Potential Etiologies (potential + etiology)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Paradoxical Hypertrichosis After Laser Therapy: A Review

BACKGROUND Laser hair removal is a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of unwanted body hair but is not exempt from side effects. A rare but significant adverse effect with this treatment modality is paradoxical hypertrichosis. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the potential etiologies, risk factors, related laser types, and treatment options for the development of excess hair after laser therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS An analysis of previously published case studies and review articles along with our own experience was used to gather information regarding this phenomenon. RESULTS Paradoxical hypertrichosis has a low incidence, ranging from 0.6% to 10%, and most commonly occurs on the face and neck. All laser and light sources have the potential to cause hair induction, especially in individuals with darker skin types (III,VI); with dark, thick hair; and with underlying hormonal conditions. Possible causes include the effect of inflammatory mediators and subtherapeutic thermal injury causing induction of the hair cycle. Treatment for paradoxical hypertrichosis is laser therapy of the affected area. CONCLUSIONS Paradoxical hypertrichosis is a rare side effect of laser hair removal; the pathogenesis of this event remains widely unknown. We recommend further large-scale studies to investigate this effect. The authors have indicated no significant interest with commercial supporters. [source]

Prolongation of the prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time in children with sickle cell disease

Leslie J. Raffini MD
Abstract Background Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) have high rates of perioperative complications, including bleeding 1,2. Procedures We conducted a retrospective review of pre-operative coagulation studies in pediatric patients with SCD followed by a prospective study of 100 well children with SCD to determine the prevalence of abnormal coagulation screening tests, and to evaluate potential etiologies. Results In the retrospective study, 32/84 (38.1%) had a prolonged prothrombin time (PT), compared to 8/100 in the prospective study. Prolongations of the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) were less common. Children in the prospective study with prolonged PTs had significantly lower levels of Factor V and VII compared to those with normal PTs. Factor VII levels were <50% in 4/8 with long PTs, compared to 3/92 with normal PTs, P,=,0.001. Though retrospectively, several patients had normalization of their PT with vitamin K, there was no laboratory evidence of vitamin K deficiency in the prospective study. In the retrospective analysis, six of seven children who had pre-operative coagulation studies and significant intraoperative blood loss had prolonged PTs (P,=,0.04). Conclusions Children with SCD admitted for surgical procedures were more likely to have prolonged PTs than those tested at a well visit. There was intra-patient variability in coagulation studies that may be related to clinical status, hepatocellular dysfunction, and/or increased clotting factor consumption. Future well-designed prospective studies to determine whether abnormal coagulation studies are associated with an increased risk of perioperative bleeding in children with SCD are necessary. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2006; 47:589,593. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Familial neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy,,

J. Popler MD
Abstract Background Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy (NEHI) is a recently described children's interstitial lung disease (chILD) disorder of unknown etiology. It manifests clinically with tachypnea, retractions, hypoxemia, and crackles. The characteristic radiographic appearance consists of pulmonary hyperexpansion and ground-glass densities on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Lung histology shows hyperplasia of bombesin-immunopositive neuroendocrine cells within distal bronchioles and alveolar ducts without other identifiable lung pathology or developmental anomaly. Methods We describe four families with multiple siblings diagnosed with NEHI. Cases were identified at three pediatric centers. Inclusion criteria included clinical findings consistent with NEHI, lung biopsy confirmation in the index case, and a diagnostic HRCT or biopsy in other siblings. Results Each family had a proband diagnosed with NEHI based upon pathologic review, and at least one additional sibling diagnosed either by pathologic review or HRCT. All patients presented between 2 and 15 months of age. Both male and female children were affected. The majority of the patients underwent both HRCT and lung biopsy. There were no deaths among affected children. No environmental exposures or other potential etiologies were identified as a cause of presenting symptoms. Conclusions The familial occurrence of NEHI suggests the possibility of a genetic etiology for this disorder and highlights the importance of taking a complete family medical history for infants presenting with a suggestive clinical picture. Identification of familial NEHI patients allows for the opportunity to further our understanding of this disorder, its natural history, the phenotypic spectrum, and potential genetic causes. Pediatr. Pulmonol. 2010; 45:749,755. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Clinicopathologic Conference: A 28-year-old Woman with Perioral Cyanosis and Low Oxygen Saturation

Jeffrey Sankoff MD
Abstract The authors present a case of a 28-year-old woman on trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole for 9 months, who presented to the emergency department with weakness, shortness of breath, and cyanosis. The patient's clinical course is outlined. A discussion of the potential etiologies, as well as the clinical management, is provided. [source]

Requirement of cannabinoid CB1 receptors in cortical pyramidal neurons for appropriate development of corticothalamic and thalamocortical projections

Chia-Shan Wu
Abstract A role for endocannabinoid signaling in neuronal morphogenesis as the brain develops has recently been suggested. Here we used the developing somatosensory circuit as a model system to examine the role of endocannabinoid signaling in neural circuit formation. We first show that a deficiency in cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R), but not G-protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55), leads to aberrant fasciculation and pathfinding in both corticothalamic and thalamocortical axons despite normal target recognition. Next, we localized CB1R expression to developing corticothalamic projections and found little if any expression in thalamocortical axons, using a newly established reporter mouse expressing GFP in thalamocortical projections. A similar thalamocortical projection phenotype was observed following removal of CB1R from cortical principal neurons, clearly demonstrating that CB1R in corticothalamic axons was required to instruct their complimentary connections, thalamocortical axons. When reciprocal thalamic and cortical connections meet, CB1R-containing corticothalamic axons are intimately associated with elongating thalamocortical projections containing DGL,, a 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) synthesizing enzyme. Thus, 2-AG produced in thalamocortical axons and acting at CB1Rs on corticothalamic axons is likely to modulate axonal patterning. The presence of monoglyceride lipase, a 2-AG degrading enzyme, in both thalamocortical and corticothalamic tracts probably serves to restrict 2-AG availability. In summary, our study provides strong evidence that endocannabinoids are a modulator for the proposed ,handshake' interactions between corticothalamic and thalamocortical axons, especially for fasciculation. These findings are important in understanding the long-term consequences of alterations in CB1R activity during development, a potential etiology for the mental health disorders linked to prenatal cannabis use. [source]

Etiology of Bipolar Disorder Across the Lifespan: Essential Interplay With Diagnosis, Classification, and Assessment

Benjamin L. HankinArticle first published online: 10 JUN 200
Bipolar disorder has garnered increasing attention as many argue that rates of bipolar disorder are skyrocketing and the definition of the classic bipolar disorder phenotype should be expanded, especially among children and adolescents. Understanding the psychosocial etiologies of bipolar disorder across the lifespan is critically important, and Alloy and colleagues' (2009) scholarly review makes an important contribution. Given the debate and controversy surrounding the description, diagnosis, and phenotype of bipolar disorder, having an accurate, reliable, and valid classification for definition, diagnosis, and assessment is critical for explicating potential etiology. Likewise, advanced understanding of etiology, especially when grounded in basic psychological science as Alloy and colleagues' review is, can importantly inform clinical phenomenology, course, assessment, and intervention. In summary, there is an essential interplay among description, classification, assessment, etiology, and intervention, such that a deeper understanding of all these areas is necessary for advancing an empirically based practice of assessment and intervention. [source]