Rehydration Therapy (rehydration + therapy)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Rehydration Therapy

  • oral rehydration therapy

  • Selected Abstracts

    Determinants of health status and the influence of primary health care services in Latin America, 1990,98

    David Moore
    Abstract Primary health care (PHC) services have been advocated as a means by which less developed countries may improve the health of their populations even in the face of poverty, low levels of literacy, poor nutrition and other factors that negatively influence health status. Using aggregated data from the World Bank and UNICEF this study examined which factors, both within the health care system and outside of it, are associated with under-5 mortality rates in 22 countries of Latin America and the Caribbean during the 1990s. In a multivariate analysis using generalized estimating equations for repeated measures, five factors were found to be independent predictors of lower under-5 mortality rates (U5MRs). These were vaccination levels, female literacy, the use of oral rehydration therapy, access to safe water and GNP per capita. When the magnitude of these associations were assessed, higher levels of GNP per capita was found to be very weakly associated with lower U5MRs, compared with female literacy and vaccination rates. These findings suggest that government policies which focus only on promoting economic growth, while not making important investments in PHC services, female education and access to safe water are unlikely to see large improvements in health status. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Treatment of mild to moderate dehydration in children with oral rehydration therapy

    Kristene C Diggins RN
    Abstract Purpose: To review current literature on the effectiveness of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) in the treatment of mild to moderate dehydration in children. Data sources: Recommendations from American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), World Health Organization (WHO), selected research articles (2000,2006), and Internet sources. Conclusions: Dehydration is a common diagnosis in pediatric primary care. The literature indicates that dehydration is more often treated with intravenous (IV) therapy when ORT would be equally effective. ORT is an effective treatment for children with mild to moderate dehydration. ORT could be used more frequently rather than IV rehydration therapy. The use of ORT versus traditional methods of IV hydration matches the nursing philosophy of holistic care by enhancing client comfort and autonomy. Implications for practice: Current practice in the treatment of mild to moderate dehydration in children does not match both AAP and WHO guidelines, which are based on evidence supporting ORT effectiveness. Treatment with ORT allows children more flexibility to be treated at home and thus decreases hospital stay. Evidence shows that the time required to initiate ORT is actually quicker than IV therapy and allows for a less stressful therapy that can be performed in the home. [source]

    Comparison of Two Oral Electrolyte Solutions and Route of Administration on the Abomasal Emptying Rate of Holstein-Friesian Calves

    Mohammad Nouri
    Dehydrated calves with diarrhea are routinely given an oral electrolyte solution (OES) by suckling or esophageal intubation. An important issue related to rehydration therapy is the rate of OES delivery to the small intestine. It is widely assumed that the glucose content of the OES does not impact the speed of resuscitation and that fluid administered by esophageal intubation provides a similar resuscitative response to that obtained by suckling. The aims of this study were to compare the abomasal emptying rate in calves suckling an OES containing a high or low glucose concentration and in calves administered a high-glucose OES by suckling or esophageal intubation. Seven male Holstein-Friesian calves were given the following treatments in random order: 2 L of a commercially available high-glucose OES ([glucose] = 405 mM) by suckling or esophageal intubation or 2 L of a commercially available low-glucose OES ([glucose] = 56 mM) by suckling. Abomasal emptying rate was determined by acetaminophen absorption, ultrasonography, and glucose absorption. High-glucose OES rapidly increased plasma glucose concentration after suckling but produced a slower rate of abomasal emptying than did low-glucose OES. Esophageal intubation of high-glucose OES produced the same initial change in abomasal volume as did suckling, but delayed the rate of OES delivery to the small intestine. Our results suggest that suckling a low-glucose OES provides the fastest rate of abomasal emptying and plasma volume expansion, whereas a high-glucose OES provides the most appropriate oral solution for treating hypoglycemic calves. [source]

    Diarrheal illness in a cohort of children 0,2 years of age in rural Bangladesh: I. Incidence and risk factors

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 4 2006
    Preeti Pathela
    Abstract Aim: To describe clinical characteristics and age- and season-specific incidences of diarrheal episodes, and to evaluate risk factors associated with the occurrence of diarrheal disease. Methods: A total of 252 infants from rural Bangladesh were followed through household surveillance for 2 y from birth during the years 1993,1996. Demographic and household determinants were linked to the probability of illness using logistic regression models. Results: The overall incidence of diarrhea was 4.25 episodes per child per year. Peak rates of overall, acute, and persistent diarrhea occurred in the 6,11-mo and 12,17-mo age groups. Diarrheal rates peaked during the spring and summer. Among host-related characteristics, having a sibling in the household and having had prior diarrhea were significant risk factors for diarrhea. Among environmental characteristics, spring season remained a highly statistically significant risk factor for diarrhea. Conclusion: Diarrheal disease continues to be a substantial burden in young children in rural Bangladesh. Most diarrheal episodes are of short duration, and should primarily be treated with oral rehydration therapy to prevent diarrhea-related mortality. Improved knowledge of oral rehydration therapy, feeding during episodes to prevent further malnutrition, prolonged breastfeeding, and the keeping of livestock in corralled areas of the home are advocated. [source]