Reticuloendothelial System (reticuloendothelial + system)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

New insights into the regulation of iron homeostasis

R. Deicher
Abstract Hepcidin evolves as a potent hepatocyte-derived regulator of the body's iron distribution piloting the flow of iron via, and directly binding, to the cellular iron exporter ferroportin. The hepcidin-ferroportin axis dominates the iron egress from all cellular compartments that are critical to iron homeostasis, namely placental syncytiotrophoblasts, duodenal enterocytes, hepatocytes and macrophages of the reticuloendothelial system. The gene that encodes hepcidin expression (HAMP) is subject to regulation by proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and IL-1; excessive hepcidin production explains the relative deficiency of iron during inflammatory states, eventually resulting in the anaemia of inflammation. The haemochromatosis genes HFE (the human leukocyte antigen-related gene), TfR2 (the transferrin receptor-2 gene) and HJV (the haemojuvelin gene) potentially facilitate the transcription of HAMP. Disruption of each of the four genes leads to a diminished hepatic release of hepcidin consistent with both a dominant role of hepcidin in hereditary haemochromatosis and an upstream regulatory role of HFE, TfR2 and HJV on HAMP expression. The engineered generation of hepcidin agonists, mimetics or antagonists could largely broaden current therapeutic strategies to redirect the flow of iron. [source]

Bacterial infections in cirrhosis

Miguel Navasa
Abstract: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, urinary tract infections, respiratory infections and bacteremia are the most frequent infective complications in cirrhosis. These infections are due to the concomitant presence of different facilitating mechanisms including changes in the intestinal flora and in the intestinal barrier, depression of activity of the reticuloendothelial system, decreased opsonic activity of the ascitic fluid, neutrophil leukocyte dysfunction and iatrogenic factors among others. The fact, that the probability of having a microorganism responsible for the infection quinolone resistant is higher than 30% should be taken into account when treating any infection in a cirrhotic patient receiving selective intestinal decontamination with quinolones, and therefore, quinolones as empiric treatment are not indicated. [source]

Oxygen infusions (hemoglobin-vesicles and albumin-hemes) based on nano-molecular sciences,

Professor Eishun Tsuchida
Abstract Since the discovery of a red-colored saline solution of a heme derivative that reversibly binds and releases oxygen (1983), significant efforts have been made to realize an oxygen infusion as a red cell substitute based on the sciences of both molecular assembling phenomena and macromolecular metal complexes. The authors have specified that hemoglobin (Hb)-vesicles (HbV) and recombinant human serum albumin-hemes (rHSA-heme) would be the best systems that meet the clinical requirements. (A) Hb is rigorously purified from outdated, donated red cells via pasteurization and ultrafiltration, to completely remove blood type antigen and pathogen. The HbV encapsulates thus purified concentrated Hb solution with a phospholipid bimolecular membrane (diameter, 250,nm,), and its solution properties can be adjusted comparable with blood. Surface modification of HbV with a water-soluble polymer ensures stable dispersion state and storage over a year at 20C. In vivo tests have clarified the efficacy for extreme hemodilution and resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock, and safety in terms of biodistribution, metabolism in reticuloendothelial system (RES), clinical chemistry, blood coagulation, etc. The HbV does not induce vasoconstriction thus maintains blood flow and tissue oxygenation. (B) rHSA is now manufactured in Japan as a plasma-expander. The rHSA can incorporate eight heme derivatives (axial base substituted hemes) as oxygen binding sites, and the resulting rHSA-heme is a totally synthetic O2 -carrier. Hb binds endothelium-derived relaxation factor, NO, and induces vasoconstriction. The rHSA-heme binds NO as Hb does, however, it does not induce vasoconstriction due to its low pI (4.8) and the resulting low permeability across the vascular wall (1/100 of Hb). A 5%-albumin solution possesses a physiologic oncotic pressure. Therefore, to increase the O2 -transporting capacity, albumin dimer is effective. Albumin dimer can incorporate totally 16 hemes with a regulated oncotic pressure. The rHSA-heme is effective not only as a red cell substitute but also for oxygen therapeutics (e.g. oxygenation for tumor). Significant efforts have been made to produce HbV and rHSA-heme with a facility of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) standard, and to start preclinical and finally clinical trials. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using Iron Oxide Particles in Characterizing Head and Neck Adenopathy,

Henry T. Hoffman MD
Abstract Objectives In lymph nodes harboring metastases the reticuloendothelial system is replaced by tumor cells and does not concentrate iron particles. This study assesses the value of contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (Combidex, Advanced Magnetics, Inc., Cambridge, MA) to characterize and stage neck nodes. Study Design Prospective analysis of neck imaging by Combidex MRI, with correlation from pathological assessment of resected lymph nodes. Methods Nine patients underwent MRI and subsequent bilateral neck dissections (three), unilateral neck dissections (five) or fine-needle aspiration (one). Each case was evaluated for the number, location, MRI characteristics, and pathological assessment of lymph nodes. Results Forty-nine separate nodal levels were evaluated with both Combidex MRI and pathological assessment. The presence of metastatic nodal involvement among 45 levels was correctly assessed by the Combidex MRI (three false-negative results, one false-positive result; sensitivity, 84%; specificity, 97%). Analysis was possible for 101 of the individual lymph nodes identified by MRI that could be correlated with individual nodes pathologically examined. Combidex MRI assessment was correct for 99 nodes (one-false positive result, one false-negative result; sensitivity, 95%, specificity, 99%). Standard MRI interpretation without Combidex identified that 12 of 18 nodes (67%) that were greater than or equal to 10 mm (greatest dimension) contained tumor, whereas 9 of 83 nodes (11%) that were less than 10 mm contained tumor. Conclusions Combidex MRI provides functional information to characterize lymph nodes in the clinical staging of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. The inability of MRI to identify small lymph nodes restricts the usefulness of this technique. [source]