Research Reports (research + report)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Process simulation of p -doping in GaN and related group III nitrides

Y. J. Zhou
Abstract In this work we use the PROCOM sofware to model Mg doped GaN film growth by MOCVD. The 2/3D conservation equations of mass, energy, momentum and species are solved by the nonsymmetric conjugate gradient method with block preconditioning (H. C. Elman, Preconditioned conjugate gradient methods for nonsymmetric systems of linear equations (Yale University Research Report, 1981) [5]). A kinetics model with gas/surface adduct formation has been incorporated with detailed Mg dopant reaction mechanism. We reproduced broad doping profiles caused by memory effects and verified that the formation of (NH3)2 -MgCp2 and NH3 -MgCp2 adducts play an important role in p-doping of GaN and related Group III nitrides. (© 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Searching for the Intervention in Intervention Research Reports

Vicki S. Conn
Purpose: Precisely described interventions in nursing research reports are essential as a foundation for nursing practice and to facilitate future research. The purpose of this project was to characterize the intervention descriptions in nursing intervention research reports. Design and Methods: Quantitative content analysis was used to analyze intervention descriptions in reports published in English-language general nursing journals during 2005. Normative analysis was used to examine reports for details related to intervention content and delivery. Physical unit analysis was used to compare relative amounts of article space devoted to intervention description vs. other methodological details. Findings: Results were tabulated for 141 research articles published in 27 journals. Analysis indicated incomplete reporting of intervention details in many articles. Dose and dosing frequency were rarely completely defined. Delivery setting and interventionist were frequently not indicated, and the professional credentials of nurse interventionists were often unclear. While descriptions of interventions involving substances or devices were typically detailed, the specifics of psychological, educational, behavioral, and systems-level interventions were often lacking. Intervention descriptions averaged 7.27% of total article space, whereas nonintervention methodological descriptions averaged 20.74% of space. Of studies examined, only 38 (27.0%) reported enough detail to potentially replicate the study or translate the intervention into practice. Conclusions: Intervention descriptions in general nursing journals lack sufficient detail to provide the evidence basis for practice. [source]

An Evaluation of How Well Research Reports Facilitate the Use of Findings in Practice

Jennifer Leeman
Purpose: To analyze how research is reported in journal publications as a potential barrier to use of research findings in practice. Design: Content analysis of 46 reports of diabetes self-management interventions published between 1993 and 2004. Methods: Data were extracted from the publications using a coding scheme based on concepts from Rogers' theory of the diffusion of innovations. Findings: Authors provided only some of the information potential users need to progress through Roger's stages of adopting an intervention and implementing it in practice. Authors provided only limited information on the target population; frequency, number, and duration of patient contacts; expertise and training required to deliver the intervention; intervention protocol; and the process of adapting and implementing interventions in practice settings. Conclusions: To close the gap between research and practice, authors should offer more information to help readers decide whether and how to adopt and implement interventions. [source]

Research reports on treatments for bipolar disorder: preliminary assessment of methodological quality

F. Soldani
Objective:, To assess frequencies of types of publications about bipolar disorder (BD) and evaluate methodological quality of treatment studies. Method:, We classified 100 randomly selected articles (1998,2002) from five psychiatric journals with highest impact ratings, by topic areas, and assessed methods employed in treatment studies. Results:, Topics ranked: treatment (41%; 37% on pharmacotherapy) > biology (31%) > psychopathology (14%) = miscellaneous (14%). Of treatment studies, only 19% of original articles were randomized, 15% were relatively large (n , 50) but non-randomized, 65% were small non-randomized, case-series or -reports, and 53% relied on baseline-to-endpoint contrasts without a control group. Patient dropout rates were ,40% in 43% of prospective studies. Only two reports provided confidence intervals; one included a power analysis, and 53% included no references on study design or statistical methods. Conclusion:, Even in highly respected journals, the typical methodological quality of recent reports on therapeutics for BD was unexpectedly limited, and psychopathology and psychotherapies were little studied. [source]

What is the Slowest-Yet-Normal Cervical Dilation Rate Among Nulliparous Women With Spontaneous Labor Onset?

Jeremy L. Neal
ABSTRACT Objective: To integrate research literature that has provided insights into the cervical dilation rate that may best describe the slowest-yet-normal dilation rate among nulliparous women when beginning with criteria commonly associated with active labor onset. Data Sources: A literature search from 1950 through 2008 was conducted using the Medline electronic database, reference lists from identified articles, and other key references. Study Selection: Research reports written in English with a focus on the cervical dilation and/or labor duration of low-risk, nulliparous women with spontaneous labor onset. Data Extraction: Classic and contemporary research literature was reviewed and organized under the following subheadings: Friedman Studies, Partograph Studies, Active Management of Labor Studies, Additional Studies. Data Synthesis: An integrative review of the literature approximated the slowest-yet-normal cervical dilation rate for nulliparous women when beginning with criteria commonly associated with active labor. Conclusions: The slowest-yet-normal linear dilation rate approximates 0.5 cm/hour for low-risk, nulliparous women with spontaneous labor onset when starting at dilatations traditionally associated with active labor onset. However, this linear rate must be evaluated judiciously in light of the physiological acceleration of dilation that occurs during typical labor. Given this, cervical dilation for this population is likely slower than 0.5 cm/hour in earlier active labor and faster in more advanced active labor. Faster dilation expectations (e.g., 1 cm/hour) likely contribute to an overdiagnosis of dystocia ("slow, abnormal progression of labor") in contemporary practice and, subsequently, to an overuse of interventions aimed at accelerating labor progress. [source]

A Review of Psychometric Properties of Feeding Assessment Tools Used in Neonates

Tsu-Hsin Howe
ABSTRACT Objective:, To appraise the psychometric properties of clinical feeding assessment tools used in a neonatal population. Data sources:, PubMed, OvidMedline, CINHAL, and PsycINFO databases from 1980 to 2007. Reference lists of all identified articles were also reviewed. Study selection:, Research reports written in English that utilized or validated clinical feeding assessment tools. Data extraction:, In total, 941 articles were reviewed. Seven neonatal clinical feeding assessment tools were identified and categorized into three groups: tools used for assessing either bottle-feeding or breastfeeding behaviors, tools used only for assessing bottle-feeding behaviors, and tools used only for assessing breastfeeding behaviors. Results:, The psychometric properties of none of the seven assessment tools identified were satisfactory, and the limited representativeness of the samples of the psychometric research was noted in all assessment tools identified. The Neonatal Oral-Motor Assessment Scale appeared to have been examined more thoroughly and showed more consistent results in psychometric properties than the others, despite its own limitations. Conclusions:, A psychometrically sound neonate feeding assessment tool has not yet been empirically validated. Clinicians who use these tools for clinical and research purposes should take into account this lack of evidence of psychometric soundness and interpret results of assessment with precautions. Well-designed research is needed to study the scientific integrity of these instruments for program evaluations in neonatal care. [source]

Judgements without rules: towards a postmodern ironist concept of research validity

Gary Rolfe
The past decade has seen the gradual emergence of what might be called a postmodern perspective on nursing research. However, the development of a coherent postmodern critique of the modernist position has been hampered by some misunderstandings and misrepresentations of postmodern epistemology by a number of writers, leading to a fractured and distorted view of postmodern nursing research. This paper seeks to distinguish between judgemental relativist and epistemic relativist or ironist positions, and regards the latter as offering the most coherent critique of modernist/(post)positivist nursing research. The writings of poststructuralist philosophers, including Barthes, Lyotard, Derrida, Foucault and Rorty are examined, and a number of criteria for a postmodern ironist concept of research validity or trustworthiness are suggested. Whilst these writers reject the idea of Method as a guarantee of valid research, they nevertheless believe that value judgements can and must be made, and turn to notions of ironism, différance, and the differend. Ultimately, the postmodern ironist reader of the research report must make a judgement without criteria, based on her own practical wisdom or ,prudence'. [source]

Accounting Conservatism and the Temporal Trends in Current Earnings' Ability to Predict Future Cash Flows versus Future Earnings: Evidence on the Trade-off between Relevance and Reliability

M41; C23; D21; G38 This research reports that an increasing level of accounting conservatism over the 1973,2005 period is associated with: (1) an increase in the ability of current earnings to predict future cash flows and (2) a decrease in the ability of current earnings to predict future earnings. We also find that usefulness of earnings for explaining stock prices over book values is positively related to reliability but not to relevance. Our results hold for the constant and full samples in both in-sample and out-of-sample analyses and are robust to the use of alternative measures for relevance, reliability, earnings usefulness, and conservatism. Our findings about the relations among conservatism, relevance, reliability, and usefulness suggest a trade-off between relevance and reliability and seem to indicate that the adoption of an increasing number of conservative accounting standards has a possible adverse impact on earnings usefulness through a negative effect on reliability. [source]

Systematic review on embracing cultural diversity for developing and sustaining a healthy work environment in healthcare

Alan Pearson RN, FRCN, FRCNA
Abstract Objectives, The objective of this review was to evaluate evidence on the structures and processes that support development of effective culturally competent practices and a healthy work environment. Culturally competent practices are a congruent set of workforce behaviours, management practices and institutional policies within a practice setting resulting in an organisational environment that is inclusive of cultural and other forms of diversity. Inclusion criteria, This review included quantitative and qualitative evidence, with a particular emphasis on identifying systematic reviews and randomised controlled trials. For quantitative evidence, other controlled, and descriptive designs were also included. For qualitative evidence, all methodologies were considered. Participants were staff, patients, and systems or policies that were involved or affected by concepts of cultural competence in the nursing workforce in a healthcare environment. Types of interventions included any strategy that had a cultural competence component, which influenced the work environment, and/or patient and nursing staff in the environment. The types of outcomes of interest to this review included nursing staff outcomes, patient outcomes, organisational outcomes and systems level outcomes. Search strategy, The search sought both published and unpublished literature written in the English language. A comprehensive three-step search strategy was used, first to identify appropriate key words, second to combine all optimal key words into a comprehensive search strategy for each database and finally to review the reference lists of all included reviews and research reports. The databases searched were CINAHL, Medline, Current Contents, the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness, The Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, Embase, Sociological Abstracts, Econ lit, ABI/Inform, ERIC and PubMed. The search for unpublished literature used Dissertation Abstracts International. Methodological quality, Methodological quality was independently established by two reviewers, using standardised techniques from the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) System for the Unified Management, Assessment and Review of Information (SUMARI) package. Discussion with a third reviewer was initiated where a low level of agreement was identified for a particular paper. Following inclusion, data extraction was conducted using standardised data extraction tools from the JBI SUMARI suite for quantitative and qualitative research. Data synthesis was performed using the JBI Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument and JBI Narrative, Opinion and Text Assessment and Review Instrument software to aggregate findings by identifying commonalities across texts. Quantitative data were presented in narrative summary, as statistical pooling was not appropriate with the included studies. Results, Of the 659 identified papers, 45 were selected for full paper retrieval, and 19 were considered to meet the inclusion criteria for this review. The results identified a number of processes that would contribute to the development of a culturally competent workforce. Appropriate and competent linguistic services, and intercultural staff training and education, were identified as key findings in this review. Conclusions, The review recommends that health provider agencies establish links with organisations that can address needs of culturally diverse groups of patients, include cultural competence in decision support systems and staff education as well as embed them in patient brochures and educational materials. The review also concluded that staff in-service programs consider the skills needed to foster a culturally competent workforce, and recruitment strategies that also explicitly address this need. [source]

Barriers to, and facilitators of, research utilisation: a survey of Hong Kong registered nurses

David R Thompson RN BSc MA PhD MBA FRCN FESC
Abstract Aim, Despite increasing efforts to promote the utilisation of research in daily nursing practice it is apparent that there are a number of obstacles to address. This paper reports a study to examine the barriers to, and facilitators of, research utilisation among registered nurses in Hong Kong. Methods, A survey design and a random sampling method was used. The final sample consisted of 1487 registered nurses working in private and public health-care sectors in Hong Kong. A bilingual version of the Research Utilisation Questionnaire, comprising a 31-item barriers scale, and an 8-item facilitators scale was used. The instrument was mailed to participants who were asked to return the completed questionnaire by mail. Results, The highest ranking barriers to research utilisation reported by respondents were related mainly to organisational factors with regards to inadequate facilities, no authority to change procedures, and time constraints. Hong Kong nurses, however, did not appear to see any problem with regards to items related to characteristics of research, such as conclusions drawn from research being justified, research articles not being published fast enough, and literature reporting conflicting results. This indicates that nurses are aware of research developments in nursing and can critically analyse research reports. With regards to facilitators of research utilisation, respondents agreed that managerial and peer support are the greatest facilitators. Conclusions, The results indicate that factors influencing research utilisation are multidimensional and should be taken into account by all involved in the research enterprise: researchers, practitioners, educators, managers and policy-makers. The results of this study provide directions on how to assist nurses in Hong Kong in their efforts to utilise research. [source]

Nursing and midwifery management of hypoglycaemia in healthy term neonates

Vivien Hewitt BSc(Hons) GradDipLib
Executive summary Objectives The primary objective of this review was to determine the best available evidence for maintenance of euglycaemia, in healthy term neonates, and the management of asymptomatic hypoglycaemia in otherwise healthy term neonates. Inclusion criteria Types of studies The review included any relevant published or unpublished studies undertaken between 1995 and 2004. Studies that focus on the diagnostic accuracy of point-of-care devices for blood glucose screening and/or monitoring in the neonate were initially included as a subgroup of this review. However, the technical nature and complexity of the statistical information published in diagnostic studies retrieved during the literature search stage, as well as the considerable volume of published research in this area, suggested that it would be more feasible to analyse diagnostic studies in a separate systematic review. Types of participants The review focused on studies that included healthy term (37- to 42-week gestation) appropriate size for gestational age neonates in the first 72 h after birth. Exclusions ,,preterm or small for gestational age newborns; ,,term neonates with a diagnosed medical or surgical condition, congenital or otherwise; ,,babies of diabetic mothers; ,,neonates with symptomatic hypoglycaemia; ,,large for gestational age neonates (as significant proportion are of diabetic mothers). Types of intervention All interventions that fell within the scope of practice of a midwife/nurse were included: ,,type (breast or breast milk substitutes), amount and/or timing of feeds, for example, initiation of feeding, and frequency; ,,regulation of body temperature; ,,monitoring (including screening) of neonates, including blood or plasma glucose levels and signs and symptoms of hypoglycaemia. Interventions that required initiation by a medical practitioner were excluded from the review. Types of outcome measures Outcomes that were of interest included: ,,occurrence of hypoglycaemia; ,,re-establishment and maintenance of blood or plasma glucose levels at or above set threshold (as defined by the particular study); ,,successful breast-feeding; ,,developmental outcomes. Types of research designs The review initially focused on randomised controlled trials reported from 1995 to 2004. Insufficient randomised controlled trials were identified and the review was expanded to include additional cohort and cross-sectional studies for possible inclusion in a narrative summary. Search strategy The major electronic databases, including MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, LILACS, Cochrane Library, etc., were searched using accepted search techniques to identify relevant published and unpublished studies undertaken between 1995 and 2004. Efforts were made to locate any relevant unpublished materials, such as conference papers, research reports and dissertations. Printed journals were hand-searched and reference lists checked for potentially useful research. The year 1995 was selected as the starting point in order to identify any research that had not been included in the World Health Organisation review, which covered literature published up to 1996. The search was not limited to English language studies. Assessment of quality Three primary reviewers conducted the review assisted by a review panel. The review panel was comprised of nine nurses with expertise in neonatal care drawn from senior staff in several metropolitan neonatal units and education programs. Authorship of journal articles was not concealed from the reviewers. Methodological quality of each study that met the inclusion criteria was assessed by two reviewers, using a quality assessment checklist developed for the review. Disagreements between reviewers were resolved through discussion or with the assistance of a third reviewer. Data extraction and analysis Two reviewers used a data extraction form to independently extract data relating to the study design, setting and participants; study focus and intervention(s); and measurements and outcomes. As only one relevant randomised controlled trial was found, a meta-analysis could not be conducted nor tables constructed to illustrate comparisons between studies. Instead, the findings were summarised by a narrative identifying any relevant findings that emerged from the data. Results Seven studies met the inclusion criteria for the objective of this systematic review. The review provided information on the effectiveness of three categories of intervention , type of feeds, timing of feeds and thermoregulation on two of the outcome measures identified in the review protocol , prevention of hypoglycaemia, and re-establishment and maintenance of blood or plasma glucose levels above the set threshold (as determined by the particular study). There was no evidence available on which to base conclusions for effectiveness of monitoring or developmental outcomes, and insufficient evidence for breast-feeding success. Given that only a narrative review was possible, the findings of this review should be interpreted with caution. The findings suggest that the incidence of hypoglycaemia in healthy, breast-fed term infants of appropriate size for gestational age is uncommon and routine screening of these infants is not indicated. The method and timing of early feeding has little or no influence on the neonatal blood glucose measurement at 1 h in normal term babies. In healthy, breast-fed term infants the initiation and timing of feeds in the first 6 h of life has no significant influence on plasma glucose levels. The colostrum of primiparous mothers provides sufficient nutrition for the infant in the first 24 h after birth, and supplemental feeds or extra water is unnecessary. Skin-to-skin contact appears to provide an optimal environment for fetal to neonatal adaptation after birth and can help to maintain body temperature and adequate blood glucose levels in healthy term newborn infants, as well as providing an ideal opportunity to establish early bonding behaviours. Implications for practice The seven studies analysed in this review confirm the World Health Organisation's first three recommendations for prevention and management of asymptomatic hypoglycaemia, namely: 1Early and exclusive breast-feeding is safe to meet the nutritional needs of healthy term newborns worldwide. 2Healthy term newborns that are breast-fed on demand need not have their blood glucose routinely checked and need no supplementary foods or fluids. 3Healthy term newborns do not develop ,symptomatic' hypoglycaemia as a result of simple underfeeding. If an infant develops signs suggesting hypoglycaemia, look for an underlying condition. Detection and treatment of the cause are as important as correction of the blood glucose level. If there are any concerns that the newborn infant might be hypoglycaemic it should be given another feed. Given the importance of thermoregulation, skin-to-skin contact should be promoted and ,kangaroo care' encouraged in the first 24 h after birth. While it is important to main the infant's body temperature care should be taken to ensure that the child does not become overheated. [source]

Nursing management of fever in children: A systematic review

FRCNA, Robin Watts RN
ABSTRACT Objectives:, The aim of the present review was to determine whether the best available evidence supports the types and timing of the various nursing interventions that are commonly used to reduce fever in non-critically-ill children, and to what extent the outcomes are influenced by these nursing actions. Methods:, Studies included were randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials that involved non-critically-ill children with a fever aged between 3 months and 16 years. ,,The search strategy sought to identify both published and unpublished research reports in the English language and covered all major databases up to 1998. ,,The methodological quality of each study was assessed by two independent reviewers using a piloted critical appraisal checklist. ,,Despite all studies being randomised, heterogeneity precluded conduction of a meta-analysis; therefore, evidence was synthesised using narrative summaries. Results: Ten studies were assessed as being of sufficient quality to be included in the review. These studies addressed two of the intervention categories identified in the protocol: (i) administration of antipyretics (paracetamol); and (ii) direct cooling measures on the outcome measure (reduction of or prevention of increase in fever). The review found little benefit from sponging in temperate climates and usually at the expense of the child's comfort. There may be situations in high environmental temperatures and high humidity, or where there is a need for immediate temperature reduction, in which sponging may be warranted. Risks were identified when paracetamol was administered on a sustained basis over even a short period of time and above a relatively low total daily dosage. There was a lack of evidence to support the administration of antipyretics to reduce the incidence of febrile convulsions. There is a need for parental education that focuses on knowledge of the body's protective physiological responses and how to support these responses. Conclusion: The primary purpose for intervening when a child has a fever is to increase the child's comfort. This consideration should be weighed against any harm that might result from intervening. There was a lack of evidence to support the routine use of sponging. The administration of paracetamol should be used selectively and with caution. In summary, care needs to be individualised, based on current knowledge of the effectiveness and risks of interventions. [source]

A literature review: factors that impact on nurses' effective use of the Medical Emergency Team (MET)

Lisa Jones
Aims and objectives., The aim of this literature review is to identify factors, both positive and negative, that impact on nurses' effective use of the Medical Emergency Team (MET) in acute care settings. Background., Outcomes for patients are often dependent on nurses' ability to identify and respond to signs of increasing illness and initiate medical intervention. In an attempt to improve patient outcomes, many acute hospitals have implemented a rapid response system known as the Medical Emergency Team (MET) which has improved management of critically ill ward patients. Subsequent research has indicated that the MET system continues to be underused by nurses. Design., A comprehensive thematic literature review. Methods., The review was undertaken using key words and the electronic databases of Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), OVID/MEDLINE, Blackwell Synergy, Science Direct and Informit. Fifteen primary research reports were relevant and included in the review. Results., Five major themes emerged from the analysis of the literature as the major factors effecting nurses' use of the MET system. They were: education on the MET, expertise, support by medical and nursing staff, nurses' familiarity with and advocacy for the patient and nurses' workload. Conclusions., Ongoing education on all aspects of the MET system is recommended for nursing, medical and MET staff. Bringing MET education into undergraduate programs to prepare new graduates entering the workforce to care for acutely ill patients is also strongly recommended. Further research is also needed to determine other influences on MET activation. Relevance to clinical practice., Strategies that will assist nurses to use the MET system more effectively include recruitment and retention of adequate numbers of permanent skilled staff thereby increasing familiarity with and advocacy for the patient. Junior doctors and nurses should be encouraged to attend ward MET calls to gain skills in management of acutely ill patients. [source]

Dissemination of research in clinical nursing journals

Marilyn H Oermann
Aim., The purposes of the study were to describe the extent of research, clinical and evidence-based practice articles published in clinical nursing journals and to explore the communication of research and practice knowledge in the clinical nursing literature using citation analysis. Background., For nursing research to have an impact on clinical practice and build evidence for practice, findings from research must transfer into the clinical practice literature. By analysing the extent of research published in clinical nursing journals, the citations in those articles, and other characteristics of the nursing literature, we can learn more about the linkages between research and practice in nursing. Design., This was a descriptive study of 768 articles and 18901 citations in those articles. Methods., Feature articles were classified into four groups , (i) original research reports; (ii) clinical practice articles (non-data based papers on a clinical topic); (iii) systematic reviews, integrative literature reviews, guidelines and papers describing evidence-based practice; and (iv) others. Each citation was then examined to determine if it was a reference to a research study or to a document on clinical practice. Results., Nearly a third of the articles in clinical nursing journals were reports on research studies; another third addressed clinical practice. Of the 14232 citations analysed in clinical nursing journals, 6142 were to research reports (43·2%) and about the same number of citations were to clinical documents (n = 5844, 41·1%). Medical research articles were cited most frequently , 27·1% of the citations in clinical journal articles. Nursing research articles were only 7·6% of the cited documents in clinical publications. Conclusions., Dissemination of research findings in the clinical nursing literature occurred at two levels: through articles that reported studies of potential value to the nurse's practice and citations to research publications within articles. Relevance to clinical practice., Disseminating research in journals that are geared to clinicians is essential to increase nurses' awareness of research findings that might be relevant to their practice. This study documented that articles in clinical nursing journals disseminated not only information about clinical practice, but also informed readers about research of potential value to the nurse's practice. [source]

Meta-analysis of the effects of respiratory rehabilitation programmes on exercise capacity in accordance with programme characteristics

HyunSoo Oh PhD
Aims and objectives., This study was performed to investigate the effects of respiratory rehabilitation programmes on exercise capacity in terms of the programme type, the protocol used and other programme characteristics. Background., As the suitable rehabilitation programmes have not been specified, diverse programmes are provided in clinics. Design., Meta-analysis of the primary study results Methods., A computerized search through MEDLINE and CINHAL in addition to tracking down references cited in bibliographies of primarily searched studies were performed to obtain sample studies. Finally 19 research reports were examined. Results., The results of meta-regression showed that the combined effect size of the programmes on exercise capacity was unaffected by forced expiratory volume (in one second), age, the duration and frequency of the programme, or study quality. In addition, the results of meta- anova indicated that the combined effect size was not affected by (i) whether a programme was hospital based or not, (ii) whether a programme was lower-extremity or combined low- and upper-extremity exercise training, (iii) measurement time, and (iv) exercise intensity. Conclusions., The effects of programmes on exercise capacity were not differed in terms of the places where rehabilitation programmes were applied, programme content, measurement time, exercise target sites of body, and the duration and frequency of the programme. Relevance to clinical practice., The results of the present study can provide objective data when constructed or applied on a respiratory rehabilitation programme in clinics. [source]

Lecturer practitioners in UK nursing and midwifery: what is the evidence?

A systematic review of the research literature
Background., Lecturer practitioner roles have been widely established in the UK, and are seen as having the ability to overcome the theory,practice gap in nursing, as well as offering other benefits including functioning as a link between education and practice. Aims and objectives., This article systematically reviews the research literature on UK lecturer practitioner roles in nursing and midwifery, in order to construct a picture of the themes that emerge from their national implementation. Conclusions., Only eight published research studies meeting the inclusion criteria were identified in journals, and five more included from the ,grey literature', totalling 13 suitable research reports. Of these 13 papers, six involved nurses and midwives. Key themes from the literature are outlined and discussed. There is an overwhelming preference for qualitative methodologies, although there is a strong argument for quantitative work in mixed-methods studies. Relevance to clinical practice. Lecturer practitioner roles can make an important contribution to nursing and midwifery education, but this is problematic. It is essential that managers clarify the purpose, responsibilities, support and review of lecturer practitioner roles if they are to be successful. [source]

Pharmacist prescribing in the UK , a literature review of current practice and research

A. P. Tonna MRPharmS MSc
Abstract Objective:, To review the research literature to date on pharmacist prescribing in the United Kingdom (UK) and to explore the main areas of care and practice settings including any benefits and limitations. Findings:, There are two models of pharmacist prescribing in the UK: pharma\cist supplementary prescribing (SP) introduced in 2003, involving a voluntary partnership between the responsible independent prescriber (a physician or a dentist), the supplementary prescriber and the patient, to implement an agreed patient-specific clinical management plan; and pharmacist independent prescribing (IP) introduced in 2006, responsible for the assessment and consequent management, including prescribing of both undiagnosed and diagnosed conditions. There have been narrative reports of pharmacist SP in different health care settings including primary care, community pharmacies, secondary care and at the primary/secondary care interface; published research within these areas of care is conflicting as to which setting is more suitable for pharmacist prescribing. Initial research reports that almost 50% of pharmacist supplementary prescribers self-reported prescribing with both benefits of and barriers to implementing SP. Research involving other healthcare professionals has indicated that encroachment of traditional roles is likely to occur because of the advent of pharmacist prescribing. A small-scale study has concluded that patients are likely to accept pharmacist prescribing favourably, with another study showing pharmacist prescribing leading to improved adherence to guidelines. There is no published research yet available about practices involving pharmacist IP. Discussion:, Most of the literature focuses on pharmacists' perceptions of SP, with little information referring to other stakeholders, including patients. There is also limited published research focusing on clinical and economic outcomes of pharmacist SP. Conclusion:, This is a rapidly changing aspect of pharmacy practice in the UK, particularly with the more recent introduction of pharmacist IP. It is likely that this area of research will expand rapidly over the coming years. [source]

A synergy between action-research and a mixed methods design for improving services and treatment for family members of heavy alcohol and drug users

Caterina Arcidiacono
Abstract Our project first explored the patterns of disempowerment within 113 Italian families facing the problem of a heavy alcohol or drug user in the family. It then provided therapeutic interventions for the members of a further fifty-two families, and thirdly, as a part of the diffusion of the results, it provided brief training for 1,011 professionals supplying services for those suffering from alcohol and drug addiction. Research undertaken in the UK, Mexico and Australia (Copello, Templeton, & Velleman, 2006; Orford et al., 2005a; Orford, Templeton, Velleman, & Copello, 2005b; Velleman & Templeton, 2003) on the impact of substance misuse on families, and on the development of effective interventions to assist those families, supplied the models for this participatory research in Italy. This article discusses the mobilization of health professionals in developing a participatory project within a cross-cultural framework, focusing on research that involved more than 70 researchers and other professionals all over Italy. Research team discussions, peer validation of gathered data and reflexivity all had a significant role. The paper illustrates various issues, which are often not explicitly mentioned in research reports, related to recruitment, cooperation between researchers, interactions between researchers and participants, information about decision-making and the actual modalities of execution of the project. Moreover, the careful descriptions of qualitative research principles within the action research approach and a mixed methods design should enhance the research competencies of psychologists and social scientists involved in the community. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Emotional arousal and gender differences in aggression: A meta-analysis

George P. Knight
Abstract This meta-analysis investigated the possibility that gender differences in aggression, and the variability in these differences, are a function of gender differences in the regulation of arousal generated in emotionally evocative contexts. The sample of studies for this analysis was based on an exhaustive search of the relevant research reports from 1965,1999. Studies were excluded from the sample if they were case studies; investigated spousal/familial or societal violence, war, suicide, or political violence; involved clinical or deviant participants; included fewer than 10 participants; included all male, all female, all non-Caucasian, or non-US/non-Canadian participants. Based on previous evidence that males may be more easily aroused by aggressive-relevant emotional stimuli than females, and that males may have more difficulty regulating emotionally arousing states than females, we hypothesized that the magnitude of the gender differences in aggression would covary, in a nonlinear manner, with the emotional evocativeness of the study context. Consistent with our hypothesis, the magnitude of gender differences in aggression was relatively small in research contexts that appeared to produce no or large increments in emotional arousal and larger (favoring males) in contexts that appeared to produce small or medium increments in emotional arousal. Aggr. Behav. 28:366,393, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Writes of Passage: Writing an Empirical Journal Article

Lynn White
This article provides advice about preparing research reports for submission to professional journals in general and Journal of Marriage and Family in particular. In addition to working through all the major parts of a research paper, I provide some general advice about writing, editing, and revising. The article is intended to help new professionals improve the quality of their journal submissions and the likelihood of successful publication. [source]

Characterization of mouse marrow stromal cells

S. S Liour
Neural transplantation is a promising therapy for neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's, Huntington's, Alzeheimer's, as well as mucopolysaccharidoses. However, neural transplantation is an invasive procedure in the early stages of research and development. In contrast, bone marrow transplantation has been used in medical treatment of immune and hematological disorders and genetic diseases. A increasing number of research reports suggest that cells derived from bone marrow, particularly mesenchymal stem cells, cannot only migrate into brains of recipient rodents after IV administration, but also differentiate into neurons and glia, to facilitate the functional recovery of rats after stroke or brain trauma. The lack of exclusive cell markers for mesenchymal stem cells makes them difficult to study. We isolated mouse marrow stromal cells and studied the expression of markers, particularly glycosphingolipids on their cell surface. Bone marrow was aspirated from femurs of two-month-old mice, and the stromal cells were propagated in attached cultures. Immuncytochemical analysis suggested that most stromal cells were immunopositive for antibodies against IGFR, flk-1, and CD44. Analysis of the glycosphingolipid composition by HPTLC revealed that GM3, GM2, GM1, and GD1a were the major gangliosides expressed in stromal cell in culture. Glucosylceramide, lactosylceramide, and paragloboside were the major neutral glycolipids expressed in these cells. Combinations of these cell surface markers may prove useful in the isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells. Acknowledgements:, Supported by grants from NIH NS11853 and the Children's Medical Research Foundation. [source]

Increasing research evidence in practice: a possible role for the consultant nurse

Aims, To determine the extent to which clinical nursing practice has adopted research evidence. To identify barriers to the application of research findings in practice and to propose ways of overcoming these barriers. Background, Way back in 1976, nursing and midwifery practice started adopting research evidence. By 1990s, there was some transparency of research evidence in practice, but more could have been done to widen its adoption. Many barriers were identified which could hinder implementation of the evidence in practice, and the effort to remove these remains weak. Evaluation, 25 research articles from across Europe and America were selected, and scrutinized, and recommendations analysed. Findings, Many clinical practitioners report a lack of time, ability and motivation to appraise research reports and adopt findings in practice. The clinical environment was not seen as research friendly as there were a general lack of research activities and facilities locally. There was a clear lack of research leadership in practice. Implication for nursing management, This paper reviewed the research evidence from several published research papers and provides consultant nurses with practical suggestions on how to enhance research evidence application in their practice. It recommends how consultant nurses can make their practice more research transparent by providing the required leadership, creating a research-friendly organization, developing a clear research agenda and facilitating staff develop a local research framework for reading research and implementing research evidence in their practice. [source]

Searching for the Intervention in Intervention Research Reports

Vicki S. Conn
Purpose: Precisely described interventions in nursing research reports are essential as a foundation for nursing practice and to facilitate future research. The purpose of this project was to characterize the intervention descriptions in nursing intervention research reports. Design and Methods: Quantitative content analysis was used to analyze intervention descriptions in reports published in English-language general nursing journals during 2005. Normative analysis was used to examine reports for details related to intervention content and delivery. Physical unit analysis was used to compare relative amounts of article space devoted to intervention description vs. other methodological details. Findings: Results were tabulated for 141 research articles published in 27 journals. Analysis indicated incomplete reporting of intervention details in many articles. Dose and dosing frequency were rarely completely defined. Delivery setting and interventionist were frequently not indicated, and the professional credentials of nurse interventionists were often unclear. While descriptions of interventions involving substances or devices were typically detailed, the specifics of psychological, educational, behavioral, and systems-level interventions were often lacking. Intervention descriptions averaged 7.27% of total article space, whereas nonintervention methodological descriptions averaged 20.74% of space. Of studies examined, only 38 (27.0%) reported enough detail to potentially replicate the study or translate the intervention into practice. Conclusions: Intervention descriptions in general nursing journals lack sufficient detail to provide the evidence basis for practice. [source]

Structured review of enamel erosion literature (1980,1998): a critical appraisal of experimental, clinical and review publications

ORAL DISEASES, Issue 4 2000
G. Maupome
OBJECTIVE: To attain an objective account of the methods to measure enamel erosion used in 1980,1998 publications, a structured review of the literature was undertaken. METHODS: Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to 731 clinical/experimental research and review reportS. Eighty-five included papers were subsequently rated according to ,hierarchy of evidence' guidelines to assess the strength of the report's design and the relevance of the evidence to replicating enamel erosion in vivo in humanS. Scores were assigned to rate each aspect in the guidelines. RESULTS: A total of 16 clinical, 13 review and 56 experimental papers were assessed; 36.4% were published during 1996,1998.Excluding reviews, 16 papers were qualitative and 56 quantitative; 51 used human enamel. Our classification yielded nine groups of methods (five scoring systems and 26 measurement techniques).CTFPHE (Can Med Assoc J 1992; 147: 443) grading of research reports indicated that 2.8% provided evidence grade I; 20.8%, grade IIa; 63.9%, grade III; and 12.5%, grade IV. CONCLUSIONS: There has been a consistent increase in the body of knowledge. The overall quality of publications has not substantially changed over time. Experimental studies were more often quantitative, and quantitative studies had better research designS. No single group of research methods had obviously superior research designs. [source]

What do Swedish physiotherapists feel about research?

A survey of perceptions, attitudes, engagement, intentions
Abstract Background and Purpose Although the past decades have witnessed an increase in physiotherapy research, there remains a concern about the translation of research into clinical practice, a problem that to date has attracted relatively limited interest. The aim of the present study was to investigate perceptions and attitudes toward research, intentions to perform as well as actual engagement in research-related activities in a sample of Swedish physiotherapists. Method A cross-sectional design was used, and 343 Swedish physiotherapists responded to a postal questionnaire (representing a response rate of 61.7%). Questions about research-related activities were measured on a Likert-type scale, whereas questions referring to attitudes toward research used a semantic differential scale. Results The physiotherapists considered research as an important part of their professional role. Reading research literature was perceived as the most important research activity, and all mean attitude ratings were on the positive side of the scale. High workload and lack of time were the most commonly mentioned barriers to participation in research-related activities. Although Swedish physiotherapists read a large variety of journals, they most frequently read in their own language. Conclusions The physiotherapists in this study were generally positive about research, which offers hope for an increased use of evidence-based practice in the future. In order to facilitate this development, easily accessible summaries could be provided. A cultural change within the profession, allowing more time for reading and discussing research reports should be encouraged. Copyright © 2002 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

The quality of life for cancer children (QOLCC) for Taiwanese children with cancer (part II): Feasibility, cross-informants variance and clinical validity

Chao-Hsing Yeh
The quality of life in childhood cancer (QOLCC) is a research instrument that has been developed to assess the quality of life for children and adolescents who suffer from cancer in Taiwan. The current paper is the second of a two-part series of research reports. Part I is reported in this journal (Yeh et al., 2003). Part II describes the range of measurement, concordance of cross-informants reports, and clinical validity of Taiwanese pediatric cancer children (7,12 years) and adolescents (13,18 years) and their parents/caregivers. Due to the cognitive ability of children and adolescents, data were analyzed for children and adolescent separately. The validity of cross-referenced information between parent and child forms was subsequently examined using Pearson product correlation. The feasibility (percentage of missing values per item) and range of measurement [percentage of minimum (floor effect) and maximum (ceiling effect) possible scores] was calculated for the five QOLCC and the total scale score. The findings of medium to high correlation of the patient/parent responses strongly imply that relevant information might be obtainable through parents when children are unable or unwilling to complete the assessment instrument. Feasibility for the QOLCC was very good. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A Synthesis of Qualitative Home Visiting Research

Diane B McNaughton M.N.
Over the past decade, a body of qualitative research has been developed which describes the home visiting practice of public health nurses (PHNs) to maternal-child clients. This article reports a synthesis of these studies. The purpose of the synthesis was to identify common elements and differences between the research reports that would lead to theory development or support of existing theories. Methods were based on Miles and Huberman's (1994) text on qualitative data analysis. Results of the synthesis indicated that building and preserving relationships with the client is the central focus of home visiting and provides a foundation for problem identification and problem solving. Clients control access to their homes as well as the information they are willing to share with the nurse. The goals of home visiting relate to empowering mothers, supporting their independence and decision making. Similarities to Peplau's theory of Interpersonal Relations and Cox's Interaction Model of Client Health Behavior (IMCHB) are noted. [source]

Enduring love: A grounded formal theory of women's experience of domestic violence

Margaret H. Kearney
Abstract Using a grounded formal theory approach, 13 qualitative research reports were analyzed with the goal of synthesizing a middle-range theory of women's responses to violent relationships. The combined sample numbered 282 ethnically and geographically diverse women ages 16,67. Within cultural contexts that normalized relationship violence while promoting idealized romance, these women dealt with the incongruity of violence in their relationships as a basic process of enduring love. In response to shifting definitions of their relationship situations, many women moved through four phases, which began with discounting early violence for the sake of their romantic commitment ("This is what I wanted"), progressed to immobilization and demoralization in the face of increasingly unpredictable violence that was endured by the careful monitoring of partner behavior and the stifling of self ("The more I do, the worse I am"), shifted to a perspective that redefined the situation as unacceptable ("I had enough"), and finally moved out of the relationship and toward a new life ("I was finding me"). Variations in the manifestation and duration of these phases were found to be linked to personal, sociopolitical, and cultural contexts. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Res Nurs Health 24:270,282, 2001 [source]

Personality in nonhuman primates: a review and evaluation of past research

Hani D. Freeman
Abstract Scientific reports of personality in nonhuman primates are now appearing with increasing frequency across a wide range of disciplines, including psychology, anthropology, endocrinology, and zoo management. To identify general patterns of research and summarize the major findings to date, we present a comprehensive review of the literature, allowing us to pinpoint the major gaps in knowledge and determine what research challenges lay ahead. An exhaustive search of five scientific databases identified 210 relevant research reports. These articles began to appear in the 1930s, but it was not until the 1980s that research on primate personality began to gather pace, with more than 100 articles published in the last decade. Our analyses of the literature indicate that some domains (e.g., sex, age, rearing conditions) are more evenly represented in the literature than are others (e.g., species, research location). Studies examining personality structure (e.g., with factor analysis) have identified personality dimensions that can be divided into 14 broad categories, with Sociability, Confidence/Aggression, and Fearfulness receiving the most research attention. Analyses of the findings pertaining to inter-rater agreement, internal consistency, test,retest reliability, generally support not only the reliability of primate personality ratings scales but also point to the need for more psychometric studies and greater consistency in how the analyses are reported. When measured at the level of broad dimensions, Extraversion and Dominance generally demonstrated the highest levels of inter-rater reliability, with weaker findings for the dimensions of Agreeableness, Emotionality, and Conscientiousness. Few studies provided data with regard to convergent and discriminant validity; Excitability and Dominance demonstrated the strongest validity coefficients when validated against relevant behavioral criterion measures. Overall, the validity data present a somewhat mixed picture, suggesting that high levels of validity are attainable, but by no means guaranteed. Discussion focuses on delineating major theoretical and empirical questions facing research and practice in primate personality. Am. J. Primatol. 72:653,671, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Environment and profitability in the reprocessing of paper in Norway: contradictory research reports in the context of circulation economics

Stig Ingebrigtsen
Abstract In this article we study three Norwegian reports concerning the environmental problems connected to use of natural resources and production of waste. The reports are responding to political initiatives in White Paper 58 (1996,97) and White Paper 8 (1999,2000). The reports describe, analyse and give reasons for various resolution strategies with regard to excessive consumption of virgin natural resources, inefficient economic processes and irresponsible waste management. The purpose of this article is threefold. First, we present a theoretical framework that enables an integrated analysis of economic problems. We have termed the theoretical context for our analysis circulation economics. Second, we illustrate the complexity of the problems through a discussion of the three different reports concerning waste management. Third, in the context of circulation economics the different reports elucidate various aspects of the phenomenon area and the new perspective can be used to synthesize the partial findings. In addition to this, we suggest where further work has to be done in the future. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]