Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Average

  • annual average
  • arithmetic average
  • autoregressive integrate moving average
  • autoregressive moving average
  • ensemble average
  • eu average
  • european average
  • geometric average
  • global average
  • grade point average
  • historical average
  • integrate moving average
  • long-term average
  • mean average
  • molecular weight average
  • moving average
  • national average
  • on average
  • point average
  • spatial average
  • weight average
  • weighted average

  • Terms modified by Average

  • average absolute deviation
  • average absolute error
  • average accuracy
  • average age
  • average air temperature
  • average amount
  • average analysis
  • average annual temperature
  • average basis
  • average blood pressure
  • average body size
  • average body weight
  • average causal effect
  • average cell size
  • average chain length
  • average change
  • average coefficient
  • average composition
  • average concentration
  • average condition
  • average consumer
  • average consumption
  • average contribution
  • average cost
  • average crystallite size
  • average daily gain
  • average decrease
  • average degree
  • average delay
  • average density
  • average depth
  • average deviation
  • average diameter
  • average difference
  • average dimension
  • average disease duration
  • average distance
  • average dose
  • average duration
  • average efficiency
  • average error
  • average exposure
  • average fiber diameter
  • average flow rate
  • average flux
  • average follow-up
  • average follow-up period
  • average follow-up time
  • average frequency
  • average glucose
  • average grade
  • average grain size
  • average growth rate
  • average heat transfer coefficient
  • average height
  • average heterozygosity
  • average hospital stay
  • average improvement
  • average incidence
  • average income
  • average increase
  • average individual
  • average initial weight
  • average intake
  • average intelligence
  • average intensity
  • average interval
  • average irradiance
  • average length
  • average level
  • average life
  • average life expectancy
  • average lifetime
  • average loss
  • average method
  • average model
  • average models
  • average molecular mass
  • average molecular weight
  • average number
  • average nusselt number
  • average packet delay
  • average pain
  • average pain score
  • average parameter
  • average particle diameter
  • average particle size
  • average path velocity
  • average patient
  • average performance
  • average period
  • average permeability
  • average polymorphic information content
  • average population
  • average pore diameter
  • average pore size
  • average power
  • average prevalence
  • average price
  • average process
  • average productivity
  • average proportion
  • average quality
  • average radius
  • average rainfall
  • average range
  • average rate
  • average rating
  • average ratio
  • average recovery
  • average reduction
  • average requirement
  • average residence time
  • average response
  • average return
  • average run length
  • average score
  • average size
  • average slope
  • average spacing
  • average speed
  • average standard deviation
  • average structure
  • average survival
  • average temperature
  • average thickness
  • average time
  • average trading rule
  • average treatment effect
  • average treatment effects
  • average value
  • average variation
  • average velocity
  • average volume
  • average waiting time
  • average weight
  • average weight gain
  • average wind speed
  • average year
  • average yield

  • Selected Abstracts


    EVOLUTION, Issue 4 2007
    Lee Hsiang Liow
    Lineage persistence is as central to biology as evolutionary change. Important questions regarding persistence include: why do some lineages outlive their relatives, neither becoming extinct nor evolving into separate lineages? Do these long-duration lineages have distinctive ecological or morphological traits that correlate with their geologic durations and potentially aid their survival? In this paper, I test the hypothesis that lineages (species and higher taxa) with longer geologic durations have morphologies that are more average than expected by chance alone. I evaluate this hypothesis for both individual lineages with longer durations and groups of lineages with longer durations, using more than 60 published datasets of animals with adequate fossil records. Analyses presented here show that groups of lineages with longer durations fall empirically into one of three theoretically possible scenarios, namely: (1) the morphology of groups of longer duration lineages is closer to the grand average of their inclusive group, that is, their relative morphological distance is smaller than expected by chance alone, when compared with rarified samples of their shorter duration relatives (a negative group morpho-duration distribution); (2) the relative morphological distance of groups of longer duration lineages is no different from rarified samples of their shorter duration relatives (a null group morpho-duration distribution); and (3) the relative morphological distance of groups of longer duration lineages is greater than expected when compared with rarified samples of their shorter duration relatives (a positive group morpho-duration distribution). Datasets exhibiting negative group morpho-duration distributions predominate. However, lineages with higher ranks in the Linnean hierarchy demonstrate positive morpho-duration distributions more frequently. The relative morphological distance of individual longer duration lineages is no different from that of rarified samples of their shorter duration relatives (a null individual morpho-duration distribution) for the majority of datasets studied. Contrary to the common idea that very persistent lineages are special or unique in some significant way, both the results from analyses of long-duration lineages as groups and individuals show that they are morphologically average. Persistent lineages often arise early in a group's history, even though there is no prior expectation for this tendency in datasets of extinct groups. The implications of these results for diversification histories and niche preemption are discussed. [source]

    Gene expression of colony-stimulating factors and stem cell factor after myocardial infarction in the mouse

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 3 2002
    ABSTRACT Recent studies have suggested that cytokines such as macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) might be involved in the pathogenesis of ischaemic heart disease. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), stem cell factor (SCF), interleukin-3 (IL-3) and interleukin-7 (IL-7) are potent cytokines belonging to the same structual class that may affect function, growth and apoptosis both in the heart and other organs. The aims of the present study were to characterize a post-infarction model in the mouse and to examine mRNA expression of M-CSF, GM-CSF, SCF, IL-3 and IL-7 during the development of heart failure. Myocardial infarction (MI) was induced in mice by ligation of the left coronary artery. Average infarct size was 40% and the mice developed myocardial hypertrophy and pulmonary oedema. Ribonuclease (RNAase) protection assays showed abundant cardiac expression of M-CSF and SCF. After MI, we measured down-regulation of cytokine mRNA expression in the heart (M-CSF, SCF), lung (M-CSF), liver (M-CSF) and spleen (M-CSF) compared with sham. Cardiac G-CSF, GM-CSF and IL-7 mRNAs were not detected. In conclusion, abundant cardiac gene expression of M-CSF and SCF was found. In our mouse model of MI, M-CSF and SCF were down-regulated in the heart and several other organs suggesting specific roles for these cytokines during development of ischaemic heart failure. [source]

    All-cause mortality and fatal alcohol poisoning in Belarus, 1970,2005

    Abstract Introduction and Aims. Although alcohol appears to be an important contributor to the burden of disease in the countries of eastern Europe, little systematic research has been undertaken on its impact on mortality in the former Soviet republic of Belarus. There may be a number of factors underlying the particularly negative effect of alcohol on mortality in Belarus, including the pattern of drinking and use of surrogates. A solid body of research and empirical evidence suggests that hazardous patterns of alcohol consumption (binge drinking) lead to quicker and deeper intoxication, increasing the propensity for alcohol-related mortality. Design and Method. To estimate the aggregate level effect of binge drinking on the all-cause mortality rate, trends in the all-cause mortality and fatal alcohol poisoning rates (as a proxy for binge drinking) in Belarus from 1970 to 2005 were analysed employing AutoRegressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) time,series analysis in order to assess a bivariate relationship between the two time,series. Results. The results of time,series analysis suggest a close relationship between all-cause mortality and fatal alcohol poisoning rates at the population level. Conclusions. This study supports the hypothesis that alcohol and all-cause mortality are connected closely in countries where the drinking culture is characterised by heavy drinking episodes and adds to the growing body of evidence that a substantial proportion of total mortality in Belarus is due to acute effects of binge drinking. [source]

    The impact of a supervised injecting facility on ambulance call-outs in Sydney, Australia

    ADDICTION, Issue 4 2010
    Allison M. Salmon
    ABSTRACT Aims Supervised injecting facilities (SIFs) are effective in reducing the harms associated with injecting drug use among their clientele, but do SIFs ease the burden on ambulance services of attending to overdoses in the community? This study addresses this question, which is yet to be answered, in the growing body of international evidence supporting SIFs efficacy. Design Ecological study of patterns in ambulance attendances at opioid-related overdoses, before and after the opening of a SIF in Sydney, Australia. Setting A SIF opened as a pilot in Sydney's ,red light' district with the aim of accommodating a high throughput of injecting drug users (IDUs) for supervised injecting episodes, recovery and the management of overdoses. Measurements A total of 20 409 ambulance attendances at opioid-related overdoses before and after the opening of the Sydney SIF. Average monthly ambulance attendances at suspected opioid-related overdoses, before (36 months) and after (60 months) the opening of the Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre (MSIC), in the vicinity of the centre and in the rest of New South Wales (NSW). Results The burden on ambulance services of attending to opioid-related overdoses declined significantly in the vicinity of the Sydney SIF after it opened, compared to the rest of NSW. This effect was greatest during operating hours and in the immediate MSIC area, suggesting that SIFs may be most effective in reducing the impact of opioid-related overdose in their immediate vicinity. Conclusions By providing environments in which IDUs receive supervised injection and overdose management and education SIF can reduce the demand for ambulance services, thereby freeing them to attend other medical emergencies within the community. [source]

    Prevalence and impact of pain in diabetic neuropathy

    M Geerts M
    Abstract Background: Diabetic neuropathy (DNP) is a serious and common complication of diabetes mellitus, with a prevalence of around 30-50%. Aims: To describe the prevalence, severity and medical treatment of painful DNP (PDNP) experienced by patients treated in secondary care; to determine quality of life (QoL) impact and the relationship between severity of pain and severity of DNP. Methods: Cross-sectional, two-phase survey. First, a pain interview was conducted by telephone (219 DNP patients), which covered types of pain, location and duration. Secondly, 50 patients were visited at home. Patients completed the Brief Pain Inventory, the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results: Prevalence of PDNP was 57.5%. Average and worst pain scores were 5.3 ± 2.1 and 6.4 ± 2.2, respectively (0-10 scale, 10 = worst pain imaginable). In 70% of patients, average pain was severe (score ,5). Substantial interference by pain (score ,4) was found in walking ability, sleep and normal activities. PDNP patients had a decreased QoL for all SF-36 domains (p,0.01) except for health change. Moreover, symptoms of anxiety (36%) and depression (34%) were reported frequently. Medical treatment was prescribed in 46% of patients, in whom treatment was ineffective in 39%. Physical functioning scores were lower in patients with severe versus moderate DNP (p,0.01). Conclusions: The prevalence of severe PDNP was high. Severity of DNP was not related to pain severity. PDNP was associated with loss of QoL and with symptoms of anxiety and depression. A considerable proportion of patients did not have medical treatment and, if treatment was given, its impact was disappointing. Medical treatment of PDNP was unsatisfactory and clearly needs to be improved. Copyright © 2009 FEND [source]

    The baroreflex is counteracted by autoregulation, thereby preventing circulatory instability

    Roberto Burattini
    The aims of this study were (a) to apply in the animal with intact baroreflex a two-point method for estimation of overall, effective open-loop gain, G0e, which results from the combined action of baroregulation and total systemic autoregulation on peripheral resistance; (b) to predict specific baroreflex gain by correcting the effective gain for the autoregulation gain; and (c) to discuss why the effective gain is usually as low as 1,2 units. G0e was estimated from two measurements of both cardiac output, Q, and mean systemic arterial pressure, P: one in the reference state (set-point) and the other in a steady-state reached 1,3 min after a small cardiac output perturbation. In anaesthetized cats and dogs a cardiac output perturbation was accomplished by partial occlusion of the inferior vena cava and by cardiac pacing, respectively. Average (±s.e.m.) estimates of G0e were 1.4 ± 0.2 (n= 8) in the cat and 1.5 ± 0.4 (n= 5) in the dog. The specific baroreflex open-loop gain, G0b, found after correction for total systemic autoregulation, was 3.3 ± 0.4 in the cat and 2.8 ± 0.8 in the dog. A model-based analysis showed that, with G0e as low as 1.4, the closed-loop response of P to a stepwise perturbation in Q results in damped oscillations that disappear in about 1 min. The amplitude and duration of these oscillations, which have a frequency of about 0.1 Hz, increase with increasing G0e and cause instability when G0e is about 3. We conclude that autoregulation reduces the effectiveness of baroreflex gain by about 55%, thereby preventing instability of blood pressure response. [source]

    Migratory Atlantic salmon as vectors for the transfer of energy and nutrients between freshwater and marine environments

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2003
    Bror Jonsson
    SUMMARY 1.,Annual energy, carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus fluxes across the river mouth by Atlantic salmon were estimated for 18 years (1976,94) in the Norwegian River Imsa. The total energy content of the emigrating smolts in each year varied considerably with a mean value of 237 × 103 kJ. That of returning adults also varied between years with a mean value of 141 × 104 kJ. One-sea-winter salmon (grilse) made up 65% of the total energy content of the spawners in the river. Dead carcasses remaining in the river after spawning were estimated to have a mean annual energy content of 175 × 103 kJ. 2.,The net annual energy flux from the sea to the river varied between 48 × 103 kJ (1987) and 152 × 104 kJ (1989) with a mean of 616 × 103 kJ, and a coefficient of variation of 67%. Average net marine import of the returning adults was 83 × 104 kJ year,1 with a coefficient of variation of 52%. Mean annual export of C, N and P to sea by the smolts was 595, 131 and 22 kg, and by kelts 1535, 352 and 70 kg, respectively, whereas gross import via the adults was 3176 kg C, 735 kg N and 132 kg P. The annual flux across the river mouth was 1046 kg C, 253 kg N and 39 kg P. The net marine import were 1585 kg C, 371 kg N and 60 kg P. The net flux was estimated at 0.2% for nitrogen and 5% for phosphorus of the total river load. 3.,The energy flux caused by Atlantic salmon spawning in the River Imsa was relatively high because the general nutrient load in the river is low. Thus, even though most Atlantic salmon survive spawning, their contribution to the nutrient flux in the river is significant. [source]

    Application of Regression-Discontinuity Analysis in Pharmaceutical Health Services Research

    Ilene H. Zuckerman
    Objective. To demonstrate how a relatively underused design, regression-discontinuity (RD), can provide robust estimates of intervention effects when stronger designs are impossible to implement. Data Sources/Study Setting. Administrative claims from a Mid-Atlantic state Medicaid program were used to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational drug utilization review intervention. Study Design. Quasi-experimental design. Data Collection/Extraction Methods. A drug utilization review study was conducted to evaluate a letter intervention to physicians treating Medicaid children with potentially excessive use of short-acting ,2 -agonist inhalers (SAB). The outcome measure is change in seasonally-adjusted SAB use 5 months pre- and postintervention. To determine if the intervention reduced monthly SAB utilization, results from an RD analysis are compared to findings from a pretest,posttest design using repeated-measure ANOVA. Principal Findings. Both analyses indicated that the intervention significantly reduced SAB use among the high users. Average monthly SAB use declined by 0.9 canisters per month (p<.001) according to the repeated-measure ANOVA and by 0.2 canisters per month (p<.001) from RD analysis. Conclusions. Regression-discontinuity design is a useful quasi-experimental methodology that has significant advantages in internal validity compared to other pre,post designs when assessing interventions in which subjects' assignment is based on cutoff scores for a critical variable. [source]

    Index tracking with constrained portfolios

    Dietmar Maringer
    Passive portfolio management strategies, such as index tracking, are popular in the industry, but so far little research has been done on the cardinality of such a portfolio, i.e. on how many different assets ought to be included in it. One reason for this is the computational complexity of the associated optimization problems. Traditional optimization techniques cannot deal appropriately with the discontinuities and the many local optima emerging from the introduction of explicit cardinality constraints. More recent approaches, such as heuristic methods, on the other hand, can overcome these hurdles. This paper demonstrates how one of these methods, differential evolution, can be used to solve the constrained index-tracking problem. We analyse the financial implication of cardinality constraints for a tracking portfolio using an empirical study of the Down Jones Industrial Average. We find that the index can be tracked satisfactorily with a subset of its components and, more important, that the deviation between computed actual tracking error and the theoretically achievable tracking error out of sample is negligibly affected by the portfolio's cardinality. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Tuscany autochthonous cattle breeds: an original genetic resource investigated by AFLP markers

    R. Negrini
    Summary The aim of this study was to assess the genetic diversity of four autochthonous cattle breeds of Tuscany and their relationships in comparison with Italian Friesian and Italian Brown, using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. A total of 212 individuals were genotyped with three primer combinations generating 102 polymorphic markers. Average expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.23 in Mucca Pisana to 0.26 in Chianina, Italian Friesian, Italian Brown and Maremmana. The differences resulted not significant (Kruskall,Wallis test, p = 0.416). Gst-B index revealed that 86% of the total genetic variance is retained within population and only 14% is accounted by the between populations component. Multivariate analysis at individual and population level indicated that: (i) Calvana and Chianina are quite separate from the other breeds as an effect of the bottleneck experienced or as a signature of different origin; (ii) Podolian, Maremmana and Italian Brown clustered with the double purpose Mucca Pisana, revealing their contribution to its admixed genetic make up; (iii) Italian Friesian behaved always as out group. The ,analysis of molecular variance' recovered a significant subdivision clustering the six populations into three groups: Italian Friesian and Italian Brown versus Maremmana and Mucca Pisana versus Chianina and Calvana (6% of the total variance). [source]

    Effect of trehalose on survival of Bradyrhizobium japonicum during desiccation

    J.G. Streeter
    Abstract Aims: A major reason for the ineffectiveness of legume inoculants in the field is the rapid death of rhizobia because of desiccation. The major purpose of this study was to identify conditions under which ,,, -trehalose would improve survival of Bradyrhizobium japonicum during desiccation. Methods and Results: Trehalose was added to cultures just prior to desiccation or was supplied to bacteria during the 6-day growth period. A wide variety of trehalose concentrations was tested. Trehalose added to cultures at the time of desiccation improved survival slightly, but trehalose loading during growth was much more effective in protection against desiccation. Growth of bacteria with 3 mmol l,1 trehalose increased trehalose concentration in cells by about threefold and increased survival of cells placed on soya bean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seeds by two- to four-fold after 2 or 24 h. Average of overall results indicate that growth of bacteria with trehalose in the medium resulted in a 294% increase in survival after 24 h of desiccation. The concentration of trehalose in cells was very highly correlated with survival of bacteria. When trehalose-loaded cells were suspended in buffer or water, 60,85% of cellular trehalose was lost in about 1 h and, in spite of these losses, survival during desiccation was not reduced. Conclusions: Accumulation of trehalose in the cytoplasm is critical to the survival of B. japonicum during desiccation. Increasing the periplasmic concentration of trehalose is also beneficial but is not so critical as the concentration of trehalose in the cytoplasm. Because B. japonicum cannot utilize trehalose as a carbon source, cells can be loaded with trehalose by providing the disaccharide during the growth period. Significance and Impact of the Study: Although it may not be practical to use trehalose as a carbon source in inoculant production, it may be possible to engineer greater trehalose accumulation in rhizobia. Trehalose concentration in cells should be a useful predictor of survival during desiccation. [source]

    Positive Illusions in Parenting: Every Child Is Above Average

    Andrew Wenger
    This study examined the paradox between the difficulties of parenting and the high levels of parenting satisfaction in terms of positive illusions. Results were consistent with a positive illusions model, as biological parents with a child between the ages of 2 and 5 reported unrealistically positive views of their children. They rated their own children as possessing more positive and less negative attributes than the average child. The more positively parents rated themselves, the more positively they rated their children. Parents' self-esteem scores, unrealistically positive ratings of the child, and positive illusions of parenting were related to 3 aspects of the parenting experience. This study extends the literature on positive illusions to encompass parents' positive illusions about their young children. [source]

    Patterns of population genetic diversity in riparian and aquatic plant species along rivers

    Olivier Honnay
    Abstract Aim, The downstream hydrochoric spread of seeds of aquatic and riparian plant species, without upstream compensation, can be expected to result in downstream accumulation of population genetic diversity. This idea has been termed the ,unidirectional dispersal hypothesis' and is the genetic equivalent of the more generally known ,drift paradox'. Our aim was to test this unidirectional diversity hypothesis, and to present a general synthesis of the patterns of population genetic variation across different riparian and aquatic plant species along rivers. Location, The Meuse River (Belgium) and rivers world-wide. Methods, First, we used amplified fragment length polymorphism markers to compare patterns of within- and between-population genetic diversity among three riparian plant species (Sisymbrium austriacum, Erysimum cheiranthoides and Rorippa sylvestris), typically occurring in different habitats along a gradient perpendicular to the Meuse River. Second, we performed a meta-analysis on studies reporting on the population genetic structure of riparian and aquatic plant species along rivers. Results, Along the Meuse River, we found significant genetic differentiation among populations of all three riparian species, and significant isolation by distance for one of them (R. sylvestris). There was no clear association between the typical habitat of a species and its population genetic structure. None of the three species provided evidence for the unidirectional dispersal hypothesis. The meta-analysis, based on 21 data records, did not support the unidirectional dispersal hypothesis either. Average weighted population genetic differentiation across species was significant. Main conclusions, Important mechanisms of upstream seed dispersal, probably through zoochory, together with higher seed recruitment opportunities in upstream habitats due to density dependence of recruitment, may explain the absence of downstream accumulation of genetic diversity. Also, it seems difficult to find consistent patterns in genetic variation in species from aquatic and riparian habitats. We argue that this is due to the recurrent extinctions and colonizations characteristic of these habitats, resulting in complex genetic patterns. Our results strongly support previous suggestions that stream ecology should consistently embrace metapopulation theory to be able to understand patterns of genetic diversity, as well as species diversity. [source]

    Use of Forecasts of Earnings to Estimate and Compare Cost of Capital Across Regimes

    Article first published online: 19 MAY 200, Peter Easton
    Abstract: I critically examine several of the methods used in the recent literature to estimate and compare the cost of capital across different accounting/regulatory regimes. I focus on the central importance of expectations of growth beyond the short period for which forecasts of future pay-offs (dividends and/or earnings) are available. I illustrate, using the stocks that comprised the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) at December 31, 2004, as an example, the differences between the growth rates implied by the data, and growth rates that are often assumed in the literature. My analyses show that assumptions about growth beyond the (short) forecast horizon may seriously affect the estimates of the expected rate of return and may lead to spurious inferences. [source]

    Comparison of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test,Third Edition and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale,Third Edition with university students

    Nancy L. Bell
    This study examined the relationship between the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test,Third Edition (PPVT-III) and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale,Third Edition (WAIS-III) using 40 adults who ranged in age from 18 to 41 (mean age of 22 years). Participants were administered the PPVT-III and WAIS-III in counterbalanced fashion to control for order effects. Results revealed that the PPVT-III score was related to the WAIS-III Verbal IQ (VIQ) and Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) scores but unrelated to the Performance IQ (PIQ) score. In addition, analyses indicated that, while there were no significant differences between the PPVT-III score and WAIS-III mean FSIQ and PIQ scores, the PPVT-III mean score was significantly lower than the WAIS-III VIQ. Further analysis indicated that the PPVT-III adequately estimated WAIS-III FSIQ and VIQ scores for participants who were classified as Average or High Average on the WAIS-III. However, for participants in the Superior range, the PPVT-III tended to underestimate FSIQ and VIQ scores by approximately 10 points. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Clin Psychol 57: 417,422, 2001. [source]

    Striae treated by a novel combination treatment , sand abrasion and a patent mixture containing 15% trichloracetic acid followed by 6,24 hrs of a patent cream under plastic occlusion

    M A Adatto
    Summary Background, Striae are a common cosmetic problem, especially for women. Little has been published about chemical peel treatment of striae. Objective, To recount 5 years experience of striae treated by a novel combination treatment , sand abrasion and a patent mixture containing 15% trichloracetic acid followed by 6,24 h of a patent cream under plastic occlusion. Materials and methods, Sixty-nine females of various phototypes, aged 14,63 years, were treated at various anatomical sites: abdomen (43), lateral thighs (11), breasts (4), back (3), waist (3) and others (5). Striae of all types: fresh, old, mild and severe, were treated. Average follow up was 18 months. Results, After 1,8 treatments (median 4.2), appearance of the striae improved by 70%. Results were best in fresher and more superficial striae. Conclusions, A novel combination treatment is reported which safely, predictably and effectively improved striae in all skin types. [source]

    Timing and rate of sexual maturation of European eel in brackish and freshwater environments

    D. Bevacqua
    Maturation rates in three European eel Anguilla anguilla populations increased from September to October and were slightly lower in fresh water than in brackish waters. Average and variance of total length at maturation were larger in females than males. [source]

    Persistent Organic Pollutants in Fish Oil Supplements on the Canadian Market: Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organochlorine Insecticides

    Dorothea F.K. Rawn
    ABSTRACT:, Fish and seal oil dietary supplements, marketed to be rich in omega-3 fatty acids, are frequently consumed by Canadians. Samples of these supplements (n,= 30) were collected in Vancouver, Canada, between 2005 and 2007. All oil supplements were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine insecticides (OCs) and each sample was found to contain detectable residues. The highest ,PCB and ,DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-di-(4-chlorophenyl)ethane) concentrations (10400 ng/g and 3310 ng/g, respectively) were found in a shark oil sample while lowest levels were found in supplements prepared using mixed fish oils (anchovy, mackerel, and sardine) (0.711 ng ,PCB/g and 0.189 ng ,DDT/g). Mean ,PCB concentrations in oil supplements were 34.5, 24.2, 25.1, 95.3, 12.0, 5260, 321, and 519 ng/g in unidentified fish, mixed fish containing no salmon, mixed fish with salmon, salmon, vegetable with mixed fish, shark, menhaden (n,= 1), and seal (n,= 1), respectively. Maximum concentrations of the other OCs were generally observed in the seal oil. The hexachlorinated PCB congeners were the dominant contributors to ,PCB levels, while ,DDT was the greatest contributor to organochlorine levels. Intake estimates were made using maximum dosages on manufacturers' labels and results varied widely due to the large difference in residue concentrations obtained. Average ,PCB and ,DDT intakes were calculated to be 736 ± 2840 ng/d and 304 ± 948 ng/d, respectively. [source]

    Twenty-four hour ambulatory blood pressure in a population of elderly men

    K. Björklund
    Abstract. Björklund K, Lind L, Lithell H (University of Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden). Twenty-four hour ambulatory blood pressure in a population of elderly men. J Intern Med 2000; 248: 503,512. Objectives. The principal aim was to study ambulatory and office blood pressure in a population of elderly men. We also wanted to describe the prevalence of hypertension and investigate the blood pressure control in treated elderly hypertensives. Design. A cross-sectional study of a population of elderly men, conducted between 1991 and 1995. Subjects. Seventy-year-old men (n = 1060), participants of a cohort study that began in 1970. Main outcome measures. Office and 24 h ambulatory blood pressure. Results. Average 24 h blood pressure in the population was 133 ± 16/75 ± 8 mmHg, and daytime blood pressure 140 ± 16/80 ± 9 mmHg. Corresponding values in untreated subjects (n = 685) were 131 ± 16/74 ± 7 and 139 ± 16/79 ± 8, respectively. An office recording of 140/90 mmHg corresponded to an ambulatory pressure of 130/78 (24 h) and 137/83 mmHg (daytime) in untreated subjects. In subjects identified as normotensives according to office blood pressure (n = 270), the 95th percentiles of average 24 h and daytime blood pressures were 142/80 and 153/85 mmHg, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension, defined as office blood pressure , 140/90 mmHg, was 66%. Despite treatment, treated hypertensives (n = 285) showed higher office (157/89 vs. 127/76 mmHg) and 24 h ambulatory (138/78 vs. 122/71 mmHg) pressures than normotensives (P < 0.05). Fourteen per cent of the treated hypertensives had an office blood pressure < 140/90 mmHg. Conclusions. Our results provide a basis for 24 h ambulatory blood pressure reference values in elderly men. The study confirms previous findings of a high prevalence of hypertension at older age. It also indicates that blood pressure is inadequately controlled in elderly treated hypertensives. [source]

    Longitudinal study of serum neutralization of HIV-1 in infected plasma donors

    Arthur V. Abelian
    Abstract Earlier studies provided suggestive evidence about the effectiveness of passive immunotherapy for AIDS patients using plasma donated by healthy HIV-1 infected individuals and revealed beneficial effects of plasmapheresis for the immune system of the donors. In this study, anti-HIV-1 neutralizing activity in 31 healthy HIV-1 infected donors of plasma participating in a passive immunotherapy study was investigated as a function of time. Average studied period was 33 months. Using the highly cytopathic HIV-1 NDK strain and MOLT4 cells, it was shown by means of syncytia formation inhibition assay and polyclonal HIV-1 antigen-capture assay that viral neutralizing titers tend either to remain unchanged or increase over time. These findings support the notion that the immune system is not affected adversely in HIV-1 infected plasma donors and lend further support to the feasibility of passive immunotherapy for AIDS patients. J. Med. Virol. 65:649,658, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Non-invasive assessment of motor unit anatomy in jaw-elevator muscles

    summary The estimation of fibre length in jaw-elevator muscles is important for modelling studies and clinical applications. The objective of this study was to identify, from multi-channel surface EMG recordings, the main innervation zone(s) of the superficial masseter and anterior temporalis muscles, and to estimate the fibre length of these muscles. Surface EMG signals were collected from 13 subjects with a 16-electrode linear array. The innervation zones of the masseter and anterior temporalis were identified and their variability intra- and inter-subject outlined. More than one main innervation zone location was identified in the masseter of all subjects and in the temporalis anterior of 12 subjects. Average estimated fibre lengths, for the right (left) side, were (mean ± SD) 27·3 ± 2·4 mm (27·0 ± 1·7 mm) and 25·9 ± 2·3 mm (26·6 ± 1·6 mm), for the superficial masseter and temporalis anterior muscle, respectively. The range of innervation zone locations was up to approximately 50% of the fibre length, both within and between subjects. Fibre length estimates well matched with published data on cadavers. It was concluded that multi-channel surface EMG provides important and reliable information on the anatomy of single motor units in jaw-elevator muscles. [source]

    Is physician-diagnosed allergic rhinitis a risk factor for the development of asthma?

    ALLERGY, Issue 8 2010
    L. Van Den Nieuwenhof
    To cite this article: van den Nieuwenhof L, Schermer T, Bosch Y, Bousquet J, Heijdra Y, Bor H, van den Bosch W, van Weel C. Is physician-diagnosed allergic rhinitis a risk factor for the development of asthma? Allergy 2010; 65: 1049,1055. Abstract Background:, There is strong evidence that there is a relationship between allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma, but it is unclear whether there is a causal relation between AR and asthma. The aim of this study was to assess prospectively whether AR is a risk factor for the diagnosis of asthma in a large primary care population. Methods:, We performed a historic cohort study of life-time morbidity that had been recorded prospectively since 1967 in four general practices. Two groups of subjects were selected: (i) patients with diagnosis of AR, (ii) a control group matched using propensity scores. We assessed the risk of physician-diagnosed asthma in patients with physician-diagnosed AR compared to subjects without a diagnosis of AR (controls). Results:, The study population consisted of 6491 subjects (n = 2081 patients with AR). Average study follow-up was 8.4 years. In patients with AR, the frequency of newly diagnosed asthma was 7.6% (n = 158) compared to 1.6% (n = 70) in controls (P < 0.001). After adjusting the effect of AR on asthma diagnosis for registration time, age, gender, eczema and socioeconomic status, having AR was a statistically significant risk factor for asthma (hazard ratio: 4.86, P < 0.001, 95% confidence interval: 3.50,6.73, controls as reference). Conclusion:, A diagnosis of AR was an independent risk factor for asthma in our primary care study population. Having physician-diagnosed AR increased the risk almost fivefold for a future asthma diagnosis. [source]

    Image signal-to-noise ratio estimation using Shape-Preserving Piecewise Cubic Hermite Autoregressive Moving Average model

    K.S. Sim
    Abstract We propose to cascade the Shape-Preserving Piecewise Cubic Hermite model with the Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) interpolator; we call this technique the Shape-Preserving Piecewise Cubic Hermite Autoregressive Moving Average (SP2CHARMA) model. In a few test cases involving different images, this model is found to deliver an optimum solution for signal to noise ratio (SNR) estimation problems under different noise environments. The performance of the proposed estimator is compared with two existing methods: the autoregressive-based and autoregressive moving average estimators. Being more robust with noise, the SP2CHARMA estimator has efficiency that is significantly greater than those of the two methods. Microsc. Res. Tech., 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    A microsatellite-based estimation of clonal diversity and population subdivision in Zostera marina, a marine flowering plant

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 2 2000
    T. B. H. Reusch
    Abstract We examined the genetic population structure in eelgrass (Zostera marina L.), the dominant seagrass species of the northern hemisphere, over spatial scales from 12 km to 10 000 km using the polymorphism of DNA microsatellites. Twelve populations were genotyped for six loci representing a total of 67 alleles. Populations sampled included the North Sea (four), the Baltic Sea (three), the western Atlantic (two), the eastern Atlantic (one), the Mediterranean Sea (one) and the eastern Pacific (one). Microsatellites revealed substantial genetic variation in a plant group with low allozyme diversity. Average expected heterozygosities per population (monoclonal populations excluded) ranged from 0.32 to 0.61 (mean = 0.48) and allele numbers varied between 3.3 and 6.7 (mean = 4.7). Using the expected frequency of multilocus genotypes within populations, we distinguished ramets from genetic individuals (i.e. equivalent to clones). Differences in clonal diversity among populations varied widely and ranged from maximal diversity (i.e. all ramets with different genotype) to near or total monoclonality (two populations). All multiple sampled ramets were excluded from further analysis of genetic differentiation within and between populations. All but one population were in Hardy,Weinberg equilibrium, indicating that Zostera marina is predominantly outcrossing. From a regression of the pairwise population differentiation with distance, we obtained an effective population size Ne of 2440,5000. The overall genetic differentiation among eelgrass populations, assessed as , (a standardized estimate of Slatkin's RST) was 0.384 (95% CI 0.34,0.44, P < 0.001). Genetic differentiation was weak among three North Sea populations situated 12,42 km distant from one another, suggesting that tidal currents result in an efficient exchange of propagules. In the Baltic and in Nova Scotia, a small but statistically significant fraction of the genetic variance was distributed between populations (, = 0.029,0.053) at scales of 15,35 km. Pairwise genetic differentiation between European populations were correlated with distance between populations up to a distance of 4500 km (linear differentiation-by-distance model, R2 = 0.67). In contrast, both Nova Scotian populations were genetically much closer to North Sea and Baltic populations than expected from their geographical distance (pairwise , = 0.03,0.08, P < 0.01). A biogeographical cluster of Canadian with Baltic/North Sea populations was also supported using a neighbour-joining tree based on Cavalli,Sforza's chord distance. Relatedness between populations may be very different from predictions based on geographical vicinity. [source]

    Eleven new microsatellite loci for the tiger rattlesnake (Crotalus tigris)

    Abstract Eleven microsatellite loci were isolated from an enriched genomic library from the tiger rattlesnake Crotalus tigris. Average observed heterozygosities in two populations were 0.456 and 0.427, respectively, and mean number of alleles were 7.54 (range 2,14) and 4.72 (range 2,13) respectively. No evidence of linkage disequilibrium was found across pairs of loci. The markers will be used in a long-term study examining the potential effects of urbanization on population dynamics and connectivity of this species in the mountain ranges surrounding Tucson, Arizona. [source]

    Isolation and characterization of nine polymorphic microsatellite loci in the rock carp, Procypris rabaudi (Tchang)

    Abstract Nine highly polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated from AC- and GATA-repeat microsatellite enrichment DNA libraries in the rock carp, Procypris rabaudi (Tchang). The number of alleles for these loci ranged from eight to 18 in tested individuals. Polymorphism information content ranged from 0.712 to 0.908 with an average of 0.837. Average observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.719 and 0.870, respectively. These molecular markers will be useful for the assessment of genetic diversity and analysis of population structure in wild rock carp. [source]

    Microsatellite primers for the Atlantic coastal killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, with applicability to related Fundulus species

    Abstract The mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus), a common Atlantic coastal killifish, is a model vertebrate species for the study of molecular genetic variation in natural populations and of environmental toxicology. We report the development of a set of 20 microsatellite loci in this species. Average expected heterozygosity across all loci was 0.84 (range: 0.60,0.97), revealing a high level of variability at most loci. A survey of seven additional Fundulus species yielded one or two robust amplification products in over half (63%) of the species,primer combinations tested. Therefore, many of these loci will also prove useful in studies of other members of the genus Fundulus. [source]

    Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in the Alpine leaf beetle, Oreina elongata

    Abstract For a study of local adaptations in the Alpine leaf beetle, Oreina elongata, we developed six microsatellite loci and screened them in 305 individuals from 13 populations. All markers were polymorphic with three to 15 alleles per locus. Average observed and expected heterozygosity values were 0.14 and 0.62, respectively. Four markers showed heterozygote deficiency and deviated significantly from Hardy,Weinberg expectations, indicating the presence of null alleles. [source]

    Polymorphic microsatellite markers for the goosander (Mergus merganser)

    Abstract To investigate the population genetic structure of the goosander (Mergus merganser) in Europe and to identify populations with a significant conservation value, we isolated nine microsatellite loci, and screened them in the subspecies Mergus merganser merganser and Mergus merganser americanus. All markers were polymorphic with two to 15 alleles per locus. Average observed and expected heterozygosity values were 0.422 and 0.624, respectively, for the European and 0.497 and 0.667, respectively, for the North American subspecies. Only one marker departed significantly from Hardy,Weinberg expectations in both subspecies. This marker was highly variable but homozygous in all females, suggesting a sex-linked inheritance. [source]

    Eight microsatellite markers for the neotropical tree Luehea seemannii (Tiliaceae)

    F. A. Jones
    Abstract We isolated eight polymorphic microsatellites from the neotropical tree Luehea seemannii for gene flow and genetic structure studies. We used a streptavidin subtractive enrichment technique to develop a library of CA/GT repeats. Eight loci were screened for diversity from 96 individuals from Barro Colorado Island (BCI) and neighbouring Gigante peninsula in Panama. Luehea seemannii shows moderate levels of genetic diversity within these two populations. Allelic richness ranged from four to nine alleles and averaged 6.44 alleles per locus. Average expected heterozygosity was 0.65 on BCI and 0.60 on Gigante. Results are compared to microsatellite data from another wind-dispersed gap colonizing species common in Panama. [source]