Potentiometric Sensors (potentiometric + sensor)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Lead(II) Potentiometric Sensor Based on 1,4,8,11-Tetrathiacyclotetradecane Neutral Carrier and Lipophilic Additives

ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 11 2008
Mohamed
Abstract A potentiometric sensor for lead(II) ions based on the use of 1,4,8,11-tetrathiacyclotetradecane (TTCTD) as a neutral ionophore and potassium tetrakis-(p -chlorophenyl)borate as a lipophilic additive in plasticized PVC membranes is developed. The sensor exhibits linear potentiometric response towards lead(II) ions over the concentration range of 1.0×10,5,1.0×10,2,mol L,1 with a Nernstian slope of 29.9,mV decade,1 and a lower limit of detection of 2.2×10,6,mol L,1 Pb(II) ions over the pH range of 3,6.5. Sensor membrane without a lipophilic additive displays poor response. The sensor shows high selectivity for Pb(II) over a wide variety of alkali, alkaline earth and transition metal ions. The sensor shows long life span, high reproducibility, fast response and long term stability. Validation of the method by measuring the lower limit of detection, lower limit of linear range, accuracy, precision and sensitivity reveals good performance characteristics of the proposed sensor. The developed sensor is successfully applied to direct determination of lead(II) in real samples. The sensor is also used as an indicator electrode for the potentiometric titration of Pb(II) with EDTA and potassium chromate. The results obtained agree fairly well with data obtained by AAS. [source]


Silver(I)-Selective PVC Membrane Potentiometric Sensor Based on a Recently Synthesized Calix[4]arene

ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 10 2006
Ayça Demirel
Abstract A new PVC membrane potentiometric sensor for Ag(I) ion based on a recently synthesized calix[4]arene compound of 5,11,17,23-tetra- tert -butyl-25,27-dihydroxy-calix[4]arene-thiacrown-4 is developed. The electrode exhibits a Nernstian response for Ag(I) ions over a wide concentration range (1.0×10,2,1.0×10,6 M) with a slope of 53.8±1.6,mV per decade. It has a relatively fast response time (5,10,s) and can be used for at least 2 months without any considerable divergence in potentials. The proposed electrode shows high selectivity towards Ag+ ions over Pb2+, Cd2+, Co2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Sr2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Li+, K+, Na+, NH4+ ions and can be used in a pH range of 2,6. Only interference of Hg2+ is found. It is successfully used as an indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of a mixture of chloride, bromide and iodide ions. [source]


Voltammetry as a Virtual Potentiometric Sensor in Modeling of a Metal-Ligand System and Refinement of Stability Constants.

ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 8 2004
Part 1.
Abstract A mathematical conversion of data coming from nonequilibrium and dynamic voltammetric techniques (a direct current sampled (DC) and differential pulse (DP) polarography) into potentiometric sensor type of data is described and tested on a dynamic metal-ligand system. A combined experiment involving DCP, DPP and glass electrode potentiometry (GEP) was performed on a single solution sample containing a fixed [LT],:,[MT] ratio (acid-base titration). Dedicated potentiometric software ESTA was successfully employed in the refinement operations performed on virtual potentiometric (VP) data obtained from DC and DP polarography. It was possible to refine stability constants either separately, from VP-DC or VP-DP, or simultaneously from any combination of VP-DC, VP-DP and GEP. The concept of VP-DC or VP-DP is reported for the first time and numerous documented and possible advantages are discussed. The proposed procedure can be easily utilized also by nonelectrochemists who are interested in, e.g., the ligand design strategies. [source]


Flow-Through Assay of Quinine Using Solid Contact Potentiometric Sensors Based on Molecularly Imprinted Polymers

ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 24 2009
Ayman
Abstract Miniaturized potentiometric membrane sensors for quinine incorporated with molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) were synthesized and implemented. Planar PVC based polymeric membrane sensors containing quinine-methacrylic and/or acrylic acid-ethylene glycol methacrylate were dispensed into anisotropically etched wells on polyimide wafers. The determination of quinine was carried out in acidic solution at pH,6, where positively charged species predominated prevalently. The suggested miniaturized planner sensors exhibited marked selectivity, sensitivity, long-term stability and reproducibility. At their optimum conditions, the sensors displayed wide concentration ranges of 4.0×10,6,1.0×10,2mol L,1 and 1.0×10,5,1.0×10,2 mol L,1 with slopes of about 61.3,55.7,mV decade,1; respectively. Sensors exhibit detection limits of 1.2×10,6 and 8.2×10,6 mol L,1 upon the use of methacrylic and acrylic acid monomers in the imprinted polymer, respectively. Validation of the assay method according to the quality assurance standards (range, within-day repeatability, between-day variability, standard deviation, accuracy, and good performance characteristics) which could assure good reliable novel sensors for quinine estimation was justified. Application of the proposed flow-through assay method for routine determination of quinine in soft drinks was assayed and the results compared favorably with data obtained by the standard fluorimetric method. [source]


Novel Potentiometric Sensors of Molecular Imprinted Polymers for Specific Binding of Chlormequat

ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 2 2008
Ayman
Abstract Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) were used as potentiometric sensors for the selective recognition and determination of chlormequat (CMQ). They were produced after radical polymerization of 4-vinyl pyridine (4-VP) or methacrylic acid (MAA) monomers in the presence of a cross-linker. CMQ was used as template. Similar non-imprinted (NI) polymers (NIP) were produced by removing the template from reaction media. The effect of kind and amount of MIP or NIP sensors on the potentiometric behavior was investigated. Main analytical features were evaluated in steady and flow modes of operation. The sensor MIP/4-VP exhibited the best performance, presenting fast near-Nernstian response for CMQ over the concentration range 6.2×10,6,1.0×10,2,mol L,1 with detection limits of 4.1×10,6,mol L,1. The sensor was independent from the pH of test solutions in the range 5,10. Potentiometric selectivity coefficients of the proposed sensors were evaluated over several inorganic and organic cations. Results pointed out a good selectivity to CMQ. The sensor was applied to the potentiometric determination of CMQ in commercial phytopharmaceuticals and spiked water samples. Recoveries ranged 96 to 108.5%. [source]


Dual-Gate Organic Field-Effect Transistors as Potentiometric Sensors in Aqueous Solution

ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 6 2010
Mark-Jan Spijkman
Abstract Buried electrodes and protection of the semiconductor with a thin passivation layer are used to yield dual-gate organic transducers. The process technology is scaled up to 150-mm wafers. The transducers are potentiometric sensors where the detection relies on measuring a shift in the threshold voltage caused by changes in the electrochemical potential at the second gate dielectric. Analytes can only be detected within the Debye screening length. The mechanism is assessed by pH measurements. The threshold voltage shift depends on pH as ,Vth,=,(Ctop/Cbottom),×,58,mV per pH unit, indicating that the sensitivity can be enhanced with respect to conventional ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs) by adjusting the ratio of the top and bottom gate capacitances. Remaining challenges and opportunities are discussed. [source]


A Biomimetic Potentiometric Sensor Using Molecularly Imprinted Polymer for the Cetirizine Assay in Tablets and Biological Fluids

ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 18 2008
Mehran Javanbakht
Abstract Despite the increasing number of applications of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) in analytical chemistry, the construction of a biomimetic potentiometric sensor remains still challenging. In this work, a biomimetic potentiometric sensor, based on a non-covalent imprinted polymer was fabricated for the recognition and determination of cetirizine. The MIP was synthesized by precipitation polymerization, using cetirizine dihydrochloride as a template molecule, methacrylic acid (MAA) as a functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as a cross linking agent. The sensor showed high selectivity and a sensitive response to the template in aqueous system. The MIP-modified electrode exhibited Nernstian response (28.0±0.9 mV/decade) in a wide concentration range of 1.0×10,6 to 1.0×10,2 M with a lower detection limit of 7.0×10,7 M. The electrode has response time of ca. 20,s, high performance, high sensitivity, and good long term stability (more than 5,months). The method was satisfactory and used to the cetirizine assay in tablets and biological fluids. [source]


Lead(II) Potentiometric Sensor Based on 1,4,8,11-Tetrathiacyclotetradecane Neutral Carrier and Lipophilic Additives

ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 11 2008
Mohamed
Abstract A potentiometric sensor for lead(II) ions based on the use of 1,4,8,11-tetrathiacyclotetradecane (TTCTD) as a neutral ionophore and potassium tetrakis-(p -chlorophenyl)borate as a lipophilic additive in plasticized PVC membranes is developed. The sensor exhibits linear potentiometric response towards lead(II) ions over the concentration range of 1.0×10,5,1.0×10,2,mol L,1 with a Nernstian slope of 29.9,mV decade,1 and a lower limit of detection of 2.2×10,6,mol L,1 Pb(II) ions over the pH range of 3,6.5. Sensor membrane without a lipophilic additive displays poor response. The sensor shows high selectivity for Pb(II) over a wide variety of alkali, alkaline earth and transition metal ions. The sensor shows long life span, high reproducibility, fast response and long term stability. Validation of the method by measuring the lower limit of detection, lower limit of linear range, accuracy, precision and sensitivity reveals good performance characteristics of the proposed sensor. The developed sensor is successfully applied to direct determination of lead(II) in real samples. The sensor is also used as an indicator electrode for the potentiometric titration of Pb(II) with EDTA and potassium chromate. The results obtained agree fairly well with data obtained by AAS. [source]


Silver(I)-Selective PVC Membrane Potentiometric Sensor Based on a Recently Synthesized Calix[4]arene

ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 10 2006
Ayça Demirel
Abstract A new PVC membrane potentiometric sensor for Ag(I) ion based on a recently synthesized calix[4]arene compound of 5,11,17,23-tetra- tert -butyl-25,27-dihydroxy-calix[4]arene-thiacrown-4 is developed. The electrode exhibits a Nernstian response for Ag(I) ions over a wide concentration range (1.0×10,2,1.0×10,6 M) with a slope of 53.8±1.6,mV per decade. It has a relatively fast response time (5,10,s) and can be used for at least 2 months without any considerable divergence in potentials. The proposed electrode shows high selectivity towards Ag+ ions over Pb2+, Cd2+, Co2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Sr2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Li+, K+, Na+, NH4+ ions and can be used in a pH range of 2,6. Only interference of Hg2+ is found. It is successfully used as an indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of a mixture of chloride, bromide and iodide ions. [source]


Simultaneous Quantification of Heavy Metals Using a Solid State Potentiometric Sensor Array

ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 8 2009
Jesús Gismera
Abstract A potentiometric sensor array of four nonspecific electrodes with solid-state membranes is developed and tested for simultaneous analysis of copper(II), mercury(II), and silver(I) ions. The cross-sensitivity responses of the sensors for these ions are evaluated. The array potentiometric signals are processed by partial least-squares regression (PLS) and back propagation artificial neural networks (ANN) to determinate analyte concentrations. The ANN configuration is optimized and two different training algorithms of the ANN are also evaluated. Best results are obtained when the potentiometric sensors are activated and the data are processed using ANN and the gradient descent adaptive algorithm. The system is used to quantify these heavy metals in synthetic samples and in dental amalgams with successful results. [source]


Novel Potentiometric Sensors of Molecular Imprinted Polymers for Specific Binding of Chlormequat

ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 2 2008
Ayman
Abstract Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) were used as potentiometric sensors for the selective recognition and determination of chlormequat (CMQ). They were produced after radical polymerization of 4-vinyl pyridine (4-VP) or methacrylic acid (MAA) monomers in the presence of a cross-linker. CMQ was used as template. Similar non-imprinted (NI) polymers (NIP) were produced by removing the template from reaction media. The effect of kind and amount of MIP or NIP sensors on the potentiometric behavior was investigated. Main analytical features were evaluated in steady and flow modes of operation. The sensor MIP/4-VP exhibited the best performance, presenting fast near-Nernstian response for CMQ over the concentration range 6.2×10,6,1.0×10,2,mol L,1 with detection limits of 4.1×10,6,mol L,1. The sensor was independent from the pH of test solutions in the range 5,10. Potentiometric selectivity coefficients of the proposed sensors were evaluated over several inorganic and organic cations. Results pointed out a good selectivity to CMQ. The sensor was applied to the potentiometric determination of CMQ in commercial phytopharmaceuticals and spiked water samples. Recoveries ranged 96 to 108.5%. [source]


Dual-Gate Organic Field-Effect Transistors as Potentiometric Sensors in Aqueous Solution

ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 6 2010
Mark-Jan Spijkman
Abstract Buried electrodes and protection of the semiconductor with a thin passivation layer are used to yield dual-gate organic transducers. The process technology is scaled up to 150-mm wafers. The transducers are potentiometric sensors where the detection relies on measuring a shift in the threshold voltage caused by changes in the electrochemical potential at the second gate dielectric. Analytes can only be detected within the Debye screening length. The mechanism is assessed by pH measurements. The threshold voltage shift depends on pH as ,Vth,=,(Ctop/Cbottom),×,58,mV per pH unit, indicating that the sensitivity can be enhanced with respect to conventional ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs) by adjusting the ratio of the top and bottom gate capacitances. Remaining challenges and opportunities are discussed. [source]


Rapid Determination of Gallamine Triethiodide (Flaxedil®) and Pancuronium Bromide (Pavulon®) in Pharmaceutical and Urine Matrices by Means of Modified-Carbon-Paste Ion-Selective Electrodes

HELVETICA CHIMICA ACTA, Issue 4 2005

A new analytical method for the determination of gallamine triethiodide (Flaxedil®; 1) and pancuronium bromide (Pavulon®; 2), two muscle relaxants used in surgical operations and in pain relief, has been developed. Our approach relies on rapid, precise, and sensitive potentiometric sensors based on modified-carbon-paste ion-selective electrodes (CP-ISEs). Linear calibration graphs in the working ranges of ca. 4.5,892 and 7.3,733,,g/ml (in H2O, pH,7.0, T=25°) were established for 1 and 2, respectively; and Nernst slopes corresponding to three- or two-electrons transfers, respectively, were obtained. The method works best in a pH range of 7,9. Average relative errors of 2.12 and 2.14%, with average standard deviations of 1.98,2.47 and 2.64,3.45, respectively, were obtained for urine samples of 1 and 2. The corresponding relative errors for the pharmaceutical samples were 1.59 and 1.64%, with standard deviations of 0.54,1.34 and 0.52,1.67, respectively. Statistical Student and F tests were applied to the data, and satisfactory results were obtained. [source]