Protein Retention (protein + retention)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Protein Retention

  • protein retention efficiency

  • Selected Abstracts

    Effects of Dietary Protein and Energy Levels on Growth and Body Composition of Juvenile Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    Sang-Min Lee
    A feeding trial of three protein levels (30, 40 and 50%) and two energy levels (300 and 400 kcal/100-g diet) factorial design with three replications was carried out to investigate the proper dietary protein and energy levels for the growth of juvenile flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Weight gain of fish tended to improve with increasing dietary protein level. Weight gain of fish fed either the 40% or 50% protein diet with 300 kcal/100-g diet was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than with 400 kcal/100-g diet. The best weight gain was obtained from fish fed the 50% protein diet with 300 kcal/100-g diet. Feed efficiency tended to improve with increasing dietary protein level. However, dietary energy level had no significant effect on feed efficiency of fish fed the 30% or 50% protein diet, but that of fish fed the 40% protein diet with 300 kcal/100-g diet was significantly higher than with 400 kcal/100-g diet. Protein retention tended to increase as dietary protein level increased and energy level decreased. Lipid content of fish fed the diet containing 400 kcal/100-g diet was significantly higher than that of fish fed the diet containing 300 kcal/100-g diet at all protein levels. Fatty acid compositions such as linoleic acid, EPA (20:5n-3) and DHA (22:6n-3) offish were directly affected by dietary lipid (squid liver oil and/or soybean oil) used for energy source. Based on the above results, it can be concluded that the proper dietary protein and energy levels for the growth of juvenile flounder are 50% and 300 kcal/100-g diet, respectively. [source]

    Growth and feed utilization in two strains of gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio: paternal effects in a gynogenetic fish


    Gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch) is a natural gynogenetic fish which requires sperm of the same or related species to activate egg development. The eggs of one gibel carp were divided into two batches. One batch was ,fertilized' with sperm from gibel carp (strain DD), and the other ,fertilized' with sperm from red common carp (Cyprinus carpio red variety) (strain DR). The juveniles were transferred to the laboratory 36 days post-hatch. Triplicate groups of each strain were fed a formulated diet at either 3% or satiation ration for 8 weeks. At both the restricted and satiation rations, specific growth rate was significantly higher in strain DR than in strain DD. At the 3% ration, there was no significant difference in feeding rate or feed conversion efficiency between the two strains. At the satiation ration, strain DR had a significantly lower feeding rate but higher feed conversion efficiency than strain DD. At the satiation ration, strain DR had a significantly lower intake protein, but higher recovered protein than strain DD. There was no significant difference in faecal protein loss between the two strains. At the 3% ration, strain had no significant effects on intake protein, faecal protein or recovered protein. Neither faecal energy loss nor recovered energy was affected by strain or ration. At both the 3% and satiation ration, final body contents of dry matter and lipid were significantly lower in strain DR than strain DD, while there was no significant difference in protein and energy content between the two strains at either ration level. The results suggested that gibel carp ,fertilized' with sperm of common carp grew faster than those ,fertilized' with sperm of gibel carp through increased feed conversion efficiency and protein retention. [source]

    Novel alternatively spliced endoplasmic reticulum retention signal in the cytoplasmic loop of Proteolipid Protein-1

    Cherie Southwood
    Abstract Increased awareness about the importance of protein folding and trafficking to the etiology of gain-of-function diseases has driven extensive efforts to understand the cell and molecular biology underlying the life cycle of normal secretory pathway proteins and the detrimental effects of abnormal proteins. In this regard, the quality-control machinery in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has emerged as a major mechanism by which cells ensure that secreted and transmembrane proteins either adopt stable secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures or are retained in the ER and degraded. Here we examine cellular and molecular aspects of ER retention in transfected fibroblasts expressing missense mutations in the Proteolipid Protein-1 (PLP1) gene that cause mild or severe forms of neurodegenerative disease in humans. Mild mutations cause protein retention in the ER that is partially dependent on the presence of a cytoplasmically exposed heptapeptide, KGRGSRG. In contrast, retention associated with severe mutations occurs independently of this peptide. Accordingly, the function of this novel heptapeptide has a significant impact on pathogenesis and provides new insight into the functions of the two splice isoforms encoded by the PLP1 gene, PLP1 and DM-20. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Oscillatory transverse electric field enhances protein resolution and capacity of size-exclusion chromatography

    Guo-Min Tan
    Abstract Protein separations by a novel size-exclusion electrochromatography (SEEC) are presented. The present SEEC, denoted as pSEEC, was established with an oscillatory low-voltage electric field perpendicular to the mobile-phase streamline. Retention experiments with different proteins indicated that the influence of electric field strength on the partition coefficient is different for different proteins as well as for the same protein under different mobile-phase conditions. These results of protein retention led to the experimental design of protein separations with binary mixtures of BSA and immunoglobulin G (IgG), myoglobin (Myo) and lysozyme (Lys), as well as ovalbumin (Oval) and Myo. The separation results for the binary protein systems sufficiently exhibited the applicability of the pSEEC for various separations in terms of their molecular weights (MWs) as well as pIs. For example, it was possible to separate the gel-excluded proteins (BSA/IgG) as well as gel-permeable and similar-molecular-weight proteins (Myo/Lys) by the pSEEC. Moreover, in the cases of Oval/Myo, which could be partially separated by size-exclusion chromatography, the use of the pSEEC greatly improved the resolution and the separation became possible at high sample loading. The results indicate that the pSEEC technology is promising for preparative protein separations. [source]

    Preparation of a monolithic column for weak cation exchange chromatography and its application in the separation of biopolymers

    Yinmao Wei
    Abstract A procedure for the preparation of a monolithic column for weak cation exchange chromatography was presented. The structure of the monolithic column was evaluated by mercury intrusion. The hydrodynamic and chromatographic properties of the monolithic column , such as back pressures at different flow rates, effects of pH on protein retention, dynamic loading capacity, recovery, and stability , were determined under conditions typical for ion-exchange chromatography. The prepared monolithic column might be used in a relatively broad pH range from 4.0 to 12.0 and exhibited an excellent separation to five proteins at the flow rates of both 1.0 and 8.0 mL/min, respectively. In addition, the prepared column was first used in the purification and simultaneous renaturation of recombinant human interferon gamma (rhIFN-,) in the extract solution with 7.0 mol/L guanidine hydrochloride. The purity and specific bioactivity of the purified rhIFN-, in only one chromatographic step were obtained to be 93% and 7.8107 IU/mg, respectively. [source]

    Senegalese sole larvae growth and protein utilization is depressed when co-fed high levels of inert diet and Artemia since first feeding

    Abstract A large effort has been dedicated in the past years to the development of nutritional balanced inert diets for marine fish larvae in order to suppress the nutritional deficiencies of live feed. In this study growth performance, Artemia intake, protein digestibility and protein retention were measured for Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup), in order to provide insight into how protein utilization affects growth performance. Three feeding regimes were tested: ST , standard live feed; ArtRL , live feed and 20%Artemia replacement with inert diet (dry matter basis) from mouth opening; ArtRH , live feed and 58%Artemia replacement with inert diet from mouth opening. Artemia intake and protein metabolism were determined at 6, 15 and 21 days after hatching using 14C-labelled Artemia protein and subsequent incubation in metabolic chambers. At the end of the experiment, sole fed exclusively with live feed were significantly larger than sole from Artemia replacement treatments. Protein digestibility decreased during sole ontogeny, and more sharply in ArtRH sole. Concomitantly retention efficiency increased during ontogeny but with a slight delay in ArtRH sole. Senegalese sole larvae growth and protein utilization is depressed when co-fed high levels of inert diet and Artemia, mostly during metamorphosis climax. [source]

    Dietary energy requirement of piracanjuba fingerlings, Brycon orbignyanus, and relative utilization of dietary carbohydrate and lipid

    M.R. BORBA
    Abstract Ten isonitrogenous casein,gelatin-based diets were formulated to contain five estimated metabolizable energy concentrations (10.92, 12.29, 13.63, 14.82 and 16.16 kJ g,1) at two carbohydrate-to-lipid ratios (CHO : L, 5.3 and 12.8, g : g) in a 5 2 factorial arrangement. Each diet was assigned to triplicate groups of 11 piracanjuba fingerlings (5.25 0.14 g) and fed to apparent satiation twice a day for 90 days. Higher daily weight gain was obtained by fish fed the 13.63 kJ g,1 diets for both CHO : L ratios. There was a significant reduction of feed consumption when dietary energy concentration increased above 13.63 kJ g,1. Feed conversion ratio and apparent net energy retention improved as dietary energy increased. Apparent net protein retention tended to be lower in the highest and lowest dietary energy concentrations. The results suggest that dietary lipid energy was more efficiently utilized by piracanjuba fingerlings than carbohydrate energy. Body composition and hepatosomatic index (HSI) were not influenced by dietary CHO : L ratio. However, an increase in dietary energy concentration beyond 13.63 kJ g,1 resulted in a significant increment in lipid deposition, while body moisture and HSI decreased. Our findings indicate that at 300 g kg,1 dietary crude protein, a CHO : L ratio of 5.3 is recommended for piracanjuba, and the required energy is either 13.63 kJ g,1 if raised for aquaculture or 14.82 kJ g,1 if destined to stock enhancement. [source]

    Dietary histidine affects lens protein turnover and synthesis of N-acetylhistidine in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) undergoing parr,smolt transformation

    O. BRECK
    Abstract This study was conducted to investigate protein synthesis rates and metabolism of histidine (His)-derivatives in lenses of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) of different dietary His background during parr,smolt transformation. Two populations of Atlantic salmon parr of equal origin were established in freshwater (FW), 3 months prior to transfer to seawater (SW). The populations were fed either a control diet (CD) containing 8.9 g kg,1 His or the same diet added crystalline His to a total level of 14.2 g kg,1 (HD). On the basis of these two populations, 14C His force-feeding studies were performed; in FW 3 weeks prior to sea transfer and in SW 6 weeks after transfer. The studies were conducted by force-feeding the respective diets enriched with 14C labelled His, with subsequent measurements of incorporation of 14C His into lens free amino acid pool, as well as into lens proteins and other free His pool fractions. The latter included the major lens imidazole N-acetylhistidine (NAH). Lens concentrations of His and NAH were clearly influenced by dietary His history, both in parr and smolt. The lens His and NAH concentrations in the CD population were considerably lower in SW than in FW, while in the HD group the His level was equal and the NAH level 50% higher in SW than in FW. Fractional synthesis rate for NAH, KS (NAH), in FW was 8.2 and 4.2 ,mol g,1 day,1 for fish in the CD and HD populations, respectively. The corresponding KS (NAH) values in SW were 5.1 and 33.0 ,mol g,1 day,1. Our data show that free His is rapidly converted to NAH in the lens, and that NAH seems to have a very high turnover, especially in salmon reared in SW. Fractional synthesis rate for lens proteins, KS (PROTEIN), ranged between 1.8 and 17.3% day,1 (182 and 2791 ,g g,1 day,1, respectively), and was generally higher in SW than in FW (P < 0.01). In SW, KS (PROTEIN) was highest in fish in the HD population (P < 0.05), whereas lens protein retention in the HD group was significantly lower than the CD group (P = 0.01). In a second model assuming that His from lens NAH is available for protein synthesis, calculated values of KS (PROTEIN) ranged between 0.17% day,1 (17.6 ,g g,1 day,1) and 0.48% day,1 (70.2 ,g g,1 day,1). Cataract scores recorded in the His populations at a later point (day 204), showed that the CD fish had significantly higher mean cataract scores than individuals in the HD population (P < 0.01), confirming that low levels of lens His and NAH are associated with cataract development. [source]

    Effect of feed composition and feeding frequency on growth, feed utilization and nutrient retention in juvenile Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L.

    G. Rosenlund
    Abstract Juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were fed extruded feeds formulated to contain 360,660 g kg,1 protein, 80,280 g kg,1 lipid and 80,180 g kg,1 starch at feeding frequencies of either once per day or every second day to satiation. The trial was conducted at 8 C and lasted for 28 weeks during which fish were weighed five times at regular intervals. Sampling for proximate analysis was performed at the start, after 12 weeks and at the end of the trial. Fish grew from an average weight of 192 g to between 750 and 866 g, with growth being negatively affected by low dietary protein concentration. High dietary starch concentrations had some negative effects on growth, whereas changes in dietary fat concentration had no significant effect on growth. Liver indices (at the end of the experiment) varied between 80 and 170 g kg,1, and there was a negative correlation between the ratio of protein to fat and liver index. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) ranged between 0.74 and 0.88, and feed utilization improved with increasing concentrations of dietary protein and fat. Increasing dietary starch concentrations resulted in poorer feed utilization. To achieve good growth and protein retention, and avoid excessive liver size in juvenile cod, feeds should contain 500,600 g kg,1 crude protein, 130,200 g kg,1 lipid and <150 g kg,1 starch. [source]

    Comparison of starch utilization in fingerlings of two Asian catfishes from the Mekong River (Pangasius bocourti Sauvage, 1880, Pangasius hypophthalmus Sauvage, 1878)

    L. T. Hung
    Abstract Five diets were formulated to provide an isoproteic daily dietary intake of 15 g kg,1 day,1, while maintaining daily starch intake ranging from 0 to 40 g kg,1 day,1. The 4-week experiments started with initial mean weights of 4.7 and 4.4 g for Pangasius bocourti and P. hypophthalmus, respectively. The results clearly show the protein sparing action of starch in both species. Best protein retention was obtained with starch intake of 20 and 10 g kg,1 day,1 for P. bocourti and P. hypophthalmus, respectively, which was equivalent to 40 and 20% starch in the feed. Pangasius bocourti and P. hypophthalmus fingerlings attained maximal growth with starch intake of 30 and 10 g kg,1 day,1, equivalent to 60 and 20% starch in the feed. It was noted that body lipid accumulation was much higher in P. bocourti than in P. hypophthalmus, and that excess dietary starch intake depressed diet digestibility and growth. [source]

    Growth, feed utilization and body composition of African bonytongue, Heterotis niloticus, fingerlings fed diets containing various protein and lipid levels

    Serge-Eric Monentcham
    Abstract In order to evaluate the effects of dietary protein and lipid levels on the growth, feed utilization and body composition of Heterotis niloticus fingerlings, a factorial experiment with three replicates was conducted. Six experimental diets containing three crude protein levels (28%, 32% and 36%) and two crude lipid levels (6% and 13%) were tested. Heterotis niloticus (2.34 g) were fed with the diets to apparent satiation, twice a day. For 56 days, weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR), feed efficiency (FE) and protein retention (PR) were significantly affected by dietary protein and dietary lipid levels respectively (P<0.01). The highest WG, SGR and FE were observed for fingerlings fed the diet containing 36% protein and 6% lipid, but no significance difference was found between groups fed with the following diets: P28L13 (28% protein and 13% lipid), P32L6, P32L13 and P36L13. A significant interaction between dietary protein and lipid was observed for WG, SGR, FE and PR. The whole-body protein, lipid, moisture and ash content were not significantly affected by dietary lipid levels, but body protein and lipid content were significantly affected by dietary protein. The dietary protein-sparing effect was clearly demonstrated when the dietary energy of lipid increased from 17 to 19.6 kJ g,1 at 28% crude protein on H. niloticus. [source]

    Carbohydrate utilization by juvenile silver perch, Bidyanus bidyanus (Mitchell).


    Abstract The ability of juvenile silver perch (Bidyanus bidyanus) to utilize dietary raw wheat meal, raw wheat starch, gelatinized wheat starch and dextrin as energy sources to spare protein for growth was quantified. Energy utilization and protein sparing were assessed by comparing the weight gain, energy retention efficiency, protein retention and body composition of silver perch that had been fed a series of diets in which the basal diet (low carbohydrate) was systematically replaced with graded levels of each carbohydrate ingredient or an inert diluent, diatomaceous earth. The protein content decreased as the carbohydrate content increased, giving four different protein to energy ratios for each of the four carbohydrate sources (except for the 60% inclusion level, at which only three carbohydrate sources were tested). Silver perch were efficient at utilizing carbohydrate for energy to spare protein. Silver perch fed diets containing up to 30% wheat meal, raw wheat starch, gelatinized wheat starch or dextrin exhibited similar growth, protein retention and energy retention efficiency to the fish fed the basal diet. Weight gain of silver perch fed diets containing wheat meal or carbohydrates at 45% inclusion content had significantly reduced weight gain when compared with fish fed the basal diet. However, protein retention and energy retention efficiency were similar or better. Whole-body protein levels of silver perch remained constant regardless of carbohydrate sources, and there was no evidence of increasing whole-body lipid concentrations for fish fed diets with up to 60% dietary carbohydrate. Silver perch were more efficient at utilizing processed starch (either gelatinized starch or dextrin) than wheat meal or raw wheat starch. [source]

    Investigation of protein binding affinity and preferred orientations in ion exchange systems using a homologous protein library

    Wai Keen Chung
    Abstract A library of cold shock protein B (CspB) mutant variants was employed to study protein binding affinity and preferred orientations in cation exchange chromatography. Single site mutations introduced at charged amino acids on the protein surface resulted in a homologous protein set with varying charge density and distribution. The retention times of the mutants varied significantly during linear gradient chromatography. While the expected trends were observed with increasing or decreasing positive charge on the protein surface, the degree of change was a strong function of the location and microenvironment of the mutated amino acid. Quantitative structure,property relationship (QSPR) models were generated using a support vector regression technique that was able to give good predictions of the retention times of the various mutants. Molecular descriptors selected during model generation were used to elucidate the factors affecting protein retention. Electrostatic potential maps were also employed to provide insight into the effects of protein surface topography, charge density and charge distribution on protein binding affinity and possible preferred binding orientations. The use of this protein mutant library in concert with the qualitative and quantitative analyses presented in the article provides an improved understanding of protein behavior in ion exchange systems. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2009; 102: 869,881. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Preparation of Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatographic Packings Based on Monodisperse Hydrophilic Non-porous Beads and Their Application

    Chun-Miao BO
    Abstract Three hydrophilic immobilized metal affinity chromatographic packings for HPLC have been synthesized by chemical modification of 3.0 m monodisperse non-porous poly(glycidyl methacrylate- co -ethylenedimethacrylate) (PGMA/EDMA) beads. The retention behavior of proteins on the metal ion chelated columns loaded with copper(II), nickel(II) and zin(II) ion was studied. The effect of pH on the protein retention was investigated on both the naked and metal ion chelated columns in the range from 4.0 to 9.0. Four proteins were quickly separated in 3.0 min with linear gradient elution at a flow rate of 3.0 mL/min by using the synthesized Ni2+ -IDA (iminodiacetic acid) packings. The separation time was shorter than other immobilized metal affinity chromatography reported in the literature. Purification of lysozyme from egg white and trypsin on the commercially available trypsin was performed on the naked-IDA and Cu2+ -IDA columns, respectively. The purities of the purified trypsin and lysozyme were more than 92% and 95%, respectively. [source]

    Effects of Fungal Phytase on Utilization of Dietary Protein and Minerals, and Dephosphorylation of Phytic Acid in the Alimentary Tract of Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus Fed an All-Plant-Protein Diet

    Weibing Yan
    A feeding trial was conducted to quantify the effects of phytase at levels of 0, 500, 1,000, 2,000, 4,000, and 8,000 units (U) per kg diet on utilization of dietary protein and minerals by fingerling (12 g) channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus fed an all-plant-protein diet composed of soybean meal, corn, and wheat middlings. The effects of phytase on dephosphorylation of phytic acid (phytate) in the alimentary tract of catfish also were determined. After 14 wk, mean weight gains (30.2,43.9 g/fish), feed conversion ratios (2.27,2.40 g feed consumed/g weight gain), protein efficiency ratios (1.47,1.61 g weight gaid/g protein consumed), and dietary protein retentions (23.8,26.7%) did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) among treatment groups. A digestibility trial conducted after the feeding trial showed no difference (P > 0.05) in mean digestibility of diet dry matter (49.0,58.3%) or crude protein (85.4-88.5%) among treatment groups. Concentrations of ash (46.7,48.6%), calcium (Ca, 17.9,18.5%), phosphorus (P, 9.1,9.5%), and manganese (Mn, 65.5,74.1 mg/kg) were significantly higher (P , 0.05) in bone of fish fed , 500 U/kg than in bone of fish fed 0 U/kg (ash, 43.5%; Ca, 16.4%; P, 8.4%; and Mn, 49.0 ma/kg), but concentrations of these minerals did not differ (P > 0.05) in bone of fish fed , 500 Uk/g. The magnesium (Mg) content of bone did not differ (P > 0.05) between fish fed 0 U/kg (0.29%) or 500 U/kg (0.34%), but was significantly lower in fish fed 0 U/kg than in fish fed , 1,000 U/kg (0.35,37%). Bone Mg levels did not differ (P > 0.05) among fish fed , 500 U/kg. The amount of zinc (Zn) in bone of fish fed 8,000 U/kg (153.3 mg/kg) was significantly higher than that in fish fed 0 U/kg (115.7 mg/kg) or 500 U/kg (130.3 mg/ kg), but did not differ from Zn levels in bone of fish fed 1,000,4,000 U/kg (134.5,135.8 mg/ kg). Dephosphorylation of phytate occurred primarily in the stomach within 2,8 h after diet ingestion, depending on the level of phytase supplementation. Initial levels of total phytate in the diet decreased 32,94% in stomach contents of fish fed l,000,8,000 U/kg within 2 h after feeding. Eight hours after feeding, stomach contents of fish fed , 1,000 U/kg contained less than 6% of initial total dietary phytate. Stomach contents of fish fed 500 U/kg retained 92% of initial total dietary phytate 2 h after feeding and 15% of total dietary phytate 8 h after feeding. Results of this study indicate that phytase supplementation at levels up to 8,000 U/kg diet did not increase weight gain or improve dietary protein utilization of channel catfish fed an all-plant-protein diet. Addition of phytase at a level of 1,000 U/kg diet was sufficient to significantly increase the Ca, P, Mg, and Mn content of bone, relative to fish fed an unsupplemented diet, and significantly decrease the quantity of total phytate in feces. A phytase level of 8,000 U/kg diet significantly increased the bioavailability of naturally occurring Zn in feed ingredients and increased the rate of phytate dephosphorylation in the stomach, compared with a diet containing no added phytase. Increased utilization of naturally occurring minerals in feed ingredients reduces the need for mineral supplements in diets and results in decreased elimination of minerals in feces. Thus, use of phytase in catfish feeds can be expected to provide both economic and environmental benefits. [source]