Low job satisfaction was significantly related to intention to leave the profession. Conclusions The vast majority of post-holders in innovative roles felt that the role provided them with a sense of job satisfaction. However, it is essential that the post-holders feel adequately prepared to carry out the role and that the boundaries of their practice are well defined. Career progression and professional integration both being associated with job satisfaction. [source]


DipNS, Margaret Higgins RN
SUMMARY Vascular access hygiene is an integral component of haemodialysis care. Ensuring nurses possess sufficient knowledge and utilise recommended guidelines on infection control is essential for safe practice and patient safety. The study aimed to investigate nurses' knowledge and practice of vascular access infection control among adult haemodialysis patients in the Republic of Ireland. A confidential self-completion questionnaire was sent to all 190 qualified nurses employed in nine haemodialysis units in the Republic of Ireland, which assessed knowledge and behaviour in infection control. Although 92% of respondents reported that policies had been developed by their units and 47% had received infection control education in the previous year, knowledge and adherence to best practice demonstrated significant scope for improvement. The study recommended the development of standard guidelines and regular reviews and updates of policies. Systems should also be developed to ensure a high level of compliance. [source]

What do medical students read and why?

A survey of medical students in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England
Objectives There is increasing interest in the role of medical humanities within the undergraduate curriculum, but we know little about medical students' views on this or about their reading habits. Our study explored the reading habits of medical students, and their attitudes towards literature and the introduction of humanities into the curriculum. Design Self-completion questionnaire survey. Setting Newcastle University and Medical School. Subjects All first-, second- and third-year undergraduate medical students (384), biology students (151) and a random sample of law students (137) were sent a self-completion questionnaire to assess reading levels, attitudes towards literature and the medical humanities (medical students) and the perceived benefits of reading. Results Medical students read widely beyond their course and articulate a range of benefits from this, including: increasing awareness of life outside their experience; introspection or inspiration; emotional responses; and stimulation of an interest in reading or literature. Of the medical students, 40% (103/258) read one or more fiction books per month, but 75% (193) read fewer non-curricular books since starting university, largely because of time pressures, work, study or academic pressures and restricted access to books. A total of 77% (194) thought that medical humanities should definitely or possibly be offered in the curriculum, but of these 73% (141) thought it should be optional and 89% (172) that it should not be examined. Conclusions Medical students read literature for a variety of very positive and valued reasons, but have found leisure reading harder to maintain since starting university. They support inclusion of the humanities in medical education, but have mixed views on how this should be done. [source]

A national medical education needs' assessment of interns and the development of an intern education and training programme

Frances B Hannon
A needs' assessment of interns was undertaken using a self-completion questionnaire and a semistructured interview. The questionnaire explored to what degree graduates had been helped to acquire a range of competencies and professional characteristics. In the interviews graduates discussed their self-perceived learning needs, their educational and training experiences and made suggestions. A 25% random sample of 1996 graduate doctors was selected from the five medical schools in Ireland (n=95). The overall response rate was 88% (n=84). The software package SPSS was utilized to carry out descriptive statistics on the questionnaire data while the interview data were analysed qualitatively. Of the responders, 91% reported that they were not prepared for all the skills needed as an intern. History taking and clinical examination were considered well covered at the undergraduate level but little training was received in a range of professional competencies and personal characteristics. Formal education and training during the intern year was found to be poor. However, some skills and characteristics improved during the year as a result of work experience. In the interviews the graduates explored educational issues. They considered an improved clinical experience throughout the undergraduate years to be at the heart of curriculum development but stressed that, in order to succeed, it would have to be accompanied by leadership within the healthcare system and efforts to improve the learning environment. [source]

Comparing knowledge and perceived risk related to the human papilloma virus among Australian women of diverse sexual orientations

Ruth McNair
Abstract Objectives: The study compared levels of awareness of human papilloma virus (HPV) as a sexually transmissible infection (STI) between women of different sexual orientations. It also examined self-reported risk factors for HPV infection, perceived level of personal risk, and willingness to have the HPV vaccine. Methods: Recruitment occurred through community sampling and data was collected using a self-completion questionnaire. Results: A convenience sample of 349 women completed the questionnaire in early 2007, 309 were sexually active; 47.6% had lifetime sexual partners of both genders, 26.9% had only male partners, and 25.5% had only female partners. Women with partners of both genders were more likely to have ever had a pap test but were also more likely to report an abnormal result (OR 3.19) than women with only male partners. Only 68% of the sample had heard of HPV and women with partners of both genders were significantly more likely to be aware than women with only male partners (OR 2.56). Forty-four per cent did not know how HPV was transmitted and less than half correctly identified HPV-associated clinical problems, with no differences according to gender of partners. The majority of women had risk factors for HPV, however, few felt personally at risk. Conclusions: The very low personal risk perception for HPV, particularly among women who have female and male sexual partners, suggests the need for targeted education for this group regarding HPV transmission and prevention. Implications: Health promotion regarding HPV should be broadened to specifically include information about HPV as an STI between women. [source]

The relative efficacy of two levels of a primary care intervention for family members affected by the addiction problem of a close relative: a randomized trial

ADDICTION, Issue 1 2009
Alex Copello
ABSTRACT Objectives A randomized trial to compare two levels of an intervention (full versus brief) for use by primary health-care professionals with family members affected by the problematic drug or alcohol use of a close relative. Design A prospective cluster randomized comparative trial of the two interventions. Setting A total of 136 primary care practices in two study areas within the West Midlands and the South West regions of England. Participants A total of 143 family members affected by the alcohol or drug problem of a relative were recruited into the study by primary health-care professionals. All recruited family members were seen on at least one occasion by the professional delivering the intervention and 129 (90 %) were followed-up at 12 weeks. Main outcome measures Two validated and standardized self-completion questionnaires measuring physical and psychological symptoms of stress (Symptom Rating Test) and behavioural coping (Coping Questionnaire) experienced by the family members. It was predicted that the full intervention would show increased reduction in both symptoms and coping when compared to the brief intervention. Results The primary analysis adjusted for clustering, baseline symptoms and stratifying variables (location and professional group) showed that there were no significant differences between the two trial arms. The symptom score at follow-up was 0.23 [95% confidence interval (CI): ,3.65, +4.06] higher in the full intervention arm than in the brief intervention arm, and the coping score at follow-up was 0.12 (95% CI: ,5.12, +5.36) higher in the full intervention arm than in the brief intervention arm. Conclusions A well-constructed self-help manual delivered by a primary care professional may be as effective for family members as several face-to-face sessions with the professional. [source]

A longitudinal study of the effects of adolescent cannabis use on high school completion

ADDICTION, Issue 5 2003
Michael T. Lynskey
ABSTRACT Objective ,To examine the extent to which weekly cannabis use during mid-adolescence may increase the risk of early school-leaving. Setting ,A prospective study of a general population sample of adolescents studied from ages 15,21 years in Melbourne, Australia. Method ,Computer-assisted self-completion questionnaires and telephone interviews conducted in six waves at ages 15,18 and again at age 21 in a sample of 1601 male and female school students. Results ,Weekly cannabis use, assessed prospectively, was associated with significantly increased risk of early school-leaving. This effect remained after adjustment for a range of prospectively assessed covariates including demographic characteristics, other substance use, psychiatric morbidity and antisocial behavior. There was suggestive evidence of an interaction between weekly cannabis use and age with the effects of weekly cannabis use on early school-leaving being strongest at the youngest ages and diminishing progressively with age. Conclusions ,Early regular cannabis use (weekly use at age 15) is associated with increased risk of early school-leaving. These effects of regular cannabis use may diminish with increasing age and are likely to operate through the social context within which cannabis is used and obtained. [source]

Reported Barriers to the Implementation of Person-Centred Planning for People with Intellectual Disabilities in the UK

Janet Robertson
Background, Research in the US and UK has demonstrated the effectiveness of person-centred planning (PCP) for people with intellectual disabilities. However, it is important to acknowledge problems that arise when implementing PCP. This paper considers barriers to PCP reported during a longitudinal study of the impact of PCP. Methods, Person-centred planning was introduced over a 2-year period for 93 people of whom 65 had a plan developed. Information was collected regarding barriers to PCP every 3 months from key informants using self-completion questionnaires. Results, Barriers to PCP were widespread particularly in relation to: availability of trained facilitators; availability of services; lack of time and reluctance of people other than paid support staff to engage in the PCP process. Conclusions, Services need to be aware of potential barriers to PCP so that strategies can be developed to overcome them, the first of which should be the ongoing training and support of facilitators. [source]

Two-Year Outcome of an Intervention Program for University Students Who Have Parents With Alcohol Problems: A Randomized Controlled Trial

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 11 2007
Helena Hansson
Background:, Only a few intervention studies aiming to change high-risk drinking behavior have involved university students with heredity for alcohol problems. This study evaluated the effects after 2 years on drinking patterns and coping behavior of intervention programs for students with parents with alcohol problems. Method:, In total, 82 university students (57 women and 25 men, average age 25 years) with at least 1 parent with alcohol problems were included in the study. The students were randomly assigned to 1 of the 3 programs: (i) alcohol intervention program, (ii) coping intervention program, or (iii) combination program. All the 3 intervention programs were manual based and individually implemented during 2 2-hour sessions, 4 weeks apart. Before the participants were randomly assigned, all were subjected to an individual baseline assessment. This assessment contained both a face-to-face interview and 6 self-completion questionnaires: the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, estimated Blood Alcohol Concentration, Short Index of Problems, the Symptom Checklist-90, Coping with Parents' Abuse Questionnaire, and The Interview Schedule for Social Interaction (ISSI). Follow-up interviews were conducted after 1 and 2 years, respectively. The results after 1 year have previously been reported. Results:, All participants finished the baseline assessment, accepted and completed the intervention. Ninety-five percent of the students completed the 24-month follow-up assessment. Only the group receiving the combination program continued to improve their drinking pattern significantly (p < 0.05) from the 12-month follow-up to the 24-month follow-up. The improvements in this group were significantly better than in the other 2 groups. The group receiving only alcohol intervention remained at the level of improvement achieved at the 12-month follow-up. The improvements in coping behavior achieved at the 12-month follow-up remained at the 24-month follow-up for all the 3 groups, i.e., regardless of intervention program. Conclusion:, Positive effects of alcohol intervention between 1 and 2 years were found only in the combined intervention group, contrary to the 1-year results with effects of alcohol intervention with or without a combination with coping intervention. [source]

Thalamic atrophy associated with painful osteoarthritis of the hip is reversible after arthroplasty: A longitudinal voxel-based morphometric study

Stephen E. Gwilym
Objective Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) is a method of assessing brain gray matter volume that has previously been applied to various chronic pain conditions. From this previous work, it appears that chronic pain is associated with altered brain morphology. The present study was undertaken to assess these potential alterations in patients with painful hip osteoarthritis (OA). Methods We studied 16 patients with unilateral right-sided hip pain, before and 9 months after hip arthroplasty. This enabled comparison of gray matter volume in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain versus healthy controls, as well as identification of any changes in volume following alleviation of pain (after surgery). Assessment involved self-completion questionnaires to assess pain, function, and psychosocial variables, and magnetic resonance imaging scanning of the brain for VBM analysis. Results Significant differences in brain gray matter volume between healthy controls and patients with painful hip arthritis were seen. Specifically, areas of the thalamus in patients with chronic OA pain exhibited decreased gray matter volume. Furthermore, when these preoperative changes were compared with the brain morphology of the patients 9 months after surgery, the areas of reduced thalamic gray matter volume were found to have "reversed" to levels seen in healthy controls. Conclusion Our findings confirm that gray matter volume decreases within the left thalamus in the presence of chronic pain and disability in patients with hip OA. The results also show that these thalamic volume changes reverse after hip arthroplasty and are associated with decreased pain and increased function. These findings have potential implications with regard to optimizing the timing of orthopedic interventions such as arthroplasty. [source]

Knowledge of and attitude towards circumcision of adult Korean males by age

S-J Oh
Aim: Circumcision is widely practised in Korea, but little is known regarding the public's attitude towards circumcision. This study was designed to evaluate the knowledge and the general opinion of Korean adult males towards circumcision. Methods: Fifteen hundred self-completion questionnaires were distributed to adult males in five decadal age groups ranging from 10 to 59 y old. Questions concerning opinions regarding the necessity, reasons, potential benefits and disadvantages of circumcision, as well as the role of peer pressure upon the decision to circumcise were included. Completed questionnaires were collected and analysed statistically. Results: The achieved response rate was 62.7%. 73.1% believed that circumcision is necessary, while 7.1% believed it is not necessary. The principal reason for circumcision was to improve penile hygiene (77.9%). 68.7% did not prefer neonatal circumcision regardless of the respondent's age. The major reason was fear of pain (36.9%). Peer pressure was one of the most influential factors when deciding upon circumcision: 60.8% believed that they might be ridiculed by their peer group unless circumcised, and the younger the age of the respondent, the more frequently this opinion was held (p > 0.05). 62.7% thought that circumcision would prevent genital tract infection of the sexual partner. Respondents with older age tended to emphasize improved sexual potency (p > 0.05). Conclusions: This study indicates that common beliefs of adult males about circumcision in Korea are relatively homogeneous. Tailored education about circumcision is needed. [source]