R6/2 Mice (r6/2 + mouse)

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Selected Abstracts

Mice transgenic for exon 1 of the Huntington's disease gene display reduced striatal sensitivity to neurotoxicity induced by dopamine and 6-hydroxydopamine

┼sa PetersÚn
Abstract Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominant hereditary neurodegenerative disorder characterized by severe striatal cell loss. Dopamine (DA) has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease. We have previously reported that transgenic mice expressing exon 1 of the human Huntington gene (R6 lines) are resistant to quinolinic acid-induced striatal toxicity. In this study we show that with increasing age, R6/1 and R6/2 mice develop partial resistance to DA- and 6-hydroxydopamine-mediated toxicity in the striatum. Using electron microscopy, we found that the resistance is localized to the cell bodies and not to the neuropil. The reduction of dopamine and cAMP regulated phosphoprotein of a molecular weight of 32 kDa (DARPP-32) in R6/2 mice does not provide the resistance, as DA-induced striatal lesions are not reduced in size in DARPP-32 knockout mice. Neither DA receptor antagonists nor a N -methyl- d -aspartate (NMDA) receptor blocker reduce the size of DA-induced striatal lesions, suggesting that DA toxicity is not dependent upon DA- or NMDA receptor-mediated pathways. Moreover, superoxide dismutase-1 overexpression, monoamine oxidase inhibition and the treatment with the free radical scavenging spin-trap agent phenyl-butyl-tert-nitrone (PBN) also did not block DA toxicity. Levels of the antioxidant molecules, glutathione and ascorbate were not increased in R6/1 mice. Because damage to striatal neurons following intrastriatal injection of 6-hydroxydopamine was also reduced in R6 mice, a yet-to-be identified antioxidant mechanism may provide neuroprotection in these animals. We conclude that striatal neurons of R6 mice develop resistance to DA-induced toxicity with age. [source]

Catecholamine exocytosis is diminished in R6/2 Huntington's disease model mice

Michael A. Johnson
Abstract In this work, the mechanisms responsible for dopamine (DA) release impairments observed previously in Huntington's disease model R6/2 mice were evaluated. Voltammetrically measured DA release evoked in striatal brain slices from 12-week old R6/2 mice by a single electrical stimulus pulse was only 19% of wild-type (WT) control mice. Iontophoresis experiments suggest that the concentration of released DA is not diluted by a larger striatal extracellular volume arising from brain atrophy, but, rather, that striatal dopaminergic terminals have a decreased capacity for DA release. This decreased capacity was not due to an altered requirement for extracellular Ca2+, and, as in WT mice, the release in R6/2 mice required functioning vesicular transporters. Catecholamine secretion from individual vesicles was measured during exocytosis from adrenal chromaffin cells harvested from R6/2 and WT mice. While the number of exocytotic events was unchanged, the amounts released per vesicle were significantly diminished in R6/2 mice, indicating that vesicular catecholamines are present in decreased amounts. Treatment of chromaffin cells with 3-nitropropionic acid decreased the vesicular release amount from WT cells by 50%, mimicking the release observed from untreated R6/2 cells. Thus, catecholamine release from tissues isolated from R6/2 mice is diminished because of impaired vesicle loading. [source]

Age-Dependent Changes in the Calcium Sensitivity of Striatal Mitochondria in Mouse Models of Huntington's Disease

N. Brustovetsky
Abstract Striatal and cortical mitochondria from knock-in and transgenic mutant huntingtin mice were examined for their sensitivity to calcium induction of the permeability transition, a cause of mitochondrial depolarization and ATP loss. The permeability transition has been suggested to contribute to cell death in Huntington's Disease. Mitochondria were examined from slowly progressing knock-in mouse models with different length polyglutarnine expansions (Q20, Q50, Q92, Q111) and from the rapidly progressing transgenic R6/2 mice overexpressing exon I of human huntingtin with more than 110 polyglutamines. As previously observed in rats, striatal mitochondria from background strain CD1 and C57BL/6 control mice were more sensitive to calcium than cortical mitochondria. Between 5 and 12 months in knock-in Q92 mice and between 8 and 12 weeks in knock-in Q111 mice, striatal mitochondria developed resistance, becoming equally sensitive to calcium as cortical mitochondria, while those from Q50 mice were unchanged. Cortical mitochondrial calcium sensitivity did not change. In R6/2 mice striatal and cortical mitochondria were equally resistant to Ca2+ while striatal mitochondria from littermate controls were more susceptible. No increases in calcium sensitivity were observed in the mitochondria from Huntington's Disease (HD) mice compared to controls. Neither motor abnormalities, nor expression of cyclophilin D corresponded to the changes in mitochondrial sensitivity. Polyglutamine expansions in huntingtin produced an early increased resistance to calcium in striatal mitochondria suggesting mitochondria undergo compensatory changes in calcium sensitivity in response to the many cellular changes wrought by polyglutamine expansion. [source]

Inclusion formation in Huntington's disease R6/2 mouse muscle cultures

M. Orth
Abstract Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by an expansion in the number of glutamine repeats in the N-terminal region of the huntingtin protein. Nuclear and cytoplasmic aggregates of the N-terminal portion of huntingtin have been found in the brains of HD patients and the brains and non-neuronal tissues of the R6/2 HD transgenic mouse. We have cultured myoblasts and myotubes from transgenic R6/2 mice and littermate controls to investigate the formation of these inclusions in post mitotic cells. Huntingtin immunoreactivity was intense in differentiating, desmin positive myoblasts and myotubes from both control and R6/2 mice suggesting that it may play a role in myotube differentiation. Following differentiation huntingtin and ubiquitin positive aggregates were observed in R6/2 but not control cultures. After 3 weeks in differentiation medium cytoplasmic huntingtin and ubiquitin immunoreactive aggregates were observed in non-myotube cells, while nuclear huntingtin aggregates were seen in a proportion of myotubes after 6 weeks. Growth in the absence of serum resulted in a marked increase in the number of R6/2 myotubes containing nuclear inclusions after 6 weeks demonstrating that environmental factors influenced huntingtin aggregate formation in these cells. Consequently, cultured myotubes from R6/2 mice may be a useful post mitotic cell culture model to study both the biochemical consequences of huntingtin aggregates and the factors that may influence aggregate formation. [source]

R6/2 neurons with intranuclear inclusions survive for prolonged periods in the brains of chimeric mice

Anton Reiner
Abstract The R6/2 mouse possesses mutant exon 1 of human Hdh, and R6/2 mice with 150 CAG repeats show neurological abnormalities by 10 weeks and die by 15 weeks. Few brain abnormalities, however, are evident at death, other than widespread ubiquitinated neuronal intranuclear inclusions (NIIs). We constructed R6/2t+/t, , wildtype (WT) chimeric mice to prolong survival of R6/2 cells and determine if neuronal death and/or neuronal injury become evident with longer survival. ROSA26 mice (which bear a lacZ transgene) were used as WT to distinguish between R6/2 and WT neurons. Chimeric mice consisting partly of R6/2 cells lived longer than pure R6/2 mice (up to 10 months), with the survival proportional to the R6/2 contribution. Genotypically R6/2 cells formed NIIs in the chimeras, and these NIIs grew only slightly larger than in 12-week pure R6/2 mice, even after 10 months. Additionally, neuropil aggregates formed near R6/2 neurons in chimeric mice older than 15 weeks. Thus, R6/2 neurons could survive well beyond 15 weeks in chimeras. Moreover, little neuronal degeneration was evident in either cortex or striatum by routine histological stains. Nonetheless, striatal shrinkage and ventricular enlargement occurred, and striatal projection neuron markers characteristically reduced in Huntington's disease were diminished. Consistent with such abnormalities, cortex and striatum in chimeras showed increased astrocytic glial fibrillary acidic protein. These results suggest that while cortical and striatal neurons can survive nearly a year with nuclear and extranuclear aggregates of mutant huntingtin, such lengthy survival does reveal cortical and striatal abnormality brought on by the truncated mutant protein. J. Comp. Neurol. 505:603,629, 2007. ę 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Slowed progression in models of huntington disease by adipose stem cell transplantation,

Soon-Tae Lee MD
Objective Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are readily accessible and secrete multiple growth factors. Here, we show that ASC transplantation rescues the striatal pathology of Huntington disease (HD) models. Methods ASCs were isolated from human subcutaneous adipose tissue. In a quinolinic acid (QA)-induced rat model of striatal degeneration, human ASCs (1 million cells) were transplanted into the ipsilateral striatal border immediately after the QA injection. In 60-day-old R6/2 mice transgenic for HD, ASCs (0.5 million cells) were transplanted into each bilateral striata. In in vitro experiments, we treated mutant huntingtin gene-transfected cerebral neurons with ASC-conditioned media. Results In the QA model, human ASCs reduced apomorphine-induced rotation behavior, lesion volume, and striatal apoptosis. In R6/2 transgenic mice, transplantation of ASCs improved Rota-Rod performance and limb clasping, increased survival, attenuated the loss of striatal neurons, and reduced the huntingtin aggregates. ASC-transplanted R6/2 mice expressed elevated levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor , coactivator-1, (PGC-1,) and reactive oxygen defense enzymes and showed activation of the Akt/cAMP-response element-binding proteins. ASC-conditioned media decreased the level of N-terminal fragments of mutant huntingtin and associated apoptosis, and increased PGC-1, expression. Interpretation Collectively, ASC transplantation slowed striatal degeneration and behavioral deterioration of HD models, possibly via secreted factors. Ann Neurol 2009;66:671,681 [source]

Minocycline and doxycycline are not beneficial in a model of Huntington's disease

Donna L. Smith BSc
Huntington's Disease (HD) is an inherited neurological disorder causing movement impairment, personality changes, dementia, and premature death, for which there is currently no effective therapy. The modified tetracycline antibiotic, minocycline, has been reported to ameliorate the disease phenotype in the R6/2 mouse model of HD. Because the tetracyclines have also been reported to inhibit aggregation in other amyloid disorders, we have investigated their ability to inhibit huntingtin aggregation and further explored their efficacy in preclinical mouse trials. We show that tetracyclines are potent inhibitors of huntingtin aggregation in a hippocampal slice culture model of HD at an effective concentration of 30,M. However, despite achieving tissue levels approaching this concentration by oral treatment of R6/2 mice with minocycline, we observed no clear difference in their behavioral abnormalities, or in aggregate load postmortem. In the light of these new data, we would advise that caution be exercised in proceeding into human clinical trials of minocycline. Ann Neurol 2003 [source]

Impaired Glucose Tolerance in the R6/1 Transgenic Mouse Model of Huntington's Disease

K. Josefsen
Previous reports have highlighted a possible link between Huntington's disease (HD) and diabetes mellitus (DM), but the association has not been characterised in detail. A transgenic mouse model for HD, the R6/2 mouse, also develops diabetes. In the present study, we examined the R6/1 mouse, which carries a shorter CAG repeat than the R6/2 mouse, and found that, although not diabetic, the mice showed several signs of impaired glucose tolerance. First, following i.p. glucose injection, the blood glucose concentration was approximately 30% higher in young R6/1 mice (10 weeks) compared to wild-type mice (P = 0.004). In older mice (38 weeks), glucose tolerance was further impaired in both R6/1 and wild-type animals. Second, during glucose challenge, the R6/1 mice reached higher plasma insulin levels than wild-type mice, but the peripheral insulin sensitivity was normal as measured by injection of human or mouse insulin or when evaluated by the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI). Third, the beta cell volume was 17% and 39% smaller at 10 and 38 weeks of age, respectively, compared to age-matched wild-type littermates and the reduction was not caused by apoptosis at either age. Finally, we demonstrated the presence of the HD gene product, huntingtin (htt), in both alpha- and beta-cells in R6/1 islets of Langerhans. Since pancreatic beta cells and neurons share several common traits, clarification of the mechanism associating neurodegenerative diseases with diabetes might improve our understanding of the pathogenic events leading to both groups of diseases. [source]