Attitude Questionnaire (attitude + questionnaire)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire: confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis with Turkish samples

Mehmet Z. Firat
Abstract Title.,Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire: confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis with Turkish samples. Aim., This study is a report of an investigation of the psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire. Background., Cultural, social and family environments influence women's beliefs about and attitudes towards menstruation. Awareness of these beliefs and/or attitudes and their cultural origins is necessary to understand women and their reactions to menstruation when offering health care. Although the Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire has been used in several studies, the psychometric properties of the Turkish version have not been investigated. Methods., Confirmatory factor analyses were carried out with two different samples , high school (n = 650) and undergraduate university students (n = 569) , in Turkey in the spring semester of 2006. Exploratory factor analyses were then used to modify the factor structure. Results., Confirmatory factor analysis did not confirm the factor model reported in the United States of America. However, compared with British and Indian samples, Turkish attitudes showed better fit than both British and Indian samples with comparative fit index values of 0776 and 0797 for the high school and university samples respectively. Finally, exploratory factor analysis yielded a 28-item measure for the high school sample and 31-item measure for the university sample, with a 5-factor solution. Reliability estimates of both scales were satisfactory, being 073 for the high school and 079 for the university sample. Conclusion., The modified 5-factor Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire could be a useful tool for assessing menstrual attitudes among Turkish high school and university students. The overall score permits comparison with results from earlier studies using the original instrument. [source]

Individual Differences in Attitudes Relevant to Juror Decision Making: Development and Validation of the Pretrial Juror Attitude Questionnaire (PJAQ),

Len Lecci
This study involves scale development using theoretically derived items from previous measures and a lay consensual approach for generating new items. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to validate the emergent constructs assessing individual differences in attitudes of prospective jurors. Using case summaries, the Pretrial Juror Attitude Questionnaire (PJAQ) demonstrates superior predictive validity over commonly employed measures of pretrial bias. The PJAQ confirms the importance of theoretically derived constructs assessed by other scales and introduces new constructs to the jury decision-making literature. The attitudes assessed by the PJAQ are conviction proneness, system confidence, cynicism toward the defense, racial bias, social justice, and innate criminality. Implications for assessing such attitudes and for better understanding the decision-making process of jurors are discussed. [source]

The relationship between personal breastfeeding experience and the breastfeeding attitudes, knowledge, confidence and effectiveness of Australian GP registrars

Wendy Brodribb
Abstract In conjunction with other health professionals, doctors believe they play an important role in promoting breastfeeding to women. Although many have positive breastfeeding attitudes, significant knowledge deficits often limit their capacity to effectively encourage, support and assist breastfeeding women and their infants. Personal breastfeeding experience (of self or partner) may be the main source of breastfeeding knowledge and skill development and is related to improved knowledge, more positive attitudes and greater confidence. This paper describes the relationship between the cumulative length of personal breastfeeding experience and the breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes of a cohort of Australian general practice (GP) registrars, as well as their confidence and perceived effectiveness assisting breastfeeding women. The Australian Breastfeeding Knowledge and Attitude Questionnaire containing demographic items, a 20-item attitude scale and a 40-item knowledge scale was distributed between February and May 2007 to Australian GP registrars in their final year of training. Participants with more than 52-week cumulative personal (self or partner) breastfeeding experience had the highest mean knowledge score, had more positive attitudes, and were more confident and effective than all other participants. Parents with limited personal experience (,26 weeks) had the poorest breastfeeding attitudes and their knowledge base was similar to participants with no personal experience. Confidence and perceived effectiveness when assisting breastfeeding women rose with increasing cumulative breastfeeding experience. Personal breastfeeding experience per se does not guarantee better breastfeeding knowledge or attitudes although increasing length of experience is related to higher knowledge, attitude, confidence and perceived effectiveness scores. [source]

High school and university students' knowledge and attitudes regarding biotechnology

A Turkish experience
Abstract Biotechnology has a considerable importance in Turkish biology curriculum. This study was designed to explore or indicate Turkish high school and university students' knowledge and attitudes toward biotechnology. A total number of 352 high school and 276 university students were invited to the study. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ) with 16 items and Biotechnology Attitude Questionnaire (BAQ) with 37 items were used as data collection instruments. The statistically significant correlation was observed between the level of biotechnology knowledge and the subdimensions of attitudes toward biotechnology. We found no statistically significant difference between high school and university students' knowledge of biotechnology. In contrast, university students showed more positive attitudes toward biotechnology than did high school students. However, the effect of gender was equivocal; therefore, it did not support a "gender paradox" hypothesis. Our results suggest that although students' appreciation of (agricultural) biotechnology is relatively positive, the understanding of biotechnology processes is superficial and attitudes toward shopping genetically modified products are therefore negative. The possible impact of current science and biology curriculum, and also biotechnology news given in media on Turkish students' views of biotechnology is discussed. [source]

Revealing and Resolving Patient Safety Defects: The Impact of Leadership WalkRounds on Frontline Caregiver Assessments of Patient Safety

Allan Frankel
Objective. To evaluate the impact of rigorous WalkRounds on frontline caregiver assessments of safety climate, and to clarify the steps and implementation of rigorous WalkRounds. Data Sources/Study Setting. Primary outcome variables were baseline and post WalkRounds safety climate scores from the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ). Secondary outcomes were safety issues elicited through WalkRounds. Study period was August 2002 to April 2005; seven hospitals in Massachusetts agreed to participate; and the project was implemented in all patient care areas. Study Design. Prospective study of the impact of rigorously applied WalkRounds on frontline caregivers assessments of safety climate in their patient care area. WalkRounds were conducted weekly and according to the seven-step WalkRounds Guide. The SAQ was administered at baseline and approximately 18 months post-WalkRounds implementation to all caregivers in patient care areas. Results. Two of seven hospitals complied with the rigorous WalkRounds approach; hospital A was an academic teaching center and hospital B a community teaching hospital. Of 21 patient care areas, SAQ surveys were received from 62 percent of respondents at baseline and 60 percent post WalkRounds. At baseline, 10 of 21 care areas (48 percent) had safety climate scores below 60 percent, whereas post-WalkRounds three care areas (14 percent) had safety climate scores below 60 percent without improving by 10 points or more. Safety climate scale scores in hospital A were 62 percent at baseline and 77 percent post-WalkRounds (t=2.67, p=.03), and in hospital B were 46 percent at baseline and 56 percent post WalkRounds (t=2.06, p=.06). Main safety issues by category were equipment/facility (A [26 percent] and B [33 percent]) and communication (A [24 percent] and B [18 percent]). Conclusions. WalkRounds implementation requires significant organizational will; sustainability requires outstanding project management and leadership engagement. In the patient care areas that rigorously implemented WalkRounds, frontline caregiver assessments of patient safety increased. SAQ results such as safety climate scores facilitate the triage of quality improvement efforts, and provide consensus assessments of frontline caregivers that identify themes for improvement. [source]

Computer-mediated instructional video: a randomised controlled trial comparing a sequential and a segmented instructional video in surgical hand wash

M. Schittek Janda
Background:, Video-based instructions for clinical procedures have been used frequently during the preceding decades. Aim:, To investigate in a randomised controlled trial the learning effectiveness of fragmented videos vs. the complete sequential video and to analyse the attitudes of the user towards video as a learning aid. Materials and methods:, An instructional video on surgical hand wash was produced. The video was available in two different forms in two separate web pages: one as a sequential video and one fragmented into eight short clips. Twenty-eight dental students in the second semester were randomised into an experimental (n = 15) and a control group (n = 13). The experimental group used the fragmented form of the video and the control group watched the complete one. The use of the videos was logged and the students were video taped whilst undertaking a test hand wash. The videos were analysed systematically and blindly by two independent clinicians. The students also performed a written test concerning learning outcome from the videos as well as they answered an attitude questionnaire. Results:, The students in the experimental group watched the video significantly longer than the control group. There were no significant differences between the groups with regard to the ratings and scores when performing the hand wash. The experimental group had significantly better results in the written test compared with those of the control group. There was no significant difference between the groups with regard to attitudes towards the use of video for learning, as measured by the Visual Analogue Scales. Most students in both groups expressed satisfaction with the use of video for learning. Conclusion:, The students demonstrated positive attitudes and acceptable learning outcome from viewing CAL videos as a part of their pre-clinical training. Videos that are part of computer-based learning settings would ideally be presented to the students both as a segmented and as a whole video to give the students the option to choose the form of video which suits the individual student's learning style. [source]

More to teamwork than knowledge, skill and attitude

D Siassakos
Please cite this paper as: Siassakos D, Draycott T, Crofts J, Hunt L, Winter C, Fox R. More to teamwork than knowledge, skill and attitude. BJOG 2010;117:1262,1269. Objective, To assess whether team performance in simulated eclampsia is related to the knowledge, skills and attitudes of individual team members. Design, Cross-sectional analysis of data from the Simulation and Fire Drill Evaluation randomised controlled trial. Setting, Six secondary and tertiary maternity units in south-west England. Participants, One hundred and fourteen maternity professionals in 19 teams of six members; one senior and one junior obstetrician; two senior and two junior midwives. Methods, We validated a team performance ranking scheme with respect to magnesium administration (Magnesium Administration Rank, MAR) by expert consensus (face validity) and correlation with clinical measures (construct validity). We tested for correlation between MAR and measures of knowledge, skills and attitudes. Main outcome measures, Correlation between team performance (MAR) and scores in validated multiple-choice questionnaires (MCQs) (knowledge), a measure of individual manual skill to manage an obstetric emergency (skill) and scores in a widely used teamwork/safety attitude questionnaire (attitude). Results, There was no relationship between team performance and cumulative individual MCQs, skill or teamwork/safety attitude scores. Conclusions, The knowledge, manual skills and attitudes of the individuals comprising each team, measured by established methods, did not correlate in this study with the team's clinical efficiency in the management of simulated eclampsia. The inference is that unidentified characteristic(s) play a crucial part in the efficiency of teams managing emergencies. Any emphasis of training programmes to promote individual knowledge, skills and attitudes alone may have to be re-examined. This highlights a need to understand what makes a team efficient in dealing with clinical emergencies. [source]

A randomized-response investigation of the education effect in attitudes towards foreigners

Martin Ostapczuk
While negative correlations have often been found between a respondent's education and his attitudes towards foreigners, the reasons for this education effect are still under debate. We examined the hypothesis that the highly educated may not be genuinely less xenophobic, but simply more prone to give socially desirable, xenophile answers in attitude questionnaires. We therefore compared the attitudes of respondents who were either questioned directly or using a cheating detection extension of the randomized-response technique (RRT). The latter is supposed to yield more honest answers to sensitive questions by experimentally offering the interviewee a higher degree of confidentiality. Under direct questioning conditions, we replicated the education effect; 75% of the highly educated expressed xenophile attitudes, as opposed to only 55% of the less educated. Under randomized-response conditions, we obtained significantly reduced estimates of 53% for the proportion of xenophiles among the highly educated, and 24% among the less educated, indicating a strong distortion of self-reported attitudes towards foreigners in both groups. However, a significant proportion of participants disobeyed the RRT instructions regardless of education. Because the education effect was found even after controlling for social desirability, it seems to be a genuine effect, rather than an artefact of a differential response bias. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]