Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Terms modified by Radiographic

  • radiographic abnormality
  • radiographic analysis
  • radiographic apex
  • radiographic appearance
  • radiographic assessment
  • radiographic bone level
  • radiographic change
  • radiographic criterioN
  • radiographic data
  • radiographic diagnosis
  • radiographic evaluation
  • radiographic evidence
  • radiographic examination
  • radiographic feature
  • radiographic finding
  • radiographic follow-up
  • radiographic image
  • radiographic imaging
  • radiographic improvement
  • radiographic interpretation
  • radiographic joint damage
  • radiographic measurement
  • radiographic observation
  • radiographic outcome
  • radiographic parameter
  • radiographic response
  • radiographic result
  • radiographic score
  • radiographic severity
  • radiographic sign
  • radiographic study
  • radiographic system
  • radiographic technique
  • radiographic techniques
  • radiographic views

  • Selected Abstracts

    Pamidronate treatment of bone fibrous dysplasia in nine children with McCune-Albright syndrome

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 2 2000
    R Lala
    McCune-Albright syndrome is a rare genetic disorder consisting of skin and bone dysplasia and peripheral endocrinopathies. Little data have been collected regarding bisphosphonate treatment of bone fibrous dysplasia in paediatric patients with this syndrome. The aim of our study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of pamidronate in these patients. Nine patients with moderate to severe forms of bone fibrous dysplasia were treated with pamidronate intravenously (0.5-1 mg/ kg/daily for 2-3 d) at 0.5-1-y intervals. Patients were treated over a time period of 0.5-3.5 y. During treatment no spontaneous fracture occurred. Bone pain and gait abnormality due to pain disappeared after 2-3 therapeutic cycles. Cranial asymmetry and limb length discrepancy remained unchanged. Elevated serum alkaline phosphatase and urine hydroxyproline values were reduced by the treatment, demonstrating drug activity at the lesional level. The effectiveness of pamidronate was also seen at the non-lesional level through an increase in bone density. Radiographic and scintigraphic evidence of lesion healing was not attained. Pamidronate treatment can ameliorate the course of bone fibrous dysplasia in children and adolescents with McCune-Albright syndrome. [source]

    Studies on dentin grafts to bone defects in rabbit tibia and mandible; development of an experimental model

    Lars Andersson
    This property may possibly be used as an alternative or supplement to bone grafting to defective areas after trauma prior to treatment with osseointegrated implants. Hence, the objective of this study was to investigate if dentin can be used as a graft in bone defects in an experimental rabbit model. Materials and Methods:, Eight New Zealand White Rabbits were used to prepare bone cavities either in the angle of the mandible or tibia. Six of the eight tibial and six of the eight mandibular bone defects were filled with dentin blocks from human premolars which were extracted for orthodontic treatment. Two mandibular and two tibial bone cavities were used as controls and all the rabbits were sacrificed after 3 months. Radiographic and histological examinations were performed. Results:, There was a difference in healing pattern between the mandibular and tibial defects. In the mandible, the dentin blocks were resorbed to a larger extent and more often surrounded by fibrous tissue, probably due to the fact that the dentin blocks were mobile because of the thin mandibles and muscular activity in that area. Only some dentin blocks were ankylosed with the mandibular bone. In the tibia however, all dentin blocks were fused to bone over a large area. Osseous replacement resorption was seen. In control cavities, bone formation was seen but was never complete. No signs of inflammatory changes were seen in any fused grafts. Conclusions:, Dentin grafts have a potential to be incorporated in bone without inflammation and can be used as bone inducer and later replaced by bone. Thus, rabbit tibia served as a better model for further studies of this phenomenon when compared to the mandible. [source]

    Radiographic and Computed Tomographic Studies of Calcium Hydroxylapatite for Treatment of HIV,Associated Facial Lipoatrophy and Correction of Nasolabial Folds

    OBJECTIVES This study sought to assess the radiographic appearance produced by calcium hydroxylapatite soft tissue filler (CaHA; Radiesse, BioForm Medical Inc.) following augmentation to correct the nasolabial folds or facial wasting associated with human immunodeficiency virus lipoatrophy. METHODS A total of 58 patients, with either lipoatrophy or pronounced nasolabial folds, were treated with CaHA. Radiographic (X-ray) and computed tomographic (CT) imaging studies were conducted pre- and posttreatment in most patients; the images were sent to an independent laboratory to be analyzed by two evaluators who were board-certified radiologists and blinded to study purpose, product, and patient condition. RESULTS While results for X-ray evaluation showed inconsistencies in visualization of CaHA, CT scans showed consistent visualization in nearly all cases in patients who were imaged immediately after treatment. In addition, the results indicated no obscuration of underlying structures by CaHA and no evidence of CaHA migration. CONCLUSIONS Earlier clinical trials established CaHA as a safe and effective soft tissue filler. This CaHA study shows no overt radiographic safety concerns. CaHA is unlikely to be confused with conventional abnormal and adverse radiographic findings. The product is not always visible on X-ray. Although usually visible on CT scans, its appearance is distinct from surrounding bony structures and does not interfere with normal analysis. In addition, the product does not obscure underlying structures on CT scans. [source]

    Injection of the insertion of the deep digital flexor tendon in horses using radiographic guidance

    J. D. C. Anderson
    Summary Insertional tendinopathies of the DDFT have been reported both as the sole lesion and as part of a multifocal lesion (Dyson et al. 2003). Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging allow specific diagnosis of deep digital flexor tendon lesions within the hoof capsule; however, direct intralesional treatment of such lesions is difficult because of the hoof's rigid structure. A technique designed to mimic intralesional injection of insertional tendinopathies of the DDFT in the standing horse using radiographic guidance was assessed. Radiographic and contrast CT imaging and sectioning of the limbs confirmed accurate injection in all cases although inadvertant administration of injectate into adjacent structures was also evident. [source]

    Radiographic and clinical survey of degenerative joint disease in the distal tarsal joints in Icelandic horses

    S. Björnsdóttir
    Summary The prevalence of degenerative joint disease (DJD) in the distal tarsal joints and the relation between radiographic and clinical signs compatible with the disease were estimated in a population of Icelandic horses used for riding. The material consisted of 614 horses age 6,12 years (mean age = 7.9 years). Radiographs with 3 projections of each tarsus were made and a clinical examination, including palpation of the medial aspect of the distal tarsus and motion evaluation of the hindlimbs before and after a flexion test of the tarsus, was performed. Radiographic signs of DJD in the distal tarsal joints were found in 30.3% of the horses and the prevalence was strongly correlated with age. Hindlimb lameness before and after flexion test and palpation abnormalities were significantly associated with the radiographic findings. The lameness was usually mild and, in most cases, detectable only after the flexion test. The prevalence of lameness was not significantly correlated with age. Lameness could not be predicted by details of the radiographic findings. [source]

    Oral disease experience of older adults seeking oral health services

    GERODONTOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    Kavita P. Ahluwalia
    doi:10.1111/j.1741-2358.2009.00311.x Oral disease experience of older adults seeking oral health services Objective:, The objective of this investigation was to describe the dental disease (dental caries and alveolar bone loss) experience in a sample of community-dwelling older adults who regularly utilize dental services in New York City. Background:, Public financing for dental care directed at older adults in the United States is minimal. Improved preventive methods, primarily the use of fluorides, have resulted in declines in tooth loss, and concomitant increase in risk for dental diseases among older adults. While the oral disease burden in institutionalized elderly and those unable to access services is well-documented, the dental care needs of older adults who access dental services are not well documented. Materials and Methods:, Radiographic and record review were used to determine prevalence of dental caries, alveolar bone loss, frequency of service utilization, and medical status in this cross-sectional investigation of a sample of older adults (N = 200) using dental services at Columbia University College of Dental Medicine. Results:, Only 9% of the sample was completely edentulous, the mean DMFT was 19.9 and mean alveolar bone loss was 3.6 mm. Missing and Decayed Teeth accounted for 57.8% and 6.5% of the total caries burden respectively. Missing Teeth and alveolar bone loss increased with increasing age, but there was no increase in Decayed Teeth. Conclusions:, While access to and utilization of dental services may result in improved tooth retention, older adults who use dental services continue to have dental care needs, especially periodontal care needs. [source]

    Imatinib mesylate suppresses bone metastases of breast cancer by inhibiting osteoclasts through the blockade of c-Fms signals

    Toru Hiraga
    Abstract Imatinib mesylate (imatinib) is a potent and selective inhibitor of the tyrosine kinases, Bcr-Abl, c-Kit and platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFRs). Recently, it has been reported that imatinib also targets the macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) receptor c-Fms. M-CSF signals are essential for the differentiation of osteoclasts. Bone metastases of breast cancer are frequently associated with osteoclastic bone destruction. Furthermore, several lines of evidence suggest that osteoclasts play central roles in the development and progression of bone metastases. Thus, in the present study, we examined the effects of imatinib on bone metastases of breast cancer. Coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that imatinib inhibited the M-CSF-induced phosphorylation of c-Fms in osteoclast precursor cells as well as the PDGF-induced PDGFR phosphorylation in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Imatinib also markedly reduced osteoclast formation in vitro. In contrast, those concentrations of imatinib did not affect osteoblast differentiation. We then examined the effects of imatinib on bone metastases of MDA-MB-231 cells in a nude mouse model. Radiographic and histomorphometric analyses demonstrated that imatinib significantly decreased bone metastases associated with the reduced number of osteoclasts. In support of the notion that the inhibition of c-Fms acts to suppress the development of bone metastases, we found that a specific inhibitor of c-Fms Ki20227 also decreased bone metastases. In conclusion, these results collectively suggest that imatinib reduced bone metastases, at least in part, by inhibiting osteoclastic bone destruction through the blockade of c-Fms signals. Our results also suggest that imatinib may have a protective effect against cancer treatment-induced bone loss. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Retention, Distribution, and Effects of Intraosseously Administered Ibandronate in the Infarcted Femoral Head,

    James Aya-ay
    Abstract The local distribution, retention, and effects of intraosseous administration of ibandronate in the infarcted femoral heads were studied. Intraosseous administration effectively delivered and distributed ibandronate in the infarcted femoral heads and decreased the femoral head deformity in a large animal model of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. Introduction: Bisphosphonate therapy has gained significant attention for the treatment of ischemic osteonecrosis of the femoral head (IOFH) because of its ability to inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption, which has been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of femoral head deformity. Because IOFH is a localized condition, there is a need to explore the therapeutic potential of local, intraosseous administration of bisphosphonate to prevent the femoral head deformity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution, retention, and effects of intraosseous administration of ibandronate in the infarcted head. Materials and Methods: IOFH was surgically induced in the right femoral head of 27 piglets. One week later, a second operation was performed to inject 14C-labeled or unlabeled ibandronate directly into the infarcted head. 14C-ibandronate injected heads were assessed after 48 h, 3 weeks, or 7 weeks later to determine the distribution and retention of the drug using autoradiography and liquid scintillation analysis. Femoral heads injected with unlabeled ibandronate were assessed at 7 weeks to determine the degree of deformity using radiography and histomorphometry. Results: Autoradiography showed that 14C-Ibandronate was widely distributed in three of the four heads examined at 48 h after the injection. Liquid scintillation analysis showed that most of the drug was retained in the injected head, and almost negligible amount of radioactivity was present in the bone and organs elsewhere at 48 h. At 3 and 7 weeks, 50% and 30% of the 14C-drug were found to be retained in the infarcted heads, respectively. Radiographic and histomorphometric assessments showed significantly better preservation of the infarcted heads treated with intraosseous administration of ibandronate compared with saline (p < 0.001). Conclusions: This study provides for the first time the evidence that local intraosseous administration is an effective route to deliver and distribute ibandronate in the infarcted femoral head to preserve the femoral head structure after ischemic osteonecrosis. In a localized ischemic condition such as IOFH, local administration of bisphosphonate may be preferable to oral or systemic administration because it minimizes the distribution of the drug to the rest of the skeleton and bypasses the need for having a restored blood flow to the infarcted head for the delivery of the drug. [source]

    Cyclo-Oxygenase 2 Function Is Essential for Bone Fracture Healing,

    Ann Marie Simon
    Abstract Despite the molecular and histological similarities between fetal bone development and fracture healing, inflammation is an early phase of fracture healing that does not occur during development. Cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2) is induced at inflammation sites and produces proinflammatory prostaglandins. To determine if COX-2 functions in fracture healing, rats were treated with COX-2-selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to stop COX-2-dependent prostaglandin production. Radiographic, histological, and mechanical testing determined that fracture healing failed in rats treated with COX-2-selective NSAIDs (celecoxib and rofecoxib). Normal fracture healing also failed in mice homozygous for a null mutation in the COX-2 gene. This shows that COX-2 activity is necessary for normal fracture healing and confirms that the effects of COX-2-selective NSAIDs on fracture healing is caused by inhibition of COX-2 activity and not from a drug side effect. Histological observations suggest that COX-2 is required for normal endochondral ossification during fracture healing. Because mice lacking Cox2 form normal skeletons, our observations indicate that fetal bone development and fracture healing are different and that COX-2 function is specifically essential for fracture healing. [source]

    Cellular and molecular characterization of a murine non-union model

    P. Choi
    Abstract Purpose. We have developed a method to study the molecular and cellular events underlying delayed skeletal repair in a model that utilizes distraction osteogenesis. Methods. The clinical states of delayed union and non-union were reproduced in this murine model by altering distraction parameters such as the inclusion and exclusion of a latency phase and variations in the rate and rhythm of distraction. Radiographic, cellular, and molecular analyses were performed on the distraction tissues. Results. Eliminating the latency period delayed bony union, but did not appreciably alter the extent of platelet endothelial cell adhesion marker (PECAM) immunostaining. Following elimination of a latency phase and a threefold increase in the rate of distraction, there was a further delay in bone regeneration and a higher rate of non-union (60%). Instead of bone, the distraction gap was comprised of adipose or fibrous tissue. Once again, despite the rigorous distraction protocol, we detected equivalent PECAM staining within the distraction gap. In a minority of cases, cartilage and osseous tissues occupied the distraction gap likely by a prolonged process of endochondral ossification. Conclusions. Here, we have altered the mechanical environment in such a way to reproducibly create delays in skeletal regeneration. These delays in skeletal tissue regeneration appear to develop even in the presence of endothelial cells, which suggests that mechanisms other than a disruption to the vascular network can account for some cases of non-union. © 2004 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [source]

    Imaging of cochlear tissue with a grating interferometer and hard X-rays

    Claus-Peter Richter
    Abstract This article addresses an important current development in medical and biological imaging: the possibility of imaging soft tissue at resolutions in the micron range using hard X-rays. Challenging environments, including the cochlea, require the imaging of soft tissue structure surrounded by bone. We demonstrate that cochlear soft tissue structures can be imaged with hard X-ray phase contrast. Furthermore, we show that only a thin slice of the tissue is required to introduce a large phase shift. It is likely that the phase contrast image of the soft tissue structures is sufficient to image the structures even if surrounded by bone. For the present set of experiments, structures with low-absorption contrast have been visualized using in-line phase contrast imaging and a grating interferometer. The experiments have been performed at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratories, a third generation source of synchrotron radiation. The source provides highly coherent X-ray radiation with high-photon flux (>1012 photons/s) at high-photon energies (5,70 keV). Radiographic and light microscopy images of the gerbil cochlear slice samples were compared. It has been determined that a 20-,m thick tissue slice induces a phase shift between 1/3, and 2/3,. Microsc. Res. Tech., 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The pre-natal development and osseous growth of the human cerebellar field

    J.F. Lomholt
    Structured Abstract Authors , Lomholt JF, Nolting D, Hansen BF, Stoltze K, Kjær I Objectives , To describe the pre-natal development of the bones that enclose the cerebellum and part of the brain stem (the neuro-osteological cerebellar field) in the mid-sagittal plane. Design , Radiographic, cephalometric and histologic examination of normal pre-natal human fetuses; 50 normal fetuses, with crown-rump length of 18,227 mm and approximate gestational age from 6 to 26 weeks. Results , The cerebellar field expressed extensive growth during development both sagittally and vertically. Because of changes in shape, the field was displaced in an anterio-caudal direction. Conclusion , In the present study we recorded normal measurements of size, shape and position of the cerebellar field. These standards can be used as references in skeletal analysis of cases with cranial abnormalities and cerebellar malformations. [source]

    Correlation of Radiographic and Pathologic Findings of Dermal Lymphatic Invasion in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue S3 2010
    Matthew E. Spector MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Disconnect between inflammation and joint destruction after treatment with etanercept plus methotrexate: Results from the trial of etanercept and methotrexate with radiographic and patient outcomes

    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 10 2006
    Robert Landewé
    Objective To determine the relationship between disease activity and radiographic progression of joint destruction in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with methotrexate (MTX), those treated with etanercept, and those treated with the combination of MTX plus etanercept. Methods Baseline, 12-month, and 24-month data from the Trial of Etanercept and Methotrexate with Radiographic and Patient Outcomes database were analyzed. The dependent variable was the 1-year change in the modified Sharp/van der Heijde score (Sharp score); therefore, 2 interval changes per patient were available. Interval change in the Sharp score was modeled by time (years), treatment, disease activity, and the interaction (disease activity × treatment). Disease activity was reflected by the time-averaged Disease Activity Score (taDAS) and the time-averaged C-reactive protein (taCRP) level, which were calculated per 1-year interval. Generalized mixed linear modeling (GMLM) was used to adjust for within-patient correlation. Results GMLM confirmed a significant interaction between treatment and the taCRP level and taDAS with respect to the change in Sharp score (P = 0.012 and P = 0.03, respectively). In patients treated with MTX alone, radiographic progression increased with an increasing taCRP level or taDAS, although progression rates were low in patients whose disease was in remission and in those with low-to-moderate disease activity. This relationship was less clear in patients treated with etanercept and was absent in those who received combination therapy. Conclusion Combination therapy with MTX plus etanercept uncouples the classic relationship between disease activity and radiographic progression in patients with RA. [source]

    Role of annexin 1 gene expression in mouse craniofacial bone development

    Amilcar Sabino Damazo
    Abstract BACKGROUND: Annexin 1 is a 37-kDa protein that has complex intra- and extracellular effects. To discover whether the absence of this protein alters bone development, we monitored this event in the annexin-A1 null mice in comparison with littermate wild-type controls. METHODS: Radiographic and densitometry methods were used for the assessment of bone in annexin-A1 null mice at a gross level. We used whole-skeleton staining, histological analysis, and Western blotting techniques to monitor changes at the tissue and cellular levels. RESULTS: There were no gross differences in the appendicular skeleton between the genotypes, but an anomalous development of the skull was observed in the annexin-A1 null mice. This was characterized in the newborn annexin-A1 null animals by a delayed intramembranous ossification of the skull, incomplete fusion of the interfrontal suture and palatine bone, and the presence of an abnormal suture structure. The annexin-A1 gene was shown to be active in osteocytes during this phase and COX-2 was abundantly expressed in cartilage and bone taken from annexin-A1 null mice. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of the annexin-A1 gene is important for the normal development of the skull in mice, possibly through the regulation of osteoblast differentiation and a secondary effect on the expression of components of the cPLA2-COX-2 system. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Two-Year Outcome with Nobel Direct® Implants: A Retrospective Radiographic and Microbiologic Study in 10 Patients

    Tommie Van de Velde LA
    ABSTRACT Introduction: The Nobel Direct® implant (Nobel Biocare AB, Göteborg, Sweden) was developed to minimize marginal bone resorption and to result in "soft tissue integration" for an optimized aesthetic outcome. However, conflicting results have been presented in the literature. The aim of this present study was to evaluate the clinical and microbiologic outcomes of Nobel Direct implants. Materials and Methods: Ten partially edentulous subjects without evidence of active periodontitis (mean age 55 years) received 12 Nobel Direct implants. Implants were loaded with single crowns after a healing period of 3 to 6 months. Treatment outcomes were assessed at month 24. Routine clinical assessments, intraoral radiographs, and microbiologic samplings were made. Histologic analysis of one failing implant and chemical spectroscopy around three unused implants was performed. Paired Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for the evaluation of bone loss; otherwise, descriptive analysis was performed. Results: Implants were functionally loaded after 3 to 6 months. At 2 years, the mean bone loss of remaining implants was 2.0 mm (SD ± 1.1 mm; range: 0.0,3.4 mm). Three out of 12 implants with an early mean bone loss >3 mm were lost. The surviving implants showed increasing bone loss between 6 and 24 months (p = .028). Only 3 out of the 12 implants were considered successful and showed bone loss of <1.7 mm after 2 years. High rates of pathogens, including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium spp., Porphyromonas gingivalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Tanerella forsythia, were found. Chemical spectroscopy revealed, despite the normal signals from Ti, O, and C, also peaks of P, F, S, N, and Ca. A normal histologic image of osseointegration was observed in the apical part of the retrieved implant. Conclusion: Radiographic evidence and 25% implant failures are indications of a low success rate. High counts and prevalence of significant pathogens were found at surviving implants. Although extensive bone loss had occurred in the coronal part, the apical portion of the implant showed some bone to implant integration. [source]

    A Clinical, Radiographic, and Microbiologic Comparison of Astra Tech and Brånemark Single Tooth Implants

    Lorena Puchades-Roman BDS, M Clin Dent
    ABSTRACT Background: The soft tissues around single tooth implants differ fundamentally from the gingiva around natural teeth. There are very limited data comparing soft tissues around different implant systems. Aim: To assess whether the design characteristics of dental implants, particularly the implant-abutment junction, may affect the dimensions and health of the peri-implant soft tissues and radiographic bone levels. Subjects and Method: Fifteen Astra Tech and 15 Brånemark single tooth implants that had been in function for a minimum of 2 years in 30 partially dentate subjects were examined for plaque accumulation, probing depth, and bleeding on probing and compared to contralateral healthy teeth. Standardized radiographs were taken to measure the most coronal bone to implant contact on the mesial and distal surfaces. In addition, samples of subgingival plaque were taken on paper points and examined by darkfield microscopy. Results: Significantly higher mean probing depths (p < .001) and higher mean percentage of spirochetes (p= .003) were found at implants compared to teeth. In this sample, the Brånemark implants had significantly higher probing depths than the Astra Tech implants (median and interquartile range: Astra Tech 2.7 mm [2,3], Brånemark 3.3 mm [3,3.7] p= .026) and the most coronal bone to implant contact was closer to the implant,abutment junction in the Astra Tech implants (Astra Tech 0.6 mm [0.2,0.9], Brånemark 1.6 mm [1.4,2.0]. p < .001). Conclusion: Although there were statistically significant differences between the two implant systems, the clinical differences were small and probably reflect differences in the biologic width in relation to the location and design of the implant-abutment junction. [source]

    Cytology of pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma

    Edward B. Stelow M.D.
    Abstract Acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) of the pancreas is extremely uncommon and its cytologic features have rarely been described. We describe the cytologic features of cases we have seen, review the literature regarding its cytologic features and discuss the pitfalls that may be encountered and the use of immunohistochemistry for its diagnosis. We searched our databases for all cases of histologically confirmed pancreatic ACC which had undergone prior fine needle aspiration (FNA) of the primary pancreatic lesion. The clinical histories, radiographic and sonographic findings, cytologic features, original cytologic diagnoses, and final histologic diagnoses were reviewed. Four cases of pancreatic ACC were found that had undergone FNA prior to histologic confirmation of the diagnoses. They were from 2 men and 2 women aged 50,75 yr. All masses were in the head of the pancreas, 2 had apparent peri-pancreatic adenopathy and 1 had an apparent liver metastasis. On review, all 4 had had diagnostic material on cytology samples. Original cytologic diagnoses included "acinar cell carcinoma," "pancreatic endocrine tumor," "favor neuroendocrine tumor, low-grade" and "non-diagnostic specimen." The cytologic features included small to moderate-sized loose groups with numerous single cells, prominent acinar formation, little anisonucleosis and prominent nucleoli. The cytologic features showed significant overlap with those of pancreatic endocrine tumors. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2006; 34:367,372. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Naohito Uchida
    It is often difficult to determine the precise nature of lesions in the gallbladder by radiographic, endoscopic and ultrasonographic methods. The approach to the gallbladder by a percutaneous transhepatic route has been reported. However, there is a possibility of seeding tumor cells into the peritoneal cavity and liver in a percutaneous procedure. On the contrary, transpapillary route can be performed without a possibility of seeding. The double-contrast cholecystography, intragallbladder sonography, direct biopsy of gallbladder lesions and cytology using gallbladder bile have been performed by the procedure of the transpapillary catheterization into the gallbladder. Confirming malignancy by histopathological diagnosis is desirous for determining therapeutic strategy in gallbladder carcinoma. Gathering gallbladder bile is comparatively easier than biopsy of the lesion using the transpapillary catheterization into the gallbladder. Examination of telomerase-related molecules is useful for diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma. Usefulness of combination assay of human telomerase reverse transcriptase mRNA (hTERT mRNA) and cytology using gallbladder bile obtained by transpapillary catheterization is reported here. However, it would appear that hTERT mRNA is less important in the diagnosis of gallbladder carcinoma than in that of pancreatic carcinoma. When the molecular biological substances with higher sensitivity are found, the reliance of the combination assay of the molecular biological substances and cytology will be established. [source]

    A rare case of multiple myeloma initially presenting with pseudoachalasia

    Georgia Lazaraki
    SUMMARY Pseudoachalasia is a rare clinical entity with clinical, radiographic, and manometric features often indistinguishable from achalasia. Primary adenocarcinomas arising at the gastroesophageal junction or a tumor of the distal esophagus are the most frequent causes of pseudoachalasia. Rarely, processes other than esophagogastric cancers including chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, amyloidosis, sarcoidosis, Chagas' disease, vagotomy, antireflux surgery, pancreatic pseudocysts, von Recklinghausen's neuroinomatosis, gastrointestinal stromal tumor, and other malignancies and rare genetic syndromes, may lead to the development of pseudoachalasia. Secondary achalasia is extremely rare, with less than 100 cases reported in the literature so far. Gastrointestinal manifestations in primary or secondary amyloidosis include abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, malabsorption, obstruction, motility disturbance, intestinal infarction, perforation, and hemorrhage; however, gastrointestinal tract involvement is asymptomatic in most instances. We present here a rare case of multiple myeloma initially presenting with dysphagia because of esophageal amyloidosis and manometric findings typical of achalasia. [source]

    Diagnostic criteria and surgical procedure for megaesophagus , a personal experience

    A. Lewandowski
    SUMMARY Megaesophagus is the end-stage of achalasia cardiae. It is the result of peristaltic disorders and slow decompensation of the muscular layer of the esophagus. The aim of this article is to detail the diagnostic criteria and surgical management of megaesophagus. Criteria were acute bending of esophagus axis; lack of esophagus peristalsis, and no response to stimulation in the manometric test; and Los Angeles C/D esophagitis in the endoscopic examination. Between 1991 and 2004 seven patients (5 females, 2 males; age, 51,67 years; average age, 59 ± 8 years) were treated. A bypass made from the pedunculated part of the jejunum connecting the part of esophagus above the narrowing with the praepyloric part of the stomach was made. Access was by an abdominal approach. A jejunum bypass was made in six patients with megaesophagus. A transhiatal esophageal resection was carried out, and in the second stage a supplementary esophagus was made from the right half of the colon on the ileocolic vessels in one patient who had experienced two earlier unsuccessful operations. Symptoms of dysphagia, recurrent inflammation of the respiratory tract, and pain subsided in all patients. Complications were not reported in the postoperative period. All patients survived. Subsequent radiographic and endoscopic examination showed very good outcome. The jejunum bypass gave very good results in the surgical treatment of megaesophagus. [source]

    Angiolipoma of the esophagus: a rare clinical dilemma

    E. H. Jensen
    SUMMARY., Benign tumors of the esophagus are a rare but diverse group of lesions. Although non-malignant in biology, their presence can cause significant morbidity, including dysphagia, bleeding, gastrointestinal obstruction, and even asphyxiation. Diagnosis is frequently made using radiographic and endoscopic means, even in the absence of definitive biopsy. If discovered early, endoscopic or minimally invasive techniques may be used to excise these lesions, with essentially 100% cure rates. However, if discovered late, open excision or even esophagectomy may be required. Angiolipoma represents perhaps one of the rarest of the benign entities to affect the esophagus, with only a few cases reported in the current literature. We present the case of an 85-year-old man who developed complete esophageal obstruction due to a large, pedunculated angiolipoma, requiring open surgical excision. [source]

    Mixed Aza-Thioether Crowns Containing a 1,10-Phenanthroline Sub-Unit as Neutral Ionophores for Silver Ion

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 24 2002
    Mojtaba Shamsipur
    Abstract Three different recently synthesized aza-thioether crowns containing a 1,10-phenanthroline sub-unit (L1,L3) and a corresponding acyclic ligand (L4) were studied to characterize their abilities as silver ion ionophores in PVC-membrane electrodes. Novel conventional silver-selective electrodes with internal reference solution (CONISE) and coated graphite-solid contact electrodes (SCISE) were prepared based on one of the 15-membered crowns containing two donating S atoms and two phenanthroline-N atoms (L1). The electrodes reveal a Nernstian behavior over wide Ag+ ion concentration ranges (1.0×10,5,1.0×10,1,M for CONISE and 5.0×10,8,4.0×10,2,M for SCISE) and very low limits of detection (8.0×10,6,M for CONISE and 3.0×10,8,M for SCISE). The potentiometric response is independent from pH of the solution in the pH range 3.0,8.0. The electrodes manifest advantages of low resistance, very fast response and, most importantly, good selectivities relative to a wide variety of other cations. The electrodes can be used for at least 2 months (for CONISE) and 4 months for (SCISE) without any appreciable divergence in potentials. The electrodes were used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Ag+ ion and in the determination of silver in photographic emulsions and in radiographic and photographic films. [source]

    Mechanisms of Epileptogenesis in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex and Related Malformations of Cortical Development with Abnormal Glioneuronal Proliferation

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 1 2008
    Michael Wong
    Summary Malformations of cortical development (MCDs) are increasingly recognized as causes of medically intractable epilepsy. In order to develop more effective, rational therapies for refractory epilepsy related to MCDs, it is important to achieve a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of epileptogenesis, but this is complicated by the wide variety of different radiographic, histopathological, and molecular features of these disorders. A subset of MCDs share a number of characteristic cellular and molecular abnormalities due to early defects in neuronal and glial proliferation and differentiation and have a particularly high incidence of epilepsy, suggesting that this category of MCDs with abnormal glioneuronal proliferation may also share a common set of primary mechanisms of epileptogenesis. This review critically analyzes both clinical and basic science evidence for overlapping mechanisms of epileptogenesis in this group of disorders, focusing on tuberous sclerosis complex, focal cortical dysplasia with balloon cells, and gangliogliomas. Specifically, the role of lesional versus perilesional regions, circuit versus cellular/molecular defects, and nonneuronal factors, such as astrocytes, in contributing to epileptogenesis in these MCDs is examined. An improved understanding of these various factors involved in epileptogenesis has direct clinical implications for optimizing current treatments or developing novel therapeutic approaches for epilepsy in these disorders. [source]

    Imaging of the shoulder

    W. R. Redding
    Summary Diagnosis of lameness associated with the shoulder region requires a careful clinical examination, the use of specifically placed intra-articular analgesia and a combination of some common imaging techniques to accurately define the source of pain. Most equine practices performing lameness examinations in the horse have the radiographic and ultrasonographic equipment necessary to accurately image the shoulder. This article presents a description of the unique anatomy of the shoulder and the specific application of radiographic and ultrasonographic techniques to provide a complete set of diagnostic images of the shoulder region. A brief discussion of nuclear scintigraphy of this region is also included. [source]

    Scintigraphic examination of the cartilages of the foot

    A. NAGY
    Summary Reasons for performing study: Radiographic examination of the cartilages of the foot is well documented; however, there is limited information about their scintigraphic assessment. Objectives: To evaluate the scintigraphic appearance of the cartilages of the foot using subjective and quantitative image analysis and to correlate radiographic and scintigraphic findings. Hypotheses: An ossified cartilage would have similar radiopharmaceutical uptake (RU) to the ipsilateral aspect of the distal phalanx; RU would extend throughout the length of the ossified cartilage; a separate centre of ossification (SCO) would be identified on a scintigraphic image; and fracture or trauma to an ossified cartilage would manifest as increased RU (IRU). Methods: Front feet (n = 223) of horses (n = 186) that had dorsopalmar radiographic views and dorsal scintigraphic images were included in the study. The cartilages of the foot were graded radiographically and scintigraphically. Quantitative evaluation of the scintigraphic images was carried out using region of interest (ROI) analysis. For statistical analysis RU ratios were used. Correlations between a radiographically detected SCO and focal RU and between IRU and radiographic abnormalities were assessed. Results: There was a good correlation and an excellent agreement between radiographic and scintigraphic grades. ROI analysis showed a proximal to distal increase in RU ratios within each cartilage of the foot. A radiographically identified SCO could be detected scintigraphically in 12/17 feet (70.6%). Thirty-eight feet had IRU in the region of a cartilage, 25 of which (65.8%) had corresponding radiographic abnormalities. Fracture of an ossified cartilage was associated with IRU in all horses. Conclusions and potential relevance: Scintigraphy may give information about the potential clinical significance of ossification of the cartilages of the foot and associated lesions, therefore prompting further investigation by use of a uniaxial ipsilateral palmar nerve block and imaging, using either magnetic resonance imaging and/or computed tomography. [source]

    Arthroscopic reattachment of osteochondritis dissecans lesions using resorbable polydioxanone pins

    A. J. NIXON
    Summary Reasons for performing study: Debridement of osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) cartilage lesions results in fibrocartilage and imperfect hyaline repair tissue, and forms a permanent irregularity to the subchondral bone plate. Objective: To evaluate the clinical, radiographic and outcome effects of OCD cartilage flap reattachment for select lesions as an alternative to OCD debridement. Hypothesis: Separated cartilage flaps resulting from OCD lesions may be re-incorporated into the hyaline cartilage surface by reattachment rather than debridement and removal. Methods: Resorbable polydioxanone pins were used to reattach OCD flap lesions in 16 joints of 12 horses. Criteria for attachment, rather than removal, included an unmineralised cartilage flap on preoperative radiographs and a relatively smooth surface with some residual perimeter attachment at surgery. Results: There were 12 subjects, 6 males and 6 females, 7 Thoroughbred or Standardbred weanlings, 3 Warmbloods, 1 Arabian and 1 Quarter Horse, mean age at surgery 6.8 months. All horses had effusion of the affected femoropatellar joint (n = 9), tarsocrural joint (n = 1) or fetlock (n = 2). Radiographic lesions varied in length between 1.8,6.3 cm; reattachment was used in 16 of 18 affected joints and the OCD cartilage was not satisfactory for salvage in 2 stifles. Number of pins required was 2,10. One horse was subjected to euthanasia due to a tendon laceration 8 weeks after surgery; of the remaining 11 horses, mean duration of follow-up was 3.9 years (range 4 months-8 years). Nine of these were sound and had entered work, while 2 were sound but remained unbroken 4 and 6 months post operatively, respectively. Radiographic resolution of the OCD lesion occurred in 14 of 16 pinned joints in the 9 horses with long-term follow-up. The 2 remaining joints had a 3 and a 5 mm mineralised flap in the original defect sites. Conclusions: This study indicated cartilage flap reattachment was an alternative to removal in selected OCD lesions. Potential relevance: Relatively smooth OCD cartilage flaps may be salvaged by reattachment and can result in normal radiographic subchondral contour and a high likelihood of athletic performance. Further case numbers are required to determine which lesions are too irregular or contain too much mineral for effective incorporation after reattachment. [source]

    The application of a scintigraphic grading system to equine tibial stress fractures: 42 cases

    P. H. L. RAMZAN
    Summary Reasons for performing study: Tibial stress fractures are an important cause of lameness in the Thoroughbred racehorse. While it is recognised that these injuries can vary in clinical presentation and radiographic or scintigraphic appearance, little has been done to quantify lesion severity. By contrast the scintigraphic grading of tibial stress fractures in human athletes is widely reported and assists in the selection of appropriate management regimes. Objectives: To determine the relationship between scintigraphic grade, clinical severity and radiographic appearance of tibial stress fractures. Methods: The current study involved the retrospective analysis of records from 42 Thoroughbreds with abnormal tibial scintigraphic activity. Results: There was a significant association between lesion site and scintigraphic grade and good correlation of scintigraphic scoring between investigators. No significant association was found between scintigraphic grade and either radiographic grade or degree of lameness. Conclusions: The study confirmed that radiographic appearance is an unreliable measure of clinical severity or stage of progression of lesions. The scintigraphic grading system used in the study was not of use in defining stress fracture severity in the equine tibia. Potential relevance: Despite this finding, there is clearly a need for prospective investigations to explore the potential for targeted management regimes for tibial injuries based on lesion site or clinical criteria. [source]

    Radiographic and clinical survey of degenerative joint disease in the distal tarsal joints in Icelandic horses

    S. Björnsdóttir
    Summary The prevalence of degenerative joint disease (DJD) in the distal tarsal joints and the relation between radiographic and clinical signs compatible with the disease were estimated in a population of Icelandic horses used for riding. The material consisted of 614 horses age 6,12 years (mean age = 7.9 years). Radiographs with 3 projections of each tarsus were made and a clinical examination, including palpation of the medial aspect of the distal tarsus and motion evaluation of the hindlimbs before and after a flexion test of the tarsus, was performed. Radiographic signs of DJD in the distal tarsal joints were found in 30.3% of the horses and the prevalence was strongly correlated with age. Hindlimb lameness before and after flexion test and palpation abnormalities were significantly associated with the radiographic findings. The lameness was usually mild and, in most cases, detectable only after the flexion test. The prevalence of lameness was not significantly correlated with age. Lameness could not be predicted by details of the radiographic findings. [source]

    Osteoblastoma of the mandible: Clinicopathologic study of four cases and literature review

    Saverio Capodiferro DDS
    Abstract Background. Osteoblastoma is a benign bone tumor accounting for 1% of all bone tumors; it commonly involves the spine and the sacrum of young individuals, with less than 5% being localized to the posterior mandible. In view of its rarity in the maxilla and mandible, osteoblastoma is rarely diagnosed as such in the absence of interdisciplinary cooperation. Methods. A retrospective study of four benign osteoblastomas was performed based on a review of the clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features of all cases. Results. The tumors involved the posterior mandible of young patients (age range, 10,21 years; two male and two female patients) and appeared as painful bone expansions. Radiologically, they were poorly defined, radiolucent/radiopaque lesions containing calcifications and not showing sclerotic borders or periosteal reactions. Histologically, they were composed of osteoid and woven bone surrounded by plump osteoblast-like cells with interposed fibroblasts, inflammatory cells, and red blood cells. All patients were disease free after prolonged follow-up. Conclusions. Osteoblastomas may be distinguished from other bone tumors, fibro-osseous lesions, and odontogenic neoplasms on the basis of integrated clinical, radiologic, and histologic features and usually manifest an indolent clinical course. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck27: XXX,XXX, 2005 [source]