Average Pain Score (average + pain_score)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Short-Term Side Effects of Fractional Photothermolysis

Galen H. Fisher MD
Objective:. To ascertain the immediate and short-term side effects of fractional photothermolysis for the treatment of a variety of skin disorders involving the face, neck, chest, and hands. Methods. Physician-administered questionnaires were given during 60 follow-up visits for fractional photothermolysis treatment for a variety of facial skin disorders in patients with skin types ranging from I to IV. The questionnaire addressed 14 possible side effects, pain, and limitation of social activities. In addition, all patients were asked about any additional side effects not mentioned in the survey. An analysis of the data was performed once 60 surveys had been collected. Results. All patients (100%) undergoing fractional photothermolysis had transient post-treatment erythema. Other frequently reported post-treatment side effects were transient and included facial edema (82%), dry skin (86.6%), flaking (60%), a few (one to three) small, superficial scratches (46.6%), pruritis (37%), and bronzing (26.6%). Other more rarely reported effects included transient increased sensitivity (10%) and acneiform eruption (10%). Most patients reported that the pain level was easily tolerated, with an average pain score of 4.6 on a scale of 10. Most patients (72%) reported limiting social engagements for an average of 2 days after treatment. There were no long-lasting adverse events noted in our survey. Conclusion. Fractional photothermolysis to treat dermatologic conditions on the face, neck, chest, and hands is a well-tolerated and safe procedure with several immediate, and slightly delayed, post-treatment side effects. In our experience, these side effects were transient and limited to erythema, edema, dry skin, flaking skin, superficial scratches, pruritis, increased sensitivity, and acneiform eruption. Importantly, we did not see the development of post-treatment scarring, herpetic activation, hypopigmentation, hyperpigmentation, persistent erythema, persistent edema, or infection. [source]

Oral Glucose Solution as Pain Relief in Newborns: Results of a Clinical Trial

BIRTH, Issue 2 2010
Ben Dilen RN
Abstract:, Background:,It was long believed that newborns could not experience pain. As it is now documented that newborns have all the necessary systems to perceive pain, pain management can no longer be ignored. The objective of this study is to investigate which concentration of glucose is most effective in reducing pain for venipuncture in the newborn. Methods:,This double-blind clinical trial of 304 newborns was conducted on a maternity and neonatal ward (neonatal medium intensive care unit). During at least 1 month, one of the four selected solutions (10, 20, 30% glucose, and placebo) was administered orally, 2 minutes before the venipuncture was performed. The pain from the skin puncture was scored using a validated pain scale (the "Leuven Pain Scale"). Results:,This study showed a significantly lower average pain score in the 30 percent glucose group (3.99) when compared with the placebo group (8.43). The average pain scores in the 20 percent glucose group (5.26) and the 10 percent glucose group (5.92) were also significantly lower than those in the placebo group. Conclusion:,Oral administration of 2 mL of 30 percent glucose 2 minutes before the venipuncture provides the most effective pain reduction in newborns. (BIRTH 37:2 June 2010) [source]

Unilateral groin surgery in children: will the addition of an ultrasound-guided ilioinguinal nerve block enhance the duration of analgesia of a single-shot caudal block?

Summary Background:, Inguinal hernia repair, hydrocelectomy, and orchidopexy are commonly performed surgical procedures in children. Postoperative pain control is usually provided with a single-shot caudal block. Blockade of the ilioinguinal nerve may lead to additional analgesia. The aim of this double-blind, randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the efficacy of an adjuvant blockade of the ilioinguinal nerve using ultrasound (US) guidance at the end of the procedure with local anesthetic vs normal saline and to explore the potential for prolongation of analgesia with decreased need for postoperative pain medication. Methods:, Fifty children ages 1,6 years scheduled for unilateral inguinal hernia repair, hydrocelectomy, orchidopexy, or orchiectomy were prospectively randomized into one of two groups: Group S that received an US-guided ilioinguinal nerve block with 0.1 ml·kg,1 of preservative-free normal saline and Group B that received an US-guided nerve block with 0.1 ml·kg,1 of 0.25% bupivacaine with 1 : 200 000 epinephrine at the conclusion of the surgery. After induction of anesthesia but prior to surgical incision, all patients received caudal anesthesia with 0.7 ml·kg,1 of 0.125% bupivacaine with 1 : 200 000 epinephrine. Patients were observed by a blinded observer for (i) pain scores using the Children and Infants Postoperative Pain Scale, (ii) need for rescue medication in the PACU, (iii) need for oral pain medications given by the parents at home. Results:, Forty-eight patients, consisting of 46 males and two females, with a mean age of 3.98 (sd ± 1.88) were enrolled in the study. Two patients were excluded from the study because of study protocol violation and/or alteration in surgical procedure. The average pain scores reported for the entire duration spent in the recovery room for the caudal and caudal/ilioinguinal block groups were 1.92 (sd ± 1.59) and 1.18 (sd ± 1.31), respectively. The average pain score difference was 0.72 (sd ± 0.58) and was statistically significant (P < 0.05). In addition, when examined by procedure type, it was found that the difference in the average pain scores between the caudal and caudal/ilioinguinal block groups was statistically significant for the inguinal hernia repair patients (P < 0.05) but not for the other groin surgery patients (P = 0.13). For all groin surgery patients, six of the 23 patients in the caudal group and eight of the 25 patients in the caudal/ilioinguinal block group required pain rescue medications throughout their entire hospital stay or at home (P = 0.76). Overall, the caudal group received an average of 0.54 (sd ± 1.14) pain rescue medication doses, while the caudal/ilioinguinal block group received an average of 0.77 (sd ± 1.70) pain rescue medication doses; this was, however, not statistically significant (P = 0.58). Conclusions:, The addition of an US-guided ilioinguinal nerve block to a single-shot caudal block decreases the severity of pain experienced by pediatric groin surgery patients. The decrease in pain scores were particularly pronounced in inguinal hernia repair patients. [source]

The use of patient-controlled epidural fentanyl in elderly patients,

ANAESTHESIA, Issue 12 2007
T. Ishiyama
Summary We studied whether delivering postoperative analgesia, using a patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) device was effective and safe in elderly patients. We enrolled 40 patients aged >,65 years (elderly group) and 40 patients aged 20,64 years (young group) scheduled for elective major abdominal surgery. PCEA infusion was started following completion of surgery. Mean (SD) fentanyl consumption (10.7 (3.7) compared with 10.5 (2.7) ,g.kg,1, p = 0.76) and number of times patients pressed the bolus switch (32 (36) compared with 44 (38), p = 0.16) during the first 24 h postoperatively were similar in the two groups. Pain scores, which were similar in both groups at rest, were significantly lower in the elderly on coughing (at 24 h, p < 0.05). In addition, average pain scores were similar at the time of PCEA bolus demands in the two groups. Elderly and young adult patients therefore required similar amounts of patient-controlled epidural fentanyl to produce satisfactory pain relief. [source]