Polymorphic Sites (polymorphic + site)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Determination of haplotypes from single DNA molecules: a method for single-molecule barcoding,,

HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 9 2007
Ming Xiao
Abstract Determining the haplotypes in a diploid individual is a major technical challenge in genetic studies of human complex traits. Here we report a method of molecular haplotyping by directly imaging multiple polymorphic sites on individual DNA molecules simultaneously. DNA fragments amplified by long-range PCR were labeled with fluorescent dyes at each polymorphic site using a modified gap-filled padlock probe ligation approach. The labeled DNA molecules were then stretched into linear form on a functionalized glass surface and imaged with multicolor total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy. By determining the colors and positions of the fluorescent labels with respect to the backbone at polymorphic sites, the haplotype can be inferred accurately, in a manner similar to reading a barcode, even when the DNA fragments are not fully labeled. The feasibility of this technology is demonstrated by the determination of the haplotype of a 9.3-kbp DNA fragment containing four SNPs. Hum Mutat 28(9), 913,921, 2007. Published 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Association of a melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) polymorphism with performance traits in Lithuanian White pigs

JOURNAL OF ANIMAL BREEDING AND GENETICS, Issue 1 2006
R. Jokubka
Summary The melanocortin 4 receptor is expressed in virtually all brain regions of mammals and plays an important role in energy homeostasis. Polymorphisms in this gene may thus be related to growth and obesity. In pigs, a non-synonymous polymorphic site was described (Asp298Asn) and demonstrated to affect cAMP production and to alter adenylyl cyclase signalling. Association studies revealed significant linkage of this mutation with production trait in pigs. In this study, 207 Lithuanian White pigs were genotyped at the MC4R locus and analysed on relationships between genotype and breeding values for several performance traits. The observed allele and genotype frequencies did not deviate significantly from Hardy,Weinberg equilibrium (wildtype allele 0.59; mutant allele 0.41) and are comparable with those described in other Large White populations. The mutant Asn298 allele of the MC4R gene was significantly associated with increased test daily gain, higher lean meat percentage and lower backfat thickness. There was a trend towards an improved feed conversion ratio (p = 0.065) in animals with the mutant allele whereas no significant effect was found on lifetime daily gain. These results indicate that the MC4R polymorphism should be integrated in selection programmes in the Lithuanian White to improve carcass composition. [source]


Development of a single-tube PCR-pyrosequencing method for the simultaneous and rapid detection of four variant alleles of CYP2C9 gene polymorphism

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PHARMACY & THERAPEUTICS, Issue 2 2008
Y. Okada MS
Summary Background and Objective:, CYP2C9 is a polymorphic enzyme that has been reported to metabolize several clinically useful drugs such as warfarin, phenytoin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. We designed a rapid single-tube multiplex assay to detect four variant alleles of the CYP2C9 in a single polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a single pyrosequencing reaction. Methods:, A multiplex PCR was designed to amplify two fragments simultaneously, one containing 430C>T (CYP2C9*2) polymorphism and other containing 1075A>C (CYP2C9*3), 1076T>C (CYP2C9*4) and 1080C>G (CYP2C9*5) polymorphisms. Results:, Four variants of the CYP2C9 gene could be simultaneously detected using only two varieties of pyrosequencing primers in a single-tube. The success rate for the four SNPs (*2, *3,*4 and *5) was high. Genotypes obtained by the multiplex reaction were 100% concordant with genotypes obtained using direct DNA sequencing (n = 96). The analysis time was halved, compared with existing simplex pyrosequencing. The system allowed high-throughput analysis of over 384 samples per hour. Discussion:, Our method reduces running cost and halves analysis time, compared to simplex pyrosequencing. Another advantage of this method is that it analyses and determines multiple bases around the polymorphic site thereby reducing the possibility of scoring a truncated PCR product. [source]


Molecular mapping of the leaf rust resistance gene Rph7 in barley

PLANT BREEDING, Issue 5 2000
A. Graner
Abstract Leaf rust of barley, caused by Puccinia hordei Otth, is an important foliar disease in most temperate regions of the world. Sixteen major leaf rust resistance (Rph) genes have been described from barley, but only a few have been mapped. The leaf rust resistance gene Rph7 was first described from the cultivar ,Cebada Capa' and has proven effective in Europe. Previously mapped restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers have been used to determine the precise location of this gene in the barley genome. From the genetic analysis of a ,Bow-man'/,Cebada Capa' cross, Rph7 was mapped to the end of chromosome 3HS, 1.3 recombination units distal to the RFLP marker cMWG691. A codominant cleaved amplified polymorphic site (CAPS) marker was developed by exploiting allele-specific sequence information of the cMWG691 site and adjacent fragments of genomic DNA. Based on the large amount of polymorphism present in this region, the CAPS marker may be useful for the marker-assisted selection of Rph7 in most diverse genetic backgrounds. [source]


THE EFFECTS OF SUBDIVISION ON THE GENETIC DIVERGENCE OF POPULATIONS AND SPECIES

EVOLUTION, Issue 4 2000
John Wakeley
Abstract. An island model of migration is used to study the effects of subdivision within populations and species on sample genealogies and on between-population or between-species measures of genetic variation. The model assumes that the number of demes within each population or species is large. When populations (or species), connected either by gene flow or historical association, are themselves subdivided into demes, changes in the migration rate among demes alter both the structure of genealogies and the time scale of the coalescent process. The time scale of the coalescent is related to the effective size of the population, which depends on the migration rate among demes. When the migration rate among demes within populations is low, isolation (or speciation) events seem more recent and migration rates among populations seem higher because the effective size of each population is increased. This affects the probability of reciprocal monophyly of two samples, the chance that a gene tree of a sample matches the species tree, and relative likelihoods of different types of polymorphic sites. It can also have a profound effect on the estimation of divergence times. [source]


Genetic variation for dorsal,ventral patterning of the Drosophila melanogaster eggshell

EVOLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT, Issue 2 2005
Lisa M. Goering
Summary Patterning of the insect eggshell is an excellent system for exploring the molecular basis of phenotypic variation. In Drosophila melanogaster, two dorsal,anterior respiratory appendages are produced in response to signaling through the Epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr). Previous work implicates Egfr pathway function in both intraspecific variation for dorsal appendage spacing (DAS) on the eggshell, as well as interspecific differences in dorsal appendage number and location. To test the hypothesis that genetic variation in Egfr contributes to variation in eggshell patterning, we have made use of naturally occurring intraspecific variation for DAS as a model quantitative trait. We found that there is substantial segregating genetic variation for DAS in D. melanogaster, and have tested for associations with 289 common polymorphisms in the Egfr locus. A marginal association was seen with two polymorphic sites in Egfr; however, we failed to replicate these findings in a second population, or in a modified quantitative complementation test designed to specifically test the effects of the putative polymorphisms. Therefore, we conclude that the polymorphisms we have identified in Egfr do not contribute to variation in DAS, and further work is required to understand the genetic architecture of this trait. [source]


Functional analysis of promoter variants in the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP) gene,

HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 1 2008
Diana Rubin
Abstract The microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP) is required for the assembly and secretion of apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins from the intestine and liver. According to this function, polymorphic sites in the MTTP gene showed associations to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and related traits of the metabolic syndrome. Here we studied the functional impact of common MTTP promoter polymorphisms rs1800804:T>C (,164T>C), rs1800803:A>T (,400A>T), and rs1800591:G>T (,493G>T) using gene-reporter assays in intestinal Caco-2 and liver Huh-7 cells. Significant results were obtained in Huh-7 cells. The common MTTP promoter haplotype ,164T/,400A/,493G showed about two-fold lower activity than the rare haplotype ,164C/,400T/,493T. MTTP promoter mutant constructs ,164T/,400A/,493T and ,164T/,400T/,493T exhibited similar activity than the common haplotype. Activities of mutants ,164C/,400A/,493G and ,164C/,400A/,493T resembled the rare MTTP promoter haplotype. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) revealed higher binding capacity of the transcriptional factor Sterol regulatory element binding protein1a (SREBP1a) to the ,164T probe in comparison to the ,164C probe. In conclusion, our study indicates that the polymorphism ,164T>C mediates different activities of common MTTP promoter haplotypes via SREBP1a. This suggested that the already described SREBP-dependent modulation of MTTP expression by diet is more effective in ,164T than in ,164C carriers. Hum Mutat 29(1), 123,129, 2008. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Determination of haplotypes from single DNA molecules: a method for single-molecule barcoding,,

HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 9 2007
Ming Xiao
Abstract Determining the haplotypes in a diploid individual is a major technical challenge in genetic studies of human complex traits. Here we report a method of molecular haplotyping by directly imaging multiple polymorphic sites on individual DNA molecules simultaneously. DNA fragments amplified by long-range PCR were labeled with fluorescent dyes at each polymorphic site using a modified gap-filled padlock probe ligation approach. The labeled DNA molecules were then stretched into linear form on a functionalized glass surface and imaged with multicolor total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy. By determining the colors and positions of the fluorescent labels with respect to the backbone at polymorphic sites, the haplotype can be inferred accurately, in a manner similar to reading a barcode, even when the DNA fragments are not fully labeled. The feasibility of this technology is demonstrated by the determination of the haplotype of a 9.3-kbp DNA fragment containing four SNPs. Hum Mutat 28(9), 913,921, 2007. Published 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Multiple forms of U2 snRNA coexist in the silk moth Bombyx mori

INSECT MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2002
J. M. Sierra-Montes
Abstract Eight U2 snRNA variants were isolated from several Bombyx mori U2-specific RT-PCR libraries. U2 sequences and secondary structures were generated and examined in terms of potential RNA and protein interactions. Analysis indicated that nucleotide changes occurred in both stem/loop and single-stranded areas. Changes in the double stranded areas were either compensatory, single substitutions (e.g. C , U) or prevented the double-stranded formation of one or two base pairs. The polymorphisms were clustered in moderately conserved regions. Some of the changes observed generated stronger base pairing. Inter-species conserved protein or RNA-binding sites were relatively unaffected. No polymorphic sites were found in known functional sequences. Bombyx mori and Drosophila melanogaster U2 sequences are 95% and 70% similar at the 5,- and the 3,-ends of the molecule, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the U2 sequences demonstrates remarkable conservation across species. [source]


The kdr mutation occurs in the Mopti form of Anopheles gambiaes.s. through introgression

INSECT MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Issue 5 2000
M. Weill
Abstract Anopheles gambiaes.s. is a complex of sibling taxa characterized by various paracentric inversions. In west and central Africa, where several taxa are sympatric, a kdr mutation responsible for pyrethroid resistance has been described in only one (the S taxon), suggesting an absence of gene flow between them. Following a thorough sampling, we have found a kdr mutation in another taxon (M). To establish whether this mutation is the same event or not, the large intron upstream of the kdr mutation was sequenced to find polymorphic sites in susceptible/resistant and M/S mosquitoes. The low genetic diversity found in this DNA region indicates that a local genetic sweep has recently occurred. However, some polymorphic sites were found, and it is therefore concluded that the kdr mutation in the M taxon is not an independent mutation event, and is best explained by an introgression from the S taxon. These results are discussed within the context of possible gene flow between members of An. gambiae s.s. taxa, and with the possible spread of the kdr mutation in other closely related malaria vectors of the An. gambiae complex. [source]


No genetic differentiation between geographically isolated populations of Clarias macrocephalus Günther in Malaysia revealed by sequences of mtDNA Cytochrome b and D-loop gene regions

JOURNAL OF APPLIED ICHTHYOLOGY, Issue 4 2010
A. K. Nazia
Summary In the present study, we assessed the genetic variation of three Clarias macrocephalus Günther populations collected from Kedah, Perlis and Kelantan (Peninsular Malaysia) using sequences of partial mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cyt b) and D-loop genes. A total of 57 individuals were sequenced and 1470 bp were obtained (1053 bp Cyt-b; 417 bp D-loop). The analysis revealed 21 haplotypes based on 81 polymorphic sites. Nucleotide diversity (,) was 0.003 in all populations while haplotype diversity ranged from 0.657 to 0.765. No significant genetic differentiation among the three populations was observed. Nevertheless, a number of private haplotypes was discovered, providing valuable information for selective breeding programs. [source]


Low variation but strong population structure in mitochondrial control region of the plains topminnow, Fundulus sciadicus

JOURNAL OF FISH BIOLOGY, Issue 5 2009
C. Li
The plains topminnow Fundulus sciadicus is a freshwater killifish endemic to the Great Plains of North America. Rising concerns for future viability of this species have prompted recent changes in its conservation status. In this study, the results of a range-wide population genetic survey based on the sequence of entire mitochondrial control region (CR) are presented. A total of 181 fish were collected from 11 sites in Nebraska and 10 sites in Missouri spanning the distribution range of the species. Seven polymorphic sites were found in the 966 base pairs of the CR, and only nine unique haplotypes were detected among all fish. Phylogenetic analysis and statistical parsimony networks identified two distinct clades. The first included fish in the Osage, Gasconade and Spring River drainages in Missouri, while the second included individuals from Nebraska and the Lamine River in Missouri, although the Lamine River is much closer to the other Missouri sites than to the Nebraska sites. Pair-wise FST and average population distances indicated that populations from most drainages are genetically distinct, as 93% of the total molecular variance was attributed to among-drainage effects. Four sites within the main distributions of this species and a highly disjunct site from the south-western portion of the range are suggested as potential targets for conservation. [source]


Variant haplotypes at XRCC1 and risk of oral leukoplakia in HPV non-infected samples

JOURNAL OF ORAL PATHOLOGY & MEDICINE, Issue 2 2009
Mousumi Majumder
Background:, One of the mechanisms in human papillomavirus (HPV)-related carcinogenesis is inhibition of DNA repair by HPV oncoprotein. In this study, we investigated whether polymorphisms at XRCC1, one of the DNA repair loci, could modulate the risk of tobacco-related leukoplakia and cancer in HPV-infected individuals. Methods:, Tissue DNA from 83 oral cancer, 91 leukoplakia and 100 healthy controls were screened for HPV 16/18 infection and polymorphisms at XRCC1 by PCR,RFLP to estimate the risk of diseases independently and jointly. Results:, Human papillomavirus infection was significantly associated with increased risk of leukoplakia and cancer (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.2,6.5 and OR = 5.5, 95% CI = 1.6,19, respectively). Independently, genotypes at three polymorphic sites on XRCC1 did not modulate the risk of diseases but pooled variant haplotypes increased the risk of leukoplakia in overall and HPV non-infected (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.2,2.8; OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.2,4.0, respectively) samples but not that of cancer. Conclusion:, The association between variant haplotypes at XRCC1 and risk of leukoplakia is pronounced in non-infected individuals since HPV oncoprotein could inhibit directly the DNA repair activity of XRCC1. But more samples of leukoplakia and cancer are essential to validate these results. [source]


The influence of common gene variants of the xenobiotic receptor (PXR) in genetic susceptibility to intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy

ALIMENTARY PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS, Issue 5 2010
G. CASTAÑO
Aliment Pharmacol Ther,31, 583,592 Summary Background, The xenobiotic nuclear pregnane X receptor is implicated in many physiological pathways and diseases, including bile acid detoxification and cholestasis. Aim, To estimate the contribution of common gene variants of the xenobiotic receptor (pregnane X receptor, PXR) to genetic susceptibility to intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Methods, A total of 101 intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy patients and 171 healthy pregnant women in the third trimester of their pregnancies were included. Four tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs12488820 C/T, rs2472671 C/T, rs2461823 A/G, and rs1054191 A/G) encompassing 36 kb in chromosome 3, with a minor allele frequency ,0.10 and representing 33 polymorphic sites were genotyped. Besides these, three additional SNPs (rs3814057, rs6785049, and rs7643645) were included because they showed previous evidence of functionality. Results, Genotypic test for single SNPs showed that rs2461823 genotypes were significantly associated with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (P < 0.0069), OR per G allele: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.01,2.05, P < 0.042. The Cochran-Armitage test for trend and the allelic test showed a significant association with disease status (P < 0.04 and 0.03 respectively), G being the risk allele. A positive association between rs2461823 and ALT, AST, and bilirubin concentrations was observed. Neonate birth weight adjusted by the Capurro index was significantly associated with rs2461823 (P < 0.05); the proportion of the total variation attributed to rs2461823 genotypes was 7.8%. Conclusion, Common PXR polymorphisms may contribute to the genetic susceptibility to intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. [source]


Evidence for the existence of some dissociation in an otherwise strong linkage disequilibrium between mitochondrial and chloroplastic genomes in Cyclobalanopsis glauca

MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 10 2003
T.-P. Lin
Abstract Variations in mitochondrial DNA in Cyclobalanopsis glauca (Thunb. ex Murray) Oerst. were studied in 140 trees from 32 populations collected from within the tree's natural range. By sequencing two mitochondrial DNA intron fragments (nad4/3 -nad4/4r and nad7/2 -nad7/3r), we revealed a total of 1788 bp and five polymorphic sites which allowed us to distinguish six mitotypes. The mitochondrial DNA markers provided replicated data to support population phylogeographical scenarios suggested previously using chloroplastic DNA markers. The gene genealogical tree of mitochondrial DNA was partially congruent with the chloroplastic DNA tree owing to the slower mutation rate and different mutational direction. Significant linkage disequilibrium existed between the two organellar genomes. Further paring analyses between fragments synthesized using different primers, accompanied by exclusion of polymorphic sites, showed that the random association could be attributed specifically to one of the polymorphic sites of the petG- trnP fragment of the chloroplastic genome, and the three polymorphic sites of the nad4/3- nad4/4r fragment of the mitochondrial genome. The former was inferred to derive from paternal leakage, and the latter from recurrent mutation. These polymorphic sites were also responsible for uncoupling of the combined gene tree of mitotype and chlorotype. In conclusion, specific fragments found in this study contribute to the incomplete congruence of the two organellar lineages that otherwise associate well phylogeographically. [source]


Reciprocal hybrid formation of Spartina in San Francisco Bay

MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 6 2000
C. K. Anttila
Abstract Diversity in the tRNALEU1 intron of the chloroplast genome of Spartina was used to study hybridization of native California cordgrass, Spartina foliosa, with S. alterniflora, introduced to San Francisco Bay , 25 years ago. We sequenced 544 bases of the tRNALEU1 intron and found three polymorphic sites, a pyrimidine transition at site 126 and transversions at sites 382 and 430. Spartina from outside of San Francisco Bay, where hybridization between these species is impossible, gave cpDNA genotypes of the parental species. S. foliosa had a single chloroplast haplotype, CCT, and this was unique to California cordgrass. S. alterniflora from the native range along the Atlantic coast of North America had three chloroplast haplotypes, CAT, TAA, and TAT. Hybrids were discriminated by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) phenotypes developed in a previous study. We found one hybrid that contained a cpDNA haplotype unknown in either parental species (TCT). The most significant finding was that hybridization proceeds in both directions, assuming maternal inheritance of cpDNA; 26 of the 36 hybrid Spartina plants from San Francisco Bay contained the S. foliosa haplotype, nine contained haplotypes of the invading S. alterniflora, and one had the cpDNA of unknown origin. Furthermore, cpDNA of both parental species was distributed throughout the broad range of RAPD phenotypes, suggesting ongoing contributions to the hybrid swarm from both. The preponderance of S. foliosa cpDNA has entered the hybrid swarm indirectly, we propose, from F1s that backcross to S. foliosa. Flowering of the native precedes by several weeks that of the invading species, with little overlap between the two. Thus, F1 hybrids would be rare and sired by the last S. foliosa pollen upon the first S. alterniflora stigmas. The native species produces little pollen and this has low viability. An intermediate flowering time of hybrids as well as pollen that is more vigourous and abundant than that of the native species would predispose F1s to high fitness in a vast sea of native ovules. Thus, spread of hybrids to other S. foliosa marshes could be an even greater threat to the native species than introductions of alien S. alterniflora. [source]


Genetic,morphologic association study: association between the low density lipoprotein-receptor related protein (LRP) and cerebral amyloid angiopathy

NEUROPATHOLOGY & APPLIED NEUROBIOLOGY, Issue 1 2005
M. Christoforidis
Accumulating evidence suggests that genetic factors such as apolipoprotein E (APOE), can act in different ways in the pathogenesis of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The role of the low-density lipoprotein-receptor related protein (LRP), the major cerebral APOE receptor, in AD has been discussed controversially depending on data from different populations and methodological approaches. We examined the influence of LRP polymorphisms on CAA in 125 post-mortem cases genotyped for APOE and classified according to the neurofibrillary Braak and Braak staging of AD (indicating neurodegeneration grade). CAA was assessed separately for leptomeningeal (CAAlep.), noncapillary cortical (CAAcort.) and capillary cortical (CAAcap.) vessels in ,-amyloid stained sections. Our results suggest: (i) the 87 bp allele of LRP5, polymorphism (LRP5,) is an independent predictive factor for CAAcort. and CAAlep.; (ii) the C/C genotype (C allele) of the LRP exon 3 polymorphism is positively associated with, the, severity, of, CAAlep., and, CAAcort.,, implicating a younger age of CAA onset and/or faster CAA progression; (iii) as CAAcort. and CAAlep. showed different genetic associations in contrast to CAAcap., we can underscore the hypothesis that different molecular mechanisms are involved in CAA pathogenesis of noncapillary and capillary cerebral vessels. Our results lead us to postulate that the LRP5,87 bp and the LRP exon 3 C alleles of the LRP gene (or another locus that might be in linkage disequilibrium with these LRP polymorphic sites) could modify cerebrovascular LRP function or expression in noncapillary cerebral vessels, leading to an increased cerebrovascular amyloid deposition. [source]


X-chromosome lineages and the settlement of the Americas

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, Issue 3 2009
Stephane Bourgeois
Abstract Most genetic studies on the origins of Native Americans have examined data from mtDNA and Y-chromosome DNA. To complement these studies and to broaden our understanding of the origin of Native American populations, we present an analysis of 1,873 X-chromosomes representing Native American (n = 438) and other continental populations (n = 1,435). We genotyped 36 polymorphic sites, forming an informative haplotype within an 8-kb DNA segment spanning exon 44 of the dystrophin gene. The data reveal continuity from a common Eurasian ancestry between Europeans, Siberians, and Native Americans. However, the loss of two haplotypes frequent in Eurasia (18.8 and 7%) and the rise in frequency of a third haplotype rare elsewhere, indicate a major population bottleneck in the peopling of the Americas. Although genetic drift appears to have played a greater role in the genetic differentiation of Native Americans than in the latitudinally distributed Eurasians, we also observe a signal of a differentiated ancestry of southern and northern populations that cannot be simply explained by the serial southward dilution of genetic diversity. It is possible that the distribution of X-chromosome lineages reflects the genetic structure of the population of Beringia, itself issued from founder effects and a source of subsequent southern colonization(s). Am J Phys Anthropol, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Haplotype Trees and Modern Human Origins

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, Issue S41 2005
Alan R. Templeton
Abstract A haplotype is a multisite haploid genotype at two or more polymorphic sites on the same chromosome in a defined DNA region. An evolutionary tree of the haplotypes can be estimated if the DNA region had little to no recombination. Haplotype trees can be used to reconstruct past human gene-flow patterns and historical events, but any single tree captures only a small portion of evolutionary history, and is subject to error. A fuller view of human evolution requires multiple DNA regions, and errors can be minimized by cross-validating inferences across loci. An analysis of 25 DNA regions reveals an out-of-Africa expansion event at 1.9 million years ago. Gene flow with isolation by distance was established between African and Eurasian populations by about 1.5 million years ago, with no detectable interruptions since. A second out-of-Africa expansion occurred about 700,000 years ago, and involved interbreeding with at least some Eurasian populations. A third out-of-Africa event occurred around 100,000 years ago, and was also characterized by interbreeding, with the hypothesis of a total Eurasian replacement strongly rejected (P < 10,17). This does not preclude the possibility that some Eurasian populations could have been replaced, and the status of Neanderthals is indecisive. Demographic inferences from haplotype trees have been inconsistent, so few definitive conclusions can be made at this time. Haplotype trees from human parasites offer additional insights into human evolution and raise the possibility of an Asian isolate of humanity, but once again not in a definitive fashion. Haplotype trees can also indicate which genes were subject to positive selection in the lineage leading to modern humans. Genetics provides many insights into human evolution, but those insights need to be integrated with fossil and archaeological data to yield a fuller picture of the origin of modern humans. Yrbk Phys Anthropol 48:33,59, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Analysis of the oviductal glycoprotein 1 polymorphisms and their effects on components of litter size in rabbits

ANIMAL GENETICS, Issue 5 2009
M. Merchán
Summary The objective of this work was to study the effect of the oviductal glycoprotein 1 (OVGP1) genotype and mRNA expression on litter size and other fertility measures, as OVGP1 has positive effects on fertilization and early embryo development. We have analysed an F2 cross of two lines of rabbits divergently selected for uterine capacity. The OVGP1 mRNA expression was analysed in both lines, but no differences were observed between them. The promoter region and mRNA were sequenced in the F0 generation, and 17 polymorphic sites were found to co-segregate in three haplotypes (A, B and C). An association study was performed between several reproductive traits and a triallelic microsatellite identified in the promoter region as well as a non-synonymous SNP located in exon 11 [g.12944C>G (p.Arg468Gly)]. The alleles g.12944G and g.325(GT)14T(G)5 of the B haplotype have a positive effect on the total number of kits born, number born alive, number of implanted embryos and foetal and prenatal embryo survival. [source]


Polymorphism of the pig acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase , gene is associated with fatty acid composition in a Duroc commercial line

ANIMAL GENETICS, Issue 4 2009
D. Gallardo
Summary Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase , (ACACA) catalyses the first committed step in the biosynthesis of long-chain fatty acids (FA) by converting acetyl-CoA into malonyl-CoA. In pigs, the ACACA gene maps to a chromosome 12 QTL with important effects on FA composition. In the present study, we have sequenced the coding region of the pig ACACA gene in 15 pigs, identifying 21 polymorphic sites that were either synonymous or non-coding. Ten of these SNPs segregated in a Duroc commercial population (n = 350) for which lipid metabolism and meat and carcass quality trait records were available. Significant associations were found between two linked single nucleotide polymorphisms (c.4899G>A and c.5196T>C) and percentages of carcass lean, intramuscular fat, monounsaturated, saturated (myristic, palmitic and stearic) and polyunsaturated (linoleic) FAs in the longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle, along with serum HDL-cholesterol concentration. The most important allele substitution effects were observed for the polyunsaturated/saturated FA ratio (13,21% of the phenotypic mean) as well as for the percentages of ,-6 and polyunsaturated FAs, especially linoleic acid (7,16% of the phenotypic mean). These results suggest the existence of a causal mutation, mapping to the chromosomal region containing the pig ACACA gene, with marked effects on FA composition of meat. [source]


Variation in mitochondrial DNA and maternal genetic ancestry of Ethiopian cattle populations

ANIMAL GENETICS, Issue 4 2009
H. Dadi
Summary This study describes complete control region sequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from 117 Ethiopian cattle from 10 representative populations, in conjunction with the available cattle sequences in GenBank. In total, 79 polymorphic sites were detected, and these defined 81 different haplotypes. The haplotype and nucleotide diversity of Ethiopian cattle did not vary among the populations studied. All mtDNA sequences from Ethiopian cattle converged into one main maternal lineage (T1) that corresponds to African Bos taurus cattle. According to the results of this study, no zebu mtDNA haplotypes have been found in Ethiopia, where the most extensive hybridization took place on the African continent. [source]


SNP discovery in Litopenaeus vannamei with a new computational pipeline

ANIMAL GENETICS, Issue 1 2009
D. M. Gorbach
Summary Litopenaeus vannamei (Pacific white shrimp) have been farmed in the Americas for many years and are growing in popularity in Asia with the development of specific pathogen-free stocks. The full genomic sequence of this species might not be available in the near future, so other tools are needed to discover the location of polymorphic sites for quantitative trait loci mapping, association studies and subsequent marker-assisted selection. Currently, 25 937 L. vannamei expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are publicly available. These sequences were manually screened, masked for tandem repeats and inputted into CAP3 for clustering. The resulting 3532 contigs were analysed for possible single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with snpidentifier, a newly developed computer program for predicting SNPs. snpidentifier is designed for ESTs without accompanying chromatogram sequence quality information, and therefore it performs quality control checks on all data. snpidentifier sets a threshold such that the sequences used have a poor quality nucleotide (N) frequency <0.1, and it trims off the first 10 bases of every sequence to ensure higher sequence quality. For a base to be predicted as an SNP, the minor nucleotide (allele) frequency must be >0.1, it must be observed at least four times and the 15 bases on either side must exactly match the consensus sequence. Using these conservative parameters, 504 SNPs were predicted from 141 contigs for L. vannamei. A small sample of 18 individuals from three lines have been sequenced to verify prediction results and 17 of 39 (44%) of the tested SNPs have been confirmed. [source]


SLA typing using the PCR-SSP method and establishment of the SLA homozygote line in pedigreed SNU miniature pigs

ANIMAL SCIENCE JOURNAL, Issue 2 2010
Su-Cheong YEOM
ABSTRACT Seoul National University (SNU) miniature pigs represent a closed colony with 24 founder pigs and a well preserved pedigree. Characterization using mRNA sequence analysis was conducted for 6 swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) loci in parental or founder pigs, and 17 defined alleles were detected. Based on these complete coding sequences, 17 sequence specific primers (SSPs) were designed for polymorphic sites. To validate the specificity of each allele SSP, the PCR-SSP was conducted with defined allele clones as templates. PCR-SSP was conducted with the hot start polymerase and touch-down PCR. The parental or found SNU miniature pigs showed overall SLA class I and II heterozygotes. Using the established PCR-SSP method, we conducted SLA typing for breeding stock including 2 pedigreed pigs and identified the novel SLA class II homozygote haplotye (DRA*0201, DRB1*0403, DQA*0102 and DQB1*0701) and 2 SLA homozygote pig lines: SLA class I Hp-3.0 and class II Hp-0.3, and SLA class I Hp-2.0 and class II Hp-0.2. We thought that our PCR-SSP SLA typing method could be applicable for new SLA homozygote line establishment by assignment and scheduled breeding. [source]


Gene and haplotype polymorphisms of the Prion gene (PRNP) in Japanese Brown, Japanese native and Holstein cattle

ANIMAL SCIENCE JOURNAL, Issue 5 2009
George MSALYA
ABSTRACT Polymorphisms in the prion protein gene (PRNP) are known to be associated with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in human, sheep and goats. There is tentative association between PRNP promoter polymorphism and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) susceptibility in cattle. In this study, we genotyped for six bovine PRNP polymorphic sites including a 23-bp indel in the promoter, a 12-bp indel in the intron 1, two nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), octapeptide repeats in the coding region and a 14-bp indel in the 3,-untranslated region in 178 animals representing Japanese Brown, Kuchinoshima feral, Mishima, Japanese Shorthorn and Holstein. In 64 Japanese Brown cattle, three indel sites were polymorphic. All of the six sites were monomorphic in Kuchinoshima. The 23-bp and 12-bp indel sites were polymorphic in Mishima cattle. The 23-bp and 14-bp indel sites were polymorphic in Japanese Shorthorn cattle. Both SNP sites were monomorphic in all cattle examined in this study. At the 23-bp indel site, the genotype frequencies of Japanese Brown and Holstein breeds were similar to that of BSE affected cattle. We estimated 12 different haplotypes from these genotypic data. A ,23-12-K6S14+' haplotype was the major haplotype in all populations, whose frequencies ranged from 0.50 to 1.00. [source]


Ancient DNA and Family Relationships in a Pompeian House

ANNALS OF HUMAN GENETICS, Issue 4 2009
Giovanni Di Bernardo
Summary Archaeological, anthropological and pathological data suggest that thirteen skeletons found in a house at the Pompeii archaeological site, dated to 79 A.D., belong to one family. To verify this and to identify the relationships between these individuals, we analyzed DNA extracted from bone specimens. Specifically, hypervariable segment 1 (HVS1) of the human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region was amplified in two overlapping polymerase chain reactions and the sequences were compared to the revised Cambridge Reference Sequence. As independent controls, other polymorphic sites in HVS1, HVS2 and in the coding region were analyzed. We also amplified some short tandem repeats of the thirteen specimens. This study revealed that six of the thirteen individuals are indeed closely related. [source]


Novel genetic markers in the 5,-flanking region of ANKH are associated with ankylosing spondylitis

ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 3 2003
Florence W. L. Tsui
Objective To use a candidate gene approach for the identification of genetic markers that are significantly linked to and associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Methods We searched for novel polymorphisms in the ANKH gene (human homolog of the murine progressive ankylosis gene) and genotyped 2 polymorphic sites, one in the 5,-noncoding region and the other in the promoter region of ANKH, using DNA from affected (n = 273) and unaffected (n = 112) individuals from 124 AS families. We used these ANKH and other nearby polymorphisms to perform linkage and family-based association analyses. Results We identified 2 novel polymorphic sites: one in the 5,-noncoding region of ANKH involving 1,2 copies of an 8-bp repeat (denoted as ANKH-OR), and the other in the promoter region involving different copy numbers of a triplet repeat (denoted as ANKH-TR). ANKH-OR and ANKH-TR were in complete linkage disequilibrium. Five markers (D5S1953, ANKH-TR, ANKH-OR, D5S1954, and D5S1963) were used for both the linkage and association analyses. Multipoint linkage analysis of 124 AS families showed a modest level of significance (nonparametric linkage score 2.15; P = 0.015) at the ANKH region. The contribution of ANKH to AS susceptibility (,s) was 1.9. A family-based association study on the same AS families revealed that both ANKH-OR allele 1 and ANKH-TR allele 7 were significantly associated with disease, assuming an additive model (for ANKH-OR allele 1, P = 0.03; for ANKH-TR allele 7, P = 0.04). Conclusion Our results indicate that ANKH-OR and ANKH-TR are novel genetic markers that are significantly associated with AS. [source]


Disentangling the bindweeds: hybridization and taxonomic diversity in British Calystegia (Convolvulaceae)

BOTANICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY, Issue 4 2009
JACQUELINE M. BROWN
Calystegia is taxonomically complex. More than 65 taxa are currently recognized, but species circumscription is problematic, geographical intergradation between taxa is common and hybridization between species is known to occur. In this study, the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 region (ITS1) was used to investigate the extent to which interspecific hybridization has contributed to the generation of taxonomic diversity in the C. sepium complex of the genus. Focusing principally on taxa that occur in Britain and their putative relatives, patterns of infra-individual ITS1 variation were examined by direct sequencing and cloning. Direct sequencing of the ITS region of 58 accessions representing 11 taxa and one hybrid revealed 22 variable positions that collectively defined 14 ribotypes. Diagnostic and invariant ribotypes lacking polymorphisms were found in C. sepium ssp. sepium, C. sepium ssp. limnophila, C. silvatica ssp. silvatica, C. pellita, C. pubescens and C. soldanella. Three ribotypes were recovered in C. sepium ssp. americana, two of which lacked polymorphisms, whereas the third exhibited two polymorphic sites. Calystegia sepium ssp. roseata, C. sepium ssp. spectabilis, C. silvatica ssp. disjuncta, C. pulchra and C. × howittiorum were each characterized by taxon-specific polymorphisms in the ITS1 region. In each case, the polymorphisms observed were consistent with the co-occurrence in the genome of nonpolymorphic ribotypes that were observed in other taxa. This observation is supported by cloning of the ITS region and is consistent with a hybrid origin for the taxa in which they occur. The hypotheses of hybridity proposed are further shown to be congruent with other data, notably morphology. This study suggests that taxonomic diversity within the C. sepium complex may have been promoted by hybridization. For at least some of the taxa investigated, it is at least possible that sympatry may have been achieved anthropogenically, through the introduction of taxa into cultivation. The processes revealed in this study may help to explain some of the taxonomic complexity observed in the genus more widely, although this remains to be tested. © 2009 The Natural History Museum, London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2009, 160, 388,401. [source]


Molecular pathology of haemophilia B in Turkish patients: identification of a large deletion and 33 independent point mutations

BRITISH JOURNAL OF HAEMATOLOGY, Issue 4 2003
U. Venüs Onay
Summary. Heterogeneous mutations in the coagulation factor IX (FIX) gene result in a bleeding tendency known as haemophilia B. The haemophilia B mutation database has a total of 2353 patient entries, including 10 of the estimated 1000 Turkish patients. In this study, a more comprehensive analysis of the molecular pathology of haemophilia B in Turkey revealed one large deletion and 33 point mutations in the FIX gene of 34 unrelated patients. Haplotype analysis using six polymorphic sites showed that the mutations identified in a total of 45 patients occurred on 13 different haplotypes and that each mutation was family specific. [source]


Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the factor IX gene for linkage analysis in the southern Chinese population

BRITISH JOURNAL OF HAEMATOLOGY, Issue 2 2000
Vivian Chan
Carrier detection and prenatal testing for haemophilia B in Oriental populations have been hampered by the lack of informative markers within the factor IX (FIX) gene. We detected a T/C nucleotide variation at nucleotide 32770 in the poly-A region of the FIX gene in the mother of a haemophilia B child. Analysis of 139 unrelated alleles revealed a heterozygosity rate of 0·193, thus offering an additional marker for linkage analysis. Together with two other polymorphic sites (5,MseI and 3,HhaI) found in Chinese and Thai populations, these polymorphisms were useful in 66% of the families studied. [source]