Resistin

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Resistin

  • resistin concentration
  • resistin level

  • Selected Abstracts


    Adenosine infusion attenuates soluble RAGE in endotoxin-induced inflammation in human volunteers

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 1 2009
    A. Soop
    Abstract Aim:, To evaluate possible anti-inflammatory effects of pre-treatment with adenosine in a human experimental inflammatory model. Methods:, The study design was double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled and randomized. In the Intensive Care Unit of a university hospital, 16 healthy male volunteers were treated for 5.5 h with infusions of adenosine 40 ,g kg,1 min,1 or placebo. Thirty minutes after the start of adenosine or placebo, 2 ng kg,1E-Coli endotoxin was administered. Heart rate, body temperature, blood pressure, plasma cytokines (TNF-,, IL-6 and IL-10), soluble RAGE and resistin, exhaled nitric oxide and nitrite/nitrate in urine were determined. Results:, Endotoxin elicited the expected clinical signs of an inflammatory reaction (tachycardia, fever) and led to prominent release of the cytokines studied (P < 0.001). Resistin in plasma increased after endotoxin (P < 0.001). After placebo treatment, soluble RAGE (sRAGE) in plasma increased 5 h after the endotoxin challenge (P < 0.001) but not after adenosine. After placebo, orally exhaled NO increased with a peak at 4 h (P < 0.001), although there was no statistically significant difference between the two treatments. Nitrite/nitrate in urine (n = 11) did not differ between adenosine and placebo treatments. Conclusion:, In conclusion, adenosine infusion starting before endotoxin challenge in humans attenuated sRAGE significantly but otherwise had no clear anti-inflammatory effect. Adenosine as a potential anti-inflammatory treatment in humans needs further study, including use of higher doses. The mechanism underlying the effect of adenosines on sRAGE remains unknown. [source]


    Resistin increases islet blood flow and decreases subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in anaesthetized rats

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 2 2009
    T. Danielsson
    Abstract Aim:, Resistin is an adipokine which has been suggested to participate in the induction of insulin resistance associated with type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether acute administration of resistin influences tissue blood perfusion in rats. Methods:, Resistin was administered as an intravenous infusion of 7.5 ,g h,1 (1.5 mL h,1) for 30 min to rats anaesthetized with thiobutabarbital. A microsphere technique was used to estimate the blood flow to six different depots of white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT), as well as to the pancreas, islets, duodenum, colon, kidneys, adrenal glands and liver. Results:, Resistin administration led to an increased blood flow to the pancreas and islets and a decrease in subcutaneous WAT and BAT. Intra-abdominal white adipose tissue blood flow and that to other organs were not affected. Conclusion:, Acute administration of resistin markedly affects the blood perfusion of both the pancreas and subcutaneous white adipose tissue depots. At present it is unknown whether resistin exerts a direct effect on the vasculature, or works through local or systemic activation of endothelial cells and/or macrophages. The extent to which this might contribute to the insulin resistance caused by resistin is yet unknown. [source]


    Effects of metformin and oleic acid on adipocyte expression of resistin

    DIABETES OBESITY & METABOLISM, Issue 1 2006
    R Rea
    Aim:, The adipocyte-secreted hormone resistin has been implicated in obesity-induced insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, but pharmacological and dietary factors that regulate resistin gene expression and the effects of resistin on cellular glucose uptake in muscle have not been clearly defined. Methods:, Expression of resistin mRNA was studied in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes by using real-time semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The effects of resistin on insulin-stimulated and insulin-independent 2-deoxyglucose uptake were evaluated in L6 muscle cells. Results:, Insulin 1 m and rosiglitazone 10 m markedly reduced resistin mRNA expression (relative to the control gene TF2D) by 4.7-fold (p < 0.05) and 5.3-fold (p < 0.02), respectively. Similar reductions in resistin mRNA were demonstrated with metformin 100 m (6.2-fold reduction, p < 0.02) and oleic acid 100 m (3.9-fold reduction, p < 0.03). Resistin 1 m significantly reduced maximum insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake in L6 cells from 634 to 383% (relative to 100% for control, p < 0.001), and co-administration of rosiglitazone had no effect on resistin-induced insulin resistance. In the absence of insulin, however, resistin increased glucose uptake dose-dependently (e.g., 1.75-fold at 5 m, p < 0.001) via a mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent pathway. Conclusions:, These results demonstrate that various glucose-lowering therapies and oleic acid reduce resistin gene expression in isolated adipocytes, and that resistin impairs insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle-derived cells. [source]


    Fatty acids as metabolic mediators in innate immunity

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION, Issue 10 2009
    A. Kopp
    Abstract Background, Increasing data support the hypothesis of a local and systemic crosstalk between adipocytes and monocytes mediated by fatty acids. The aim of this study was to characterize the immunomodulatory effects of a large panel of fatty acids on cytokines and chemokines in monocytic THP-1 cells and primary human monocytes. We tested whether anti-inflammatory fatty acids are able to inhibit the binding of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to its receptor, toll-like receptor/MD-2 (TLR4/MD-2). Materials and methods, Resistin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Proteins were analysed by Western blot. A designed Flag-tagged TLR4/MD-2 fusion protein (LPS trap) was used to investigate the effect of fatty acids on binding of LPS to its receptor. In 30 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), the correlation of serum triglyceride levels with LPS-induced monocyte activation was analysed. Results, Eleven fatty acids investigated exerted differential effects on the monocytic release of cytokines and chemokines. Eicosapentaenoic acid had potent anti-inflammatory effects on human primary monocytes and THP-1 cells; 100 and 200 ,M eicosapentaenoic acid dose-dependently inhibited LPS binding to the LPS trap. LPS-induced release of monocytic MCP-1 and TNF was significantly and positively correlated with serum triglyceride levels in 30 patients with T2D. Conclusions, Monocytic activation is differentially regulated by fatty acids and depends on triglyceride levels in T2D. The main finding of the present study shows that eicosapentaenoic acid inhibits the specific binding of LPS to TLR4/MD-2. Eicosapentaenoic acid represents a new anti-inflammatory LPS-antagonist. [source]


    Relationship between adipokines and manifestations of childhood asthma

    PEDIATRIC ALLERGY AND IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 6 2008
    Kyung W. Kim
    Although the prevalences of asthma and obesity are increasing substantially in recent decades, very little is known about the possible association between them. We evaluated the roles of leptin, adiponectin, and resistin, which are adipokines produced by adipose tissue, on childhood asthma, and their association with pulmonary function and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. We studied 149 atopic asthmatic children, 37 non-atopic asthmatic children, and 54 healthy children. Body mass index was calculated using height and weight, which were measured on the same day that pulmonary function tests and methacholine challenge tests were performed. Skin prick tests were performed, and total eosinophil count, total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), serum eosinophil cationic protein, leptin, adiponectin, and resistin were measured in all subjects. Atopic asthmatics had lower resistin levels compared with non-atopic asthma and control groups, but leptin and adiponectin did not show any difference among these three groups. Resistin demonstrated positive correlation with methacholine PC20 and negative correlations with eosinophil count and serum total IgE. Leptin and adiponectin showed associations with forced expiratory volume in 1 s or forced expiratory flow between 25,75%. Multiple regression analysis revealed that resistin was a significant predictive factor for asthma. There was no direct association between asthma and leptin or adiponectin. Our findings suggest that resistin may play a negative predictive role in asthma. Adiponectin and leptin showed close associations with pulmonary function and may have disease-modifying effects in children with asthma. [source]


    ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Hyperresistinemia , a Novel Feature in Systemic Infection During Human Pregnancy

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF REPRODUCTIVE IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 5 2010
    Shali Mazaki-Tovi
    Citation Mazaki-Tovi S, Vaisbuch E, Romero R, Kusanovic JP, Chaiworapongsa T, Kim SK, Ogge G, Yoon BH, Dong Z, Gonzalez JM, Gervasi MT, Hassan SS. Hyperresistinemia , a novel feature in systemic infection during human pregnancy. Am J Reprod Immunol 2010 Problem, Resistin, originally described as an adipokine, has emerged as a potent pro-inflammatory protein associated with both acute and chronic inflammation. Moreover, resistin has been proposed as a powerful marker of sepsis severity, as well as a predictor of survival of critically ill non-pregnant patients. The aim of this study was to determine whether pyelonephritis during pregnancy is associated with changes in maternal plasma resistin concentrations. Methods of study, This cross-sectional study included the following groups: (i) normal pregnant women (n = 85) and (ii) pregnant women with pyelonephritis (n = 40). Maternal plasma resistin concentrations were determined by ELISA. Non-parametric statistics was used for analyses. Results, (i) The median maternal plasma resistin concentration was higher in patients with pyelonephritis than in those with a normal pregnancy (P < 0.001); (ii) among patients with pyelonephritis, the median maternal resistin concentration did not differ significantly between those with and without a positive blood culture (P = 0.3); (iii) among patients with pyelonephritis who were diagnosed with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), those who fulfilled ,3 criteria for SIRS had a significantly higher median maternal plasma resistin concentration than those who met only two criteria; and (iv) maternal WBC count positively correlated with circulating resistin concentration (r = 0.47, P = 0.02). Conclusion, Hyperresistinemia is a feature of acute pyelonephritis during pregnancy. The results of this study support the role of resistin as an acute-phase protein in the presence of bacterial infection during pregnancy. [source]


    Resistin induces expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in human articular chondrocytes via transcription and messenger RNA stabilization

    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 7 2010
    Zhiqi Zhang
    Objective To elucidate the effects of resistin on human articular chondrocytes and to generate a picture of their regulation at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Methods Human articular chondrocytes were cultured with resistin. Changes in gene expression were analyzed at various doses and times. Cells were also treated with the transcription inhibitor actinomycin D after resistin treatment or with the NF-,B inhibitor IKK-NBD before resistin treatment. Gene expression was tested by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Computational analysis for transcription factor binding motifs was performed on the promoter regions of differentially expressed genes. TC-28 chondrocytes were transfected with CCL3 and CCL4 promoter constructs, pNF-,B reporter, and NF-,B and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein , (C/EBP,) expression vectors with or without resistin. Results Resistin-treated human articular chondrocytes increased the expression of cytokines and chemokines. Levels of messenger RNA (mRNA) for matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1), MMP-13, and ADAMTS-4 also increased, while type II collagen ,1 (COL2A1) and aggrecan were down-regulated. The cytokine and chemokine genes could be categorized into 3 groups according to the pattern of mRNA expression over a 24-hour time course. One pattern suggested rapid regulation by mRNA stability. The second and third patterns were consistent with transcriptional regulation. Computational analysis suggested the transcription factors NF-,B and C/EBP, were involved in the resistin-induced up-regulation. This prediction was confirmed by the cotransfection of NF-,B and C/EBP, and the IKK-NBD inhibition. Conclusion Resistin has diverse effects on gene expression in human chondrocytes, affecting chemokines, cytokines, and matrix genes. Messenger RNA stabilization and transcriptional up-regulation are involved in resistin-induced gene expression in human chondrocytes. [source]


    Adenosine infusion attenuates soluble RAGE in endotoxin-induced inflammation in human volunteers

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 1 2009
    A. Soop
    Abstract Aim:, To evaluate possible anti-inflammatory effects of pre-treatment with adenosine in a human experimental inflammatory model. Methods:, The study design was double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled and randomized. In the Intensive Care Unit of a university hospital, 16 healthy male volunteers were treated for 5.5 h with infusions of adenosine 40 ,g kg,1 min,1 or placebo. Thirty minutes after the start of adenosine or placebo, 2 ng kg,1E-Coli endotoxin was administered. Heart rate, body temperature, blood pressure, plasma cytokines (TNF-,, IL-6 and IL-10), soluble RAGE and resistin, exhaled nitric oxide and nitrite/nitrate in urine were determined. Results:, Endotoxin elicited the expected clinical signs of an inflammatory reaction (tachycardia, fever) and led to prominent release of the cytokines studied (P < 0.001). Resistin in plasma increased after endotoxin (P < 0.001). After placebo treatment, soluble RAGE (sRAGE) in plasma increased 5 h after the endotoxin challenge (P < 0.001) but not after adenosine. After placebo, orally exhaled NO increased with a peak at 4 h (P < 0.001), although there was no statistically significant difference between the two treatments. Nitrite/nitrate in urine (n = 11) did not differ between adenosine and placebo treatments. Conclusion:, In conclusion, adenosine infusion starting before endotoxin challenge in humans attenuated sRAGE significantly but otherwise had no clear anti-inflammatory effect. Adenosine as a potential anti-inflammatory treatment in humans needs further study, including use of higher doses. The mechanism underlying the effect of adenosines on sRAGE remains unknown. [source]


    Possible common central pathway for resistin and insulin in regulating food intake

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 4 2009
    C. Cifani
    Abstract Aim:, Adipose tissue has been the object of intense research in the field of obesity and diabetes diseases in the last decade. Examination of adipocyte-secreted peptides led to the identification of a unique polypeptide, resistin (RSTN), which has been suggested as a link between obesity and diabetes. RSTN plays a clearly documented role in blocking insulin (INS)-induced hypoglycaemia. As brain injection of INS affects feeding behaviour, we studied the possible interaction between INS and RSTN in food-deprived rats, measuring effects on food intake. In addition, we examined how RSTN might affect neuropeptide Y (NPY)-induced feeding, as studies have shown that rat RSTN can interfere with the NPY system. Methods:, Overnight food-deprived rats were injected into the third brain ventricle (3V) with either INS (10 or 20 mUI), RSTN (0.1,0.4 nmol/rat), or saline before access to food. Another group of rats was injected into the 3V with RSTN alone, NPY alone or RSTN plus NPY. Their food intake and body weight were measured. Results:, Our results confirm the hypophagic effect of RSTN on food deprivation-induced food intake, and more importantly, show that RSTN neither potentiates nor blocks the effects of INS on food intake, but does reduce the hyperphagic effect of NPY. Conclusion:, The observation that RSTN does not modify feeding INS-induced hypophagia, but does influence NPY-induced feeding, points to the possibility that RSTN may be involved in control of food intake through an NPY-ergic mechanism as INS. [source]


    AMPK-dependent hormonal regulation of whole-body energy metabolism

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 1 2009
    N. L. Dzamko
    Abstract AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine protein kinase central to the regulation of energy balance at both the cellular and whole-body levels. In its classical role as an intracellular metabolic stress-sensing kinase, AMPK switches on fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake in muscle, while switching off hepatic gluconeogenesis. AMPK also has a broader role in metabolism through the control of appetite. Regulation of AMPK activity at the whole-body level is coordinated by a growing number of hormones and cytokines secreted from adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, pancreas and the gut including leptin, adiponectin, insulin, interluekin-6, resistin, TNF-, and ghrelin. Understanding how these secreted signalling proteins regulate AMPK activity to control fatty acid oxidation, glucose uptake, gluconeogenesis and appetite may yield therapeutic treatments for metabolic disorders such as diabetes, insulin resistance and obesity. [source]


    Resistin increases islet blood flow and decreases subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in anaesthetized rats

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 2 2009
    T. Danielsson
    Abstract Aim:, Resistin is an adipokine which has been suggested to participate in the induction of insulin resistance associated with type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether acute administration of resistin influences tissue blood perfusion in rats. Methods:, Resistin was administered as an intravenous infusion of 7.5 ,g h,1 (1.5 mL h,1) for 30 min to rats anaesthetized with thiobutabarbital. A microsphere technique was used to estimate the blood flow to six different depots of white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT), as well as to the pancreas, islets, duodenum, colon, kidneys, adrenal glands and liver. Results:, Resistin administration led to an increased blood flow to the pancreas and islets and a decrease in subcutaneous WAT and BAT. Intra-abdominal white adipose tissue blood flow and that to other organs were not affected. Conclusion:, Acute administration of resistin markedly affects the blood perfusion of both the pancreas and subcutaneous white adipose tissue depots. At present it is unknown whether resistin exerts a direct effect on the vasculature, or works through local or systemic activation of endothelial cells and/or macrophages. The extent to which this might contribute to the insulin resistance caused by resistin is yet unknown. [source]


    Serum adiponectin and resistin levels in major depressive disorder

    ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 3 2010
    S. M. Lehto
    Lehto SM, Huotari A, Niskanen L, Tolmunen T, Koivumaa-Honkanen H, Honkalampi K, Ruotsalainen H, Herzig K-H, Viinamki H, Hintikka J. Serum adiponectin and resistin levels in major depressive disorder. Objective:, To examine the role of the adipose-tissue-derived low-grade inflammation markers adiponectin and resistin in major depressive disorder (MDD) in a population-based sample. Method:, Serum levels of adiponectin and resistin were measured from 70 DSM-IV MDD subjects and 70 healthy controls. Depression severity was assessed with the 29-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Results:, The MDD group had lowered serum adiponectin levels. Regression modelling with adjustments for age, gender, overweight, several socioeconomic and lifestyle factors, coronary heart disease and metabolic syndrome showed that each 5.0 ,g/ml decrease in serum adiponectin increased the likelihood of MDD by approximately 20% (P = 0.01). The resistin levels correlated with atypical (P = 0.02), but not with typical depressive symptoms (P = 0.12). Conclusion:, Our findings suggest that the lowered adiponectin levels in MDD are depression-specific and not explained by conventional low adiponectin-related factors such as such as coronary heart disease and metabolic disorders. [source]


    Effects of metformin and oleic acid on adipocyte expression of resistin

    DIABETES OBESITY & METABOLISM, Issue 1 2006
    R Rea
    Aim:, The adipocyte-secreted hormone resistin has been implicated in obesity-induced insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, but pharmacological and dietary factors that regulate resistin gene expression and the effects of resistin on cellular glucose uptake in muscle have not been clearly defined. Methods:, Expression of resistin mRNA was studied in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes by using real-time semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The effects of resistin on insulin-stimulated and insulin-independent 2-deoxyglucose uptake were evaluated in L6 muscle cells. Results:, Insulin 1 m and rosiglitazone 10 m markedly reduced resistin mRNA expression (relative to the control gene TF2D) by 4.7-fold (p < 0.05) and 5.3-fold (p < 0.02), respectively. Similar reductions in resistin mRNA were demonstrated with metformin 100 m (6.2-fold reduction, p < 0.02) and oleic acid 100 m (3.9-fold reduction, p < 0.03). Resistin 1 m significantly reduced maximum insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake in L6 cells from 634 to 383% (relative to 100% for control, p < 0.001), and co-administration of rosiglitazone had no effect on resistin-induced insulin resistance. In the absence of insulin, however, resistin increased glucose uptake dose-dependently (e.g., 1.75-fold at 5 m, p < 0.001) via a mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent pathway. Conclusions:, These results demonstrate that various glucose-lowering therapies and oleic acid reduce resistin gene expression in isolated adipocytes, and that resistin impairs insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle-derived cells. [source]


    An adipocentric view of signaling and intracellular trafficking

    DIABETES/METABOLISM: RESEARCH AND REVIEWS, Issue 5 2002
    Silvia Mora
    Abstract Adipocytes have traditionally been considered to be the primary site for whole body energy storage mainly in the form of triglycerides and fatty acids. This occurs through the ability of insulin to markedly stimulate both glucose uptake and lipogenesis. Conventional wisdom held that defects in fuel partitioning into adipocytes either because of increased adipose tissue mass and/or increased lipolysis and circulating free fatty acids resulted in dyslipidemia, obesity, insulin resistance and perhaps diabetes. However, it has become increasingly apparent that loss of adipose tissue (lipodystrophies) in both animal models and humans also leads to metabolic disorders that result in severe states of insulin resistance and potential diabetes. These apparently opposite functions can be resolved by the establishment of adipocytes not only as a fuel storage depot but also as a critical endocrine organ that secretes a variety of signaling molecules into the circulation. Although the molecular function of these adipocyte-derived signals are poorly understood, they play a central role in the maintenance of energy homeostasis by regulating insulin secretion, insulin action, glucose and lipid metabolism, energy balance, host defense and reproduction. The diversity of these secretory factors include enzymes (lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and adipsin), growth factors [vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)], cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-,, interleukin 6) and several other hormones involved in fatty acid and glucose metabolism (leptin, Acrp30, resistin and acylation stimulation protein). Despite the large number of molecules secreted by adipocytes, our understanding of the pathways and mechanisms controlling intracellular trafficking and exocytosis in adipocytes is poorly understood. In this article, we will review the current knowledge of the trafficking and secretion processes that take place in adipocytes, focusing our attention on two of the best characterized adipokine molecules (leptin and adiponectin) and on one of the most intensively studied regulated membrane proteins, the GLUT4 glucose transporter. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Circulating adipocytokines in non-diabetic and Type 1 diabetic children: relationship to insulin therapy, glycaemic control and pubertal development

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 6 2006
    F. Celi
    Abstract Aim To determine the influence of Type 1 diabetes mellitus on circulating adipocytokines in children. Methods The circulating concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, resistin and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-, were measured in 91 children, aged 11.1 2.7 years, with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Ninety-one healthy children were selected as control subjects. Results Body mass index-adjusted leptin concentrations were higher in the pubertal diabetic children compared with the control children. There was a significant positive correlation between leptin and daily insulin dose in the diabetic group. Circulating adiponectin concentrations were higher in the prepubertal diabetic children and were positively associated with HbA1c. Resistin concentrations were lower in the prepubertal non-diabetic subjects compared with the pubertal non-diabetic children, whose values were higher than those of the diabetic children. TNF-, concentrations were similar in non-diabetic and diabetic children. Conclusions Circulating concentrations of adipocytokines are abnormal in Type 1 diabetic children, although the direction of change differs by cytokine. Pubertal development, in addition to insulin treatment and glycaemic control, also influences the concentrations. [source]


    The metabolic syndrome: metabolic changes with vascular consequences

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION, Issue 1 2007
    A. M. J. Wassink
    Abstract Despite criticism regarding its clinical relevance, the concept of the metabolic syndrome improves our understanding of both the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and its associated metabolic changes and vascular consequences. Free fatty acids (FFA) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-,) play prominent roles in the development of insulin resistance by impairing the intracellular insulin signalling transduction pathway. Obesity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and strongly related to insulin resistance. In case of obesity, FFAs and TNF-, are produced in abundance by adipocytes, whereas the production of adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory adipokine, is reduced. This imbalanced production of pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines, as observed in adipocyte dysfunction, is thought to be the driving force behind insulin resistance. The role of several recently discovered adipokines such as resistin, visfatin and retinol-binding protein (RBP)-4 in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance is increasingly understood. Insulin resistance induces several metabolic changes, including hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia and hypertension, all leading to increased cardiovascular risk. In addition, the dysfunctional adipocyte, reflected largely by low adiponectin levels and a high TNF-, concentration, directly influences the vascular endothelium, causing endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Adipocyte dysfunction could therefore be regarded as the common antecedent of both insulin resistance and atherosclerosis and functions as the link between obesity and cardiovascular disease. Targeting the dysfunctional adipocyte may reduce the risk for both cardiovascular disease and the development of type 2 diabetes. Although lifestyle intervention remains the cornerstone of therapy in improving insulin sensitivity and its associated metabolic changes, medical treatment might prove to be important as well. [source]


    Adipokines in liver diseases,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 3 2009
    Fabio Marra
    Adipokines are polypeptides secreted in the adipose tissue in a regulated manner. While some of these molecules are expressed only by adipocytes, resident and infiltrating macrophages and components of the vascular stroma markedly contribute to expression of other adipokines. As a result, adipose tissue inflammation is associated with a modification in the pattern of adipokine secretion. Leptin, adiponectin, and resistin are the best-studied molecules in this class, but cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor or interleukin-6 are also secreted at high levels by the adipose tissue. Several other molecules have been recently identified and are actively investigated. Adipokines interfere with hepatic injury associated with fatty infiltration, differentially modulating steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis. Several studies have investigated plasma levels of adiponectin in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, to establish correlations with the underlying state of insulin resistance and with the type and severity of hepatic damage. Hepatitis C is another disease where adipokines may represent a link between viral infection, steatosis, and metabolic disturbances. Identification of the mediators secreted by expanded adipose tissue and their pathogenic role is pivotal in consideration of the alarming increase in the prevalence of obesity and of the detrimental role that this condition exerts on the course of liver diseases. (HEPATOLOGY 2009.) [source]


    The emerging role of adipocytokines as inflammatory mediators in inflammatory bowel disease

    INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES, Issue 9 2005
    Konstantinos Karmiris MD
    Abstract Anorexia, malnutrition, altered body composition and development of mesenteric obesity are well known features of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Recent data suggest that dysregulation of protein secretion by white adipose tissue is involved in these manifestations of patients with IBD. Adipocytes are recently recognized as endocrine cells that secrete a variety of bioactive substances known as adipocytokines. There is evidence that adipocytokines are involved in inflammatory and metabolic pathways in human beings. Overexpression of adipocytokines such as leptin, adiponectin and resistin in mesenteric adipose tissue of operated patients with Crohn's disease has recently been reported, suggesting that mesenteric adipocytes in IBD may act as immunoregulating cells. Therefore, it could be suggested that adipocytokines play an important role in the disease pathogenesis. Moreover, modulators of mesenteric adipose function have been suggested as potential therapeutic drugs in IBD. In this review, the importance of white adipose tissue function and adipocytokines, is discussed with respect to IBD. [source]


    Adipose Tissue Hormones and the Regulation of Food Intake

    JOURNAL OF NEUROENDOCRINOLOGY, Issue 6 2008
    B. A. Henry
    Over the past decade, adipose tissue has been shown to produce numerous factors that act as hormones. Many of these act on the brain to regulate energy balance via dual effects on food intake and energy expenditure. These include well-characterised hormones such as leptin, oestrogen and glucocorticoids and novel factors such as adiponectin and resistin. This review provides a perspective on the role of these factors as lipostats. [source]


    Relationship of adiponectin and resistin levels in umbilical and maternal serum with fetal macrosomia

    JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY RESEARCH (ELECTRONIC), Issue 3 2010
    Jing Wang
    Abstract Aim:, Adiponectin and resistin are novel hormones secreted by human adipocytes and mononuclear cells, which have been postulated to play roles in the regulation of energy metabolism during pregnancy. However, correlations between adiponectin and resistin levels in umbilical and maternal serum and fetal macrosomia remain poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship of adiponectin and resistin levels in umbilical and maternal serum with fetal macrosomia. Methods:, Serum adiponectin and resistin levels were prospectively measured by enzyme immunoassay in 70 mothers and their 70 neonates. The study group included 30 neonates with macrosomia and the control group included 40 neonates that were appropriate for gestational age. The correlations of cord serum adiponectin and resistin with maternal serum adiponectin and resistin, birth weight, body mass index (BMI), and placental weight were analyzed. Results:, Serum adiponectin and resistin levels were significantly decreased in macrosomic mothers compared with those in control women. The levels of adiponectin and resistin were diminished in macrosomic babies in comparison with control newborns. Umbilical serum adiponectin levels were inversely correlated with birth weight, newborn BMI, and placental weight, but not with maternal serum adiponectin levels. Umbilical serum resistin levels had a positive correlation with maternal serum resistin and a negative correlation with birth weight, newborn BMI, and placental weight. In addition, maternal serum resistin levels were inversely correlated with newborn birth weight. Conclusion:, It is suggested that adiponectin and resistin play important roles in controlling body weight and may be related to the occurrence of fetal macrosomia. [source]


    Serum ghrelin, leptin and resistin levels in adolescent girls with polycystic ovary syndrome

    JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY RESEARCH (ELECTRONIC), Issue 4 2008
    Aysun Bideci
    Abstract Aim:, The aim of the present study was to investigate the levels of leptin, resistin and ghrelin in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and to assess their possible correlations with the hormonal and metabolic features of PCOS. Methods:, Sixteen obese (ObPCOS) and 12 lean (LeanPCOS) subjects with PCOS and 19 obese control subjects were enrolled in the study. Results:, Ghrelin, leptin and resistin concentrations were similar between groups when body mass index (BMI) was used as a covariate (P > 0.05). Mean androgen, SHBG, luteinizing hormone (LH) levels and luteinizing hormone/follicle-stimulating hormone (LH/FSH) ratio tended to be similar between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) groups. However, when compared with the control group, SHBG was lower and androgen, LH levels and LH/FSH ratio were higher in the PCOS groups. Free testosterone levels significantly correlated with resistin (r = ,0.38), SHBG correlated significantly with body mass index (BMI) (r = ,0.45) and resistin (r = ,0.67), LH/FSH ratio was significantly correlated with ghrelin (r = ,0.52) and estradiol (E2) levels (r = 0.51). Conclusion:, ObPCOS and LeanPCOS groups having higher LH/FSH ratios and lower SHBG levels suggest that there could be factors other than adiposity responsible for the clinical features of PCOS patients. In the light of our results, those factors can be suggested as ghrelin and E2 for the elevated LH/FSH ratio and resistin for the lowered SHBG. [source]


    Adipogenic Phenotype of Hepatic Stellate Cells

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 2005
    Hide Tsukamoto
    Abstract: Transdifferentiation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) constitutes a major cellular event in the genesis of alcoholic liver fibrosis and cirrhosis and molecular mechanisms underlying this process is incompletely understood. Our laboratory proposed several years ago that HSC quiescence requires the transcriptional program known to be integral to preadipocyte to adipocyte differentiation. In support of the hypothesis, our research demonstrates the expression of adipogenic transcription factors (C/EBPs, PPAR,, SREBP-1c, LXR,) and adipocyte-specific genes (adipsin, resistin) are high in quiescent HSC and depleted in activated HSC. Three gain-of-function approaches have been taken to test this notion: the treatment of activated HSC with the adipocyte differentiation cocktail; ectopic expression of PPAR, or SREBP-1c. All three treatments coordinately upregulate a panel of putative adipogenic transcrition factors and cause morphologic and biochemical reversal of activated HSC to quiescent cells. These findings establish a new conceptual framework for the treatment of liver fibrosis and propose an intriguing notion concerning the plasticity of HSC. [source]


    Relationship between adipokines and manifestations of childhood asthma

    PEDIATRIC ALLERGY AND IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 6 2008
    Kyung W. Kim
    Although the prevalences of asthma and obesity are increasing substantially in recent decades, very little is known about the possible association between them. We evaluated the roles of leptin, adiponectin, and resistin, which are adipokines produced by adipose tissue, on childhood asthma, and their association with pulmonary function and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. We studied 149 atopic asthmatic children, 37 non-atopic asthmatic children, and 54 healthy children. Body mass index was calculated using height and weight, which were measured on the same day that pulmonary function tests and methacholine challenge tests were performed. Skin prick tests were performed, and total eosinophil count, total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), serum eosinophil cationic protein, leptin, adiponectin, and resistin were measured in all subjects. Atopic asthmatics had lower resistin levels compared with non-atopic asthma and control groups, but leptin and adiponectin did not show any difference among these three groups. Resistin demonstrated positive correlation with methacholine PC20 and negative correlations with eosinophil count and serum total IgE. Leptin and adiponectin showed associations with forced expiratory volume in 1 s or forced expiratory flow between 25,75%. Multiple regression analysis revealed that resistin was a significant predictive factor for asthma. There was no direct association between asthma and leptin or adiponectin. Our findings suggest that resistin may play a negative predictive role in asthma. Adiponectin and leptin showed close associations with pulmonary function and may have disease-modifying effects in children with asthma. [source]


    Relationship between obesity, adipocytokines, and blood pressure: Possible common genetic and environmental factors

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    Ia Pantsulaia
    Adipokines may link adipose tissue to the inflammatory, metabolic, and immune dysregulation. The variation of adipokine levels within individuals, intercorrelations, and relationships to well-established measures of adiposity are incompletely defined. The main goal of the present study was quantitative evaluation of the genetic interrelationships between obesity and adipokines in normal human population. The study sample comprised 272 families of various sizes, including 530 men and 531 women aged 18,80 years, randomly recruited in rural population living in Russia. Various fatness and fat distribution measures (OB), blood pressure (BP), and plasma levels of several adipokines (AC), such as adiponectin, leptin, resistin, and IGFBP-1, have been measured. The likelihood ratio tests clearly revealed that genetic effect for all studied phenotypes was highly significant (P < 0.001) and accounted for 45.9% 8.1%, 33.7% 7.9%, 35.7% 9.8% of variation for AC, OB, and BP, respectively. The pairwise bivariate analyses showed that strong phenotypic correlation between the obesity (OB) and adipocytokines (AC) was caused by both common genetic and environmental factors (rG = 0.597 0.116, rE = 0.671 0.051). The phenotypic correlation between BP and OB is explained by shared genetic factors only (rG = 0.532 0.109), whereas the phenotypic correlation between BP and AC has only common environment basis (rE = ,0.212 0.081) and was mostly due to the correlation observed in females. Our results suggest that genetic factors play a significant role in regulation of variation of the examined traits. The variation of OB traits is almost fully due to genes influencing variation of AC, whereas the correlation between BP and AC is only marginally significant and caused only by shared environment. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2009. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Hyperresistinemia , a Novel Feature in Systemic Infection During Human Pregnancy

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF REPRODUCTIVE IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 5 2010
    Shali Mazaki-Tovi
    Citation Mazaki-Tovi S, Vaisbuch E, Romero R, Kusanovic JP, Chaiworapongsa T, Kim SK, Ogge G, Yoon BH, Dong Z, Gonzalez JM, Gervasi MT, Hassan SS. Hyperresistinemia , a novel feature in systemic infection during human pregnancy. Am J Reprod Immunol 2010 Problem, Resistin, originally described as an adipokine, has emerged as a potent pro-inflammatory protein associated with both acute and chronic inflammation. Moreover, resistin has been proposed as a powerful marker of sepsis severity, as well as a predictor of survival of critically ill non-pregnant patients. The aim of this study was to determine whether pyelonephritis during pregnancy is associated with changes in maternal plasma resistin concentrations. Methods of study, This cross-sectional study included the following groups: (i) normal pregnant women (n = 85) and (ii) pregnant women with pyelonephritis (n = 40). Maternal plasma resistin concentrations were determined by ELISA. Non-parametric statistics was used for analyses. Results, (i) The median maternal plasma resistin concentration was higher in patients with pyelonephritis than in those with a normal pregnancy (P < 0.001); (ii) among patients with pyelonephritis, the median maternal resistin concentration did not differ significantly between those with and without a positive blood culture (P = 0.3); (iii) among patients with pyelonephritis who were diagnosed with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), those who fulfilled ,3 criteria for SIRS had a significantly higher median maternal plasma resistin concentration than those who met only two criteria; and (iv) maternal WBC count positively correlated with circulating resistin concentration (r = 0.47, P = 0.02). Conclusion, Hyperresistinemia is a feature of acute pyelonephritis during pregnancy. The results of this study support the role of resistin as an acute-phase protein in the presence of bacterial infection during pregnancy. [source]


    Partial cloning, cytogenetic and linkage mapping of the porcine resistin (RSTN) gene

    ANIMAL GENETICS, Issue 5 2002
    S. Cepica
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Resistin induces expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in human articular chondrocytes via transcription and messenger RNA stabilization

    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 7 2010
    Zhiqi Zhang
    Objective To elucidate the effects of resistin on human articular chondrocytes and to generate a picture of their regulation at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Methods Human articular chondrocytes were cultured with resistin. Changes in gene expression were analyzed at various doses and times. Cells were also treated with the transcription inhibitor actinomycin D after resistin treatment or with the NF-,B inhibitor IKK-NBD before resistin treatment. Gene expression was tested by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Computational analysis for transcription factor binding motifs was performed on the promoter regions of differentially expressed genes. TC-28 chondrocytes were transfected with CCL3 and CCL4 promoter constructs, pNF-,B reporter, and NF-,B and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein , (C/EBP,) expression vectors with or without resistin. Results Resistin-treated human articular chondrocytes increased the expression of cytokines and chemokines. Levels of messenger RNA (mRNA) for matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1), MMP-13, and ADAMTS-4 also increased, while type II collagen ,1 (COL2A1) and aggrecan were down-regulated. The cytokine and chemokine genes could be categorized into 3 groups according to the pattern of mRNA expression over a 24-hour time course. One pattern suggested rapid regulation by mRNA stability. The second and third patterns were consistent with transcriptional regulation. Computational analysis suggested the transcription factors NF-,B and C/EBP, were involved in the resistin-induced up-regulation. This prediction was confirmed by the cotransfection of NF-,B and C/EBP, and the IKK-NBD inhibition. Conclusion Resistin has diverse effects on gene expression in human chondrocytes, affecting chemokines, cytokines, and matrix genes. Messenger RNA stabilization and transcriptional up-regulation are involved in resistin-induced gene expression in human chondrocytes. [source]


    Adipocytokines, insulin resistance, and coronary atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis

    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 5 2010
    Young Hee Rho
    Objective The prevalence of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis is increased in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and the increased risk is associated with insulin resistance. Adipocytokines have been linked to obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, and coronary heart disease in the general population. This study was undertaken to examine the hypothesis that adipocytokines affect insulin resistance and coronary atherosclerosis among patients with RA. Methods The coronary calcium score, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, and serum adipocytokine (leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin) concentrations were determined in 169 patients with RA. The independent effect of each adipocytokine on insulin resistance according to the HOMA-IR index and on coronary artery calcification determined by electron beam computed tomography was assessed in models adjusted for age, race, sex, body mass index (BMI), traditional cardiovascular risk factors, and inflammation mediators. In addition, an interaction analysis was performed to evaluate whether the effect of the HOMA-IR index on the coronary calcium score is moderated by adipocytokines. Results Increased concentrations of leptin were associated with a higher HOMA-IR index, even after adjustment for age, race, sex, BMI, traditional cardiovascular risk factors, and inflammation mediators (P < 0.001), but concentrations of visfatin (P = 0.06), adiponectin (P = 0.55), and resistin (P = 0.98) showed no association with the HOMA-IR index. None of the adipocytokines was independently associated with the coronary calcium score (all P > 0.05). Serum leptin concentrations showed a significant interaction with the HOMA-IR index (P for multivariate interaction = 0.02). Increasing leptin concentrations attenuated the increased risk of coronary calcification related to insulin resistance. Serum concentrations of the other adipocytokines showed no significant interactions with the HOMA-IR index (each P > 0.05). Conclusion Leptin is associated with insulin resistance in patients with RA but, paradoxically, attenuates the effects of insulin resistance on coronary calcification. [source]


    Adipocytokines are associated with radiographic joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis

    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 7 2009
    Young Hee Rho
    Objective Obesity protects against radiographic joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) through poorly defined mechanisms. Adipocytokines are produced in adipose tissue and modulate inflammatory responses and radiographic joint damage in animal models. The purpose of this study was to examine the hypothesis that adipocytokines modulate inflammation and radiographic joint damage in patients with RA. Methods We compared serum concentrations of leptin, resistin, adiponectin, and visfatin in 167 RA patients and 91 control subjects. The independent association between adipocytokines and body mass index (BMI), measures of inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP], interleukin-6 [IL-6], and tumor necrosis factor , [TNF,]), and radiographic joint damage (Larsen score; n = 93 patients) was examined in RA patients by multivariable regression analysis first controlling for age, race, and sex, and then for obesity (BMI) and inflammation (TNF,, IL-6, and CRP). Results Concentrations of all adipocytokines were significantly higher in RA patients than in controls; for visfatin and adiponectin, this association remained significant after adjusting for BMI, inflammation, or both. Visfatin concentrations were associated with higher Larsen scores, and this association remained significant after adjustment for age, race, sex, disease duration, BMI, and inflammation (odds ratio [OR] 2.38 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.32,4.29], P = 0.004). Leptin concentrations showed a positive association with the BMI (, = 0.58, P < 0.01) and showed a negative association with the Larsen score after adjustment for inflammation (OR 0.32 [95% CI 0.17,0.61], P < 0.001), but not after adjustment for BMI (OR 0.86 [95% CI 0.42,1.73], P = 0.67). Conclusion Concentrations of adipocytokines are increased in patients with RA and may modulate radiographic joint damage. Visfatin is associated with increased, and leptin with reduced, levels of radiographic joint damage. [source]


    Proinflammatory Cytokines, Hepatocyte Growth Factor and Adipokines in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    ARTIFICIAL ORGANS, Issue 7 2010
    Chien-Te Lee
    Abstract Chronic inflammation is a well-recognized complication in dialysis patients and a potential role of the adipose tissue as an important tissue of origin contributing to inflammation has been proposed. Stable peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients were enrolled to investigate the relationship between serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines and adipokines. Our results revealed that there was a strong association between high sensitivity C-reactive protein and interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-,) but not with IL-10 and IL-18. IL-6 correlated with TNF-,, IL-10, and IL-18. No association was found between IL-10 and IL-18. Adiponectin was positively correlated with all proinflammatory cytokines, except IL-10. No significant association was found between resistin and proinflammatory cytokines. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) was directly related to proinflammatory cytokines but not with adipokines. The presence of residual kidney function (RKF) affected IL-6, TNF-,, and HGF levels. The peritoneal transport property did not influence inflammatory cytokine and adipokine levels. In conclusion, there was a close relationship between proinflammatory cytokines and adipokines. HGF correlated with proinflammatory cytokines but not with adipokines. The PD-related factors such as RKF, peritoneal property and dialysis glucose load affected levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Body mass index was an important determinant of leptin and adiponectin in PD patients. [source]