Pollen Transfer (pollen + transfer)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Darwin's cross-promotion hypothesis and the evolution of stylar polymorphism

ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 12 2004
Adeline C. Cesaro
Abstract There is growing appreciation that the ecological factors which impact on rates of pollen transfer can contribute significantly to reproductive trait evolution in plants. In heterostylous species, several studies support Darwin's claim that the reciprocal positions of stigmas and anthers enhance inter-morph mating in comparison to intra-morph mating and thus the maintenance of the polymorphism. In this study, we evaluate the relative importance of intra-morph and inter-morph pollen transfers in Narcissus assoanus, a species with dimorphic variation in style length but non-reciprocity of anther positions. This stigma-height dimorphism represents a transitional stage in theoretical models of the evolution of distyly. Seed set variation on recipient plants with donor plants of a single morph in experimental arrays in a natural population illustrate that inter-morph cross-pollination is more efficient that intra-morph cross-pollination as a result of high rates of pollen transfer from long-styled to short-styled plants. The observed rates of pollen transfer satisfy the theoretical conditions for the establishment of a stigma-height dimorphism in an ancestral monomorphic long-styled population in pollen-limited situations. These results provide experimental evidence for the Darwinian hypothesis that enhanced inter-morph cross-pollination facilitates not only the maintenance of heterostyly but also the establishment of transitional forms implicated in the evolution of this polymorphism. [source]


ALLEE EFFECT AND SELF-FERTILIZATION IN HERMAPHRODITES: REPRODUCTIVE ASSURANCE IN DEMOGRAPHICALLY STABLE POPULATIONS

EVOLUTION, Issue 12 2004
Pierre-Olivier Cheptou
Abstract The fact that selfing increases seed set (reproductive assurance) has often been put forward as an important selective force for the evolution of selfing. However, the role of reproductive assurance in hermaphroditic populations is far from being clear because of a lack of theoretical work. Here, I propose a theoretical model that analyzes selffertilization in the presence of reproductive assurance. Because reproductive assurance directly influences the per capita growth rate, I developed an explicit demographic model for partial selfers in the presence of reproductive assurance, specifically when outcrossing is limited by the possibility of pollen transfer (Allee effect). Mating system parameters are derived as a function of the underlying demographical parameters. The functional link between population demography and mating system parameters (reproductive assurance, selfing rate) can be characterized. The demographic model permits the analysis of the evolution of self-fertilization in stable populations when reproductive assurance occurs. The model reveals some counterintuitive results such as the fact that increasing the fraction of selfed ovules can, in certain circumstances, increase the fraction of outcrossed ovules. Moreover, I demonstrate that reproductive assurance per se cannot account for the evolution of stable mixed selfing rates. Also, the model reveals that the extinction of outcrossing populations depends on small changes in population density (ecological perturbations), while the transition from outcrossing to selfing can, in certain cases, lead the population to extinction (evolutionary suicide). More generally, this paper highlights the fact that self-fertilization affects both the dynamics of individuals and the dynamics of selfing genes in hermaphroditic populations. [source]


The influence of pollinator abundance on the dynamics and efficiency of pollination in agricultural Brassica napus: implications for landscape-scale gene dispersal

JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECOLOGY, Issue 6 2006
KATRINA E. HAYTER
Summary 1It is important to understand the pollination processes that generate landscape-scale gene dispersal in plants, particularly in crop plants with genetically modified (GM) varieties. In one such crop, Brassica napus, the situation is complicated by uncertainty over the relative importance of two pollen vectors, wind and insects. 2We investigated pollination in two fields of B. napus that bloomed at different times of year (April vs. July) and attracted different abundances of foraging social bees. Rates of pollen transfer were quantified by counting the pollen grains deposited on stigmas and remaining in the anthers at intervals after flower opening. 3Flowers open in April were adequately pollinated only after 5 days and only 10% received even a single bee visit. Flowers open in July received three bee visits per hour and were fully pollinated within 3 h. 4Based on published measurements of airborne pollen dispersal, we estimate that wind-pollination from a hypothetical field 1 km distant could have fertilized up to 03% of the field's seed when bees were scarce in April but only up to 0007% when bees were abundant in July. 5The efficiency of pollination (the proportion of pollen released from anthers that landed on receptive stigmas) was seven times greater in July (15%) than in April (02%). The relatively high efficiency of insect pollination may help to explain the evolutionary maintenance of entomophily. 6Synthesis and applications. Our results begin to resolve a long-standing inconsistency among previous studies by suggesting that the susceptibility of fields of B. napus to long-distance cross-pollination by wind depends on the level of bee activity. Models for predicting GM gene flow at the landscape-scale in this crop should take this into account. [source]


Demographic vital rates determine the performance advantage of crop,wild hybrids in lettuce

JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECOLOGY, Issue 6 2005
DANNY A. P. HOOFTMAN
Summary 1Hybridization seems possible for many crop species after pollen transfer from crops to wild relatives in the surrounding vegetation. Subsequent introgression of crop-specific traits into wild relatives could lead to invasive introgressants. This process has become a public concern following the introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops. Until now, few studies have used demographic vital rates to compare the performance of hybrids with their wild relatives. 2We created second-generation (S1 and BC1) hybrids between the non-transgenic crop Lactuca sativa and its entirely cross-fertile wild relative Lactuca serriola. Seeds of parents and hybrids were individually sown in field plots at three different locations. Next to germination and survival, we measured a range of single fitness components and morphological traits. We also compared observed phenotypes to phenotypes theoretically expected, according to different inheritance scenarios. 3Phenotypes of both hybrid classes resembled L. serriola closely, and more than theoretically expected. However, demographic vital rates, i.e. germination and survival of hybrids were much higher than in L. serriola. 4Our results indicate that hybrids between crop and wild Lactuca are phenotypically indistinguishable from the wild relative and thus will largely remain unnoticed when they occur. However, these hybrids could potentially become invasive because of substantial differences in vital rates and seeds returned per seed sown. 5Synthesis and applications. A comparative study on single fitness components, such as seed production, alone would not have revealed the performance advantage of crop,wild hybrids in Lactuca. Therefore, studying demographic vital rates of hybrids and back-crosses to test for long-term consequences of hybridization should be part of any risk assessment of GM crops. Demographic vital rates are also important for the development of predictive modelling tools that can be employed to test the individual- and population-level consequences of new-to-add traits. [source]


Spatially contingent interactions between an exotic and native plant mediated through flower visitors

OIKOS, Issue 1 2009
Daniel P. Cariveau
Exotic plants can negatively impact the fitness of native plants by changing the behavior of flower visitors and thus affecting pollen transfer. The presence of an exotic plant may decrease the visitation rate to native plants and thus increase pollen limitation. Flower visitors may also switch between exotic and native plants and if pollen from an exotic plant is transferred to native plant stigmas this may impede siring by conspecific pollen. As flower visitors forage within a spatial context, the distribution of plants may affect the type and magnitude of pollinator-mediated competition. In this study we examined two questions: 1) does the exotic plant, Carduus nutans (Asteraceae) interact with the native Monarda fistulosa (Lamiaceae) through flower visitors by changing visitation rate and/or through heterospecific pollen transfer, and does this affect seed set of the native plant? 2) Does spatial context affect how the native and exotic plants interact through flower visitors? We created plots containing potted M. fistulosa with and without the presence of potted C. nutans. In the presence of C. nutans, M. fistulosa stigmas had significantly fewer conspecific and more C. nutans pollen grains. Visitation rate and seed set tended to be lower in these invaded plots, however they were not significant. In a second experiment, we examined whether changes in visitation rate to M. fistulosa due to the presence of C. nutans was a function of M. fistulosa distance from C. nutans. We found that visitation rate did not decrease in the presence of C. nutans when M. fistulosa were adjacent to C. nutans or 15 meters from C. nutans. However, floral visitation rate to M. fistulosa decreased at 1 and 5 meters from C. nutans. Our results suggest interactions between plant species through flower visitors may depend on spatial scale. [source]


From pollen dynamics to adaptive dynamics

PLANT SPECIES BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2000
Tom J. De Jong
Abstract On plants with many flowers, bumblebees tend to visit more flowers in sequence. This induces pollen transfer between flowers on the same plant (geitonogamy). Consequently, in self-compatible plants the selfing rate increases with the number of simultaneously open flowers on the plant, and pollen export to other plants in the population can be a decelerating function of the number of flowers. I argue that geitonogamy is important in relation to two phenomena. First, it may explain the low number of seeds per flower and the size-dependent sex allocation observed in some species. Applying sex allocation theory to the boraginaceous Cynoglossum officinale and Echium vulgare shows that hermaphroditism is stable in both species. The predicted evolutionarily stable values for seeds per flower are close to observed values in the field. The model generally predicts that seeds per flower increase with plant size. This prediction is fine for C. officinale but E. vulgare defies the theory. Second, geitonogamy is important in the evolution of dioecy, as already suggested by Darwin. With abiotic pollination the export of pollen to other plants is likely to be proportional to the number of flowers produced, while it decelerates in animal-pollinated plants. Dioecy can then evolve gradually in a species with abiotic pollination, provided that inbreeding depression exceeds 50%, geitonogamous selfing increases with the number of flowers and that genetic variation exists. With complete pollen discounting as in the models of geitonogamous pollination by animals, hermaphroditism is always stable. The model explains Darwin's observation that dioecy is more common in wind-pollinated species and in species in which individuals are large, reproducing with many flowers. [source]


Experimental tests of the function of mirror-image flowers

BIOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY, Issue 2 2005
LINLEY K. JESSON
Enantiostyly, the reciprocal deflection of the style to the left or right side of the floral axis has evolved independently in at least a dozen angiosperm families. Unlike other plant sexual polymorphisms, the adaptive significance of these mirror-image flowers remains unclear. Most authors have interpreted enantiostyly as a floral mechanism that promotes cross-pollination. However, any functional interpretation is complicated by the fact that enantiostyly occurs in two forms. In monomorphic enantiostyly there are left- and right-styled flowers on the same plant, while in dimorphic enantiostyly they are on separate individuals. In this paper we develop a model of pollen transfer which indicates that monomorphic enantiostyly should reduce geitonogamous pollination compared to a non-enantiostylous condition, and that the lowest levels of geitonogamous pollination should occur in dimorphic enantiostyly. We tested these predictions using floral manipulations of bee-pollinated Solanum rostratum in garden arrays. We compared mating patterns and fertility in five array types: non-enantiostylous and straight-styled, monomorphic enantiostylous, dimorphic enantiostylous, and arrays uniform for either left or right stylar deflection. Outcrossing rates in non-enantiostylous arrays (t = 0.33 0.04) were significantly lower than all other arrays, while monomorphic enantiostylous arrays (t = 0.74 0.06) had significantly lower outcrossing rates than dimorphic enantiostylous arrays (t = 0.88 0.04) and those uniform for stylar deflection (t = 0.84 0.04). In dimorphic enantiostylous arrays, intermorph pollen transfer accounted for 75% of all outcrossing events. In pollen-limited situations, both types of enantiostylous arrays had significantly higher female fertility than arrays fixed for one direction, demonstrating that enantiostyly promotes pollen transfer between flowers of opposite stylar orientation. Our results provide support for the hypothesis that enantiostyly functions to increase the precision of cross-pollination in bee-pollinated plants by reducing geitonogamy. 2005 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2005, 85, 167,179. [source]


Darwin's cross-promotion hypothesis and the evolution of stylar polymorphism

ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 12 2004
Adeline C. Cesaro
Abstract There is growing appreciation that the ecological factors which impact on rates of pollen transfer can contribute significantly to reproductive trait evolution in plants. In heterostylous species, several studies support Darwin's claim that the reciprocal positions of stigmas and anthers enhance inter-morph mating in comparison to intra-morph mating and thus the maintenance of the polymorphism. In this study, we evaluate the relative importance of intra-morph and inter-morph pollen transfers in Narcissus assoanus, a species with dimorphic variation in style length but non-reciprocity of anther positions. This stigma-height dimorphism represents a transitional stage in theoretical models of the evolution of distyly. Seed set variation on recipient plants with donor plants of a single morph in experimental arrays in a natural population illustrate that inter-morph cross-pollination is more efficient that intra-morph cross-pollination as a result of high rates of pollen transfer from long-styled to short-styled plants. The observed rates of pollen transfer satisfy the theoretical conditions for the establishment of a stigma-height dimorphism in an ancestral monomorphic long-styled population in pollen-limited situations. These results provide experimental evidence for the Darwinian hypothesis that enhanced inter-morph cross-pollination facilitates not only the maintenance of heterostyly but also the establishment of transitional forms implicated in the evolution of this polymorphism. [source]