Phytophthora Infestans (phytophthora + infestan)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Phytophthora Infestans

  • oomycete phytophthora infestan

  • Selected Abstracts

    Visualization of Differential Gene Expression , Using Fluorescence-Based cDNA-AFLP

    S. Gigliotti
    Abstract cDNA-AFLP is one of the techniques developed to study differentially expressed genes. This recent technique is advantageous because it does not need prior sequence knowledge and is reliable due to highly stringent PCR conditions. The traditional cDNA-AFLP method uses radioactively labelled products and is characterised by high sensitivity and resolution. Here, the use of Cy5-labelled primers to detect products on polyacrylamide gels is reported. This non-radioactive method, based on fluorescence, is shown to be faster and the recovery of interesting bands is easier. The study of the differential gene expression of the interaction between potato and Phytophthora infestans was used for the valuation of this method. Different gene expression profiles , such as up-regulation, down-regulation or point expression , were obtained. Moreover, this technique was shown to be highly reproducible. [source]

    Phytophthora infestans on potato

    EPPO BULLETIN, Issue 3 2008
    Article first published online: 11 NOV 200
    First page of article [source]

    Prediction studies supported by computer on potato late blight in central Anatolia in Turkey,

    EPPO BULLETIN, Issue 2 2007
    E. Cakir
    Prediction of potato late blight epidemics, caused by Phytophthora infestans (Mont) de Bary, was studied in three different villages of Bolu Province having large potato growing areas with the Winstel and Ullrich Schrodter models in the years 2002,05. During these years, a late blight outbreak was observed only in 2005 with the disease being less apparent in the other years. The Ullrich Schrodter model was found to poorly predict potato late blight epidemics in 2005. The Winstel model gave first warnings too early but correctly predicted late infections. Both the A1 and A2 mating types were found in Central Anatolia for the first time, in Bolu province. [source]

    Is there a trade-off between aggressiveness and overwinter survival in Phytophthora infestans?

    FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 3 2007
    Summary 1Selection during interepidemic stages is crucial for the evolution of pathogen populations. Trade-offs involving aggressiveness (quantitative pathogenicity) have rarely been explored in pathogens with a life cycle requiring the disease-causing organism to change organs within the same host. 2We investigated the existence of a trade-off between aggressiveness and survival in Phytophthora infestans, the pathogen causing potato late blight. In France, P. infestans behaves as an obligate biotroph, surviving in infected tubers. Aggressive isolates, which are favoured during the epidemic, may exhaust their nutrient supply too quickly to bridge seasons, resulting in a possible trade-off between the two life stages. 3We inoculated tubers with isolates possessing different aggressiveness levels, let them overwinter as outdoor piles at three different sites, and scored the proportion of live tubers the following spring. 4At two sites, infection caused early tuber sprouting, which can be seen either as a manipulation of the host by the pathogen, or as an attempt by the host to escape. 5Overwinter survival was higher for control than for inoculated tubers, but did not differ between tubers inoculated with different isolates. This suggests that aggressiveness should gradually increase in P. infestans populations, unless a trade-off occurs at another stage of the life cycle. [source]

    Development of a Sensitive Serological Method for Specific Detection of Latent Infection of Macrophomina phaseolina in Cowpea

    Leonard Afouda
    Abstract A double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) was developed for the specific detection and quantification of Macrophomina phaseolina in plant tissue. Both polyclonal antisera produced against immunogens from mycelium and culture filtrate of M. phaseolina detected the fungus in mycelial and plant extracts, although the antibodies raised against mycelium were more sensitive. No cross-reaction occurred with Rhizopus stolonifer, Pythium ultimum, Mucor hiemalis, Fusarium oxysporum, Septoria nodorum, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Phytophthora infestans and Aspergillus niger. In enzyme assays, activity of the endo-acting hydrolytic enzymes 1,3-,-glucanase and, less, cellulase, but not xylanase was detected in infected plants. DAS-ELISA was more sensitive than the 1,3-,-glucanase assay. In polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) up to 18 protein bands were observed, with four bands occurring in the 12 tested isolates deriving from various geographical origin in Niger and Nigeria. The enzyme assays and protein patterns were considered not suitable for specific M. phaseolina detection. Macrophomina phaseolina was essentially located in the roots and hypocotyls, and less in epicotyls and leaves of infected plants. The antibodies were also useful to detect latent infection and the infection of cowpea seeds. [source]

    Reaction of Certain Solanaceous and Asteraceous Plant Species to Inoculation with Phytophthora infestans in Cameroon

    D. A. Fontem
    Abstract Experiments were conducted to detect potential hosts of Phytophthora infestans, causal agent of potato late blight among weeds occurring in Cameroon. Isolates of P. infestans isolated from garden huckleberry (Solanum scabrum), potato (S. tuberosum) and tomato (S. lycopersicon) were inoculated on detached leaves of 12 solanaceous and 14 asteraceous species collected from the potato agroecosystem in the western highlands of Cameroon. Isolates of P. infestans from huckleberry and potato infected the same host plants as well as gboma eggplant (S. macrocarpon) and two asteraceous weeds; Billy goatweed (Ageratum conyzoides) and Dichrocephala (Dichrocephala integrifolia). Inoculum from potato caused late blight symptoms on haemorrhage plant (Aspilia africana); while inoculum from tomato resulted in late blight on worowo (Solanecio biafrae). This is the first report of late blight infection on S. macrocarpon, A. conyzoides, Sol. biafrae and Asp. africana in Cameroon. The research results indicate that some asteraceous and solanaceous weeds may be alternative hosts of P. infestans in the potato agroecosystem. [source]

    Sequence variation of intergenic mitochondrial DNA spacers (mtDNA-IGS) of Phytophthora infestans (Oomycetes) and related species

    R. A. M. Wattier
    Abstract The potato late-blight disease is caused by the pseudofungus Phytophthora infestans (Oomycetes). This pathogen was of historical importance as it caused the Irish Potato Famine. There is currently a worldwide resurgence of the disease. Following worldwide migrations as well as being able to discriminate P. infestans from related species are key issues. We present sequence variation of five inter-genic mitochondrial DNA spacers (mtDNA-IGS) for P. infestans and four related taxa. Intra and inter-taxon variation was observed showing potential for both molecular ecology and molecular systematic. [source]

    Let there be blight: functional analysis of virulence in Phytophthora infestans

    Nicholas J. Talbot
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Cell cycle regulator Cdc14 is expressed during sporulation but not hyphal growth in the fungus-like oomycete Phytophthora infestans

    Audrey M. V. Ah Fong
    Summary Cdc14 proteins are important regulators of mitosis and the cell cycle. These phosphatases have been studied previously only in yeasts and metazoans, which grow by fission or budding. Here we describe a homologue (piCdc14) from the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, a primitive eukaryote lacking a classical cell cycle. PiCdc14 complements a cdc14ts mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and may function like other Cdc14 proteins, but displays a strikingly different pattern of expression. Whereas previously studied Cdc14 genes are constitutively transcribed, piCdc14 is not expressed during normal growth but instead only during asexual sporulation. In transformants of P. infestans expressing a fusion between the piCdc14 promoter and the ,-glucuronidase reporter, expression was first detected in sporangiophore initials, persisted in sporangiophores bearing immature sporangia, and later became restricted to mature sporangia. After germination, expression ended a few hours before the resumption of mitosis in hyphae emerged from the spores. Homology-dependent silencing experiments supported an essential role of piCdc14 in sporulation. It is proposed that the function of piCdc14 may be to synchronise nuclear behaviour during sporulation and maintain dormancy in spores until germination. These results help illuminate the process of sporulation in oomycetes and the evolution of the cell cycle in eukaryotes. [source]

    Investigating the role of ABC transporters in multifungicide insensitivity in Phytophthora infestans

    SUMMARY Isolates of the oomycete Phytophthora infestans exhibit a wide range of intrinsic sensitivities to fungicides, which potentially influences the application rates of chemicals needed to control potato late blight. To help understand what determines such levels of sensitivity, a genetic approach was employed which followed the segregation of sensitivities to structurally diverse fungicides such as metalaxyl and trifloxystrobin. Progeny exhibited broad distributions of sensitivity phenotypes, consistent with the behaviour of a quantitative trait. Measurements of the inhibition of strains by seven fungicides revealed that basal sensitivities to metalaxyl and trifloxystrobin, and to cymoxanil and dimethomorph, correlated at the 95% confidence level. These compounds have distinct modes of action, suggesting the involvement of a multifungicide efflux phenomenon mediated by ABC transporters. To determine whether such proteins contribute to variation in sensitivity, 41 full transporters and 13 half transporters were identified from P. infestans and their mRNA levels compared in strains exhibiting higher or lower sensitivities to fungicides. No correlation was observed between the expression of any ABC transporter and fungicide sensitivity. Other genes, or variation in the activities of the transporters, may therefore explain the differences between strains. Five ABC transporters were induced by several fungicides in strains with both higher and lower sensitivities to fungicides, which probably reflects the existence of a network for protecting against natural and artificial toxins. [source]

    Identification of potato genes induced during colonization by Phytophthora infestans

    Katinka Beyer
    Summary Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) was applied in a search for genes induced during the compatible interaction between Phytophthora infestans and potato. Using potato leaves that had been treated with benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methylester (BTH) as the control tissue, a low redundancy library with a relatively low frequency of the classic plant Pathogenesis-Related (PR) genes was generated. 288 of the clones were screened for induced sequences using Inverse Northern analysis (hybridizing the arrayed clones with radiolabelled cDNA populations). Of the 75 clones that were detectable by this method, 43 appeared to be induced. Eleven of these clones were then analysed by total RNA blot analysis, and elevation of transcript levels during P. infestans infection was confirmed for 10 of them. Some of the cDNAs analysed by RNA blot analysis have homology to genes already known to be induced during infection, e.g. to ,-1,3-glucanase. Another group of cDNAs have homology to enzymes involved in detoxification: gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase, cytochrome P450, glutathione S-transferase and an MRP-type ABC transporter. Other infection induced cDNAs encode putative proteins that have not previously been reported to be induced by infection: e.g. the ER-located chaperone BiP, and a homologue of Aspergillus nidulans SudD, which was isolated as a suppressor of a mutation in chromosome disjunction. The differential library therefore presents the opportunity to analyse the metabolic changes occurring during infection, and the disease process itself in more detail. [source]

    Phytophthora infestans: populations, pathogenicity and phenylamides,

    Richard C Shattock
    Abstract Isolates of Phytophthora infestans (Mont) de Bary (the potato and tomato late blight pathogen) resistant to phenylamides appeared in Europe and North America in the late 1970s and early 1990s respectively. Concurrent, but coincidentally, with both these events there were radical structural shifts in the pathogen populations as immigrant genotypes from Mexico displaced the indigenous populations. Both A1 and A2 mating type isolates are now present in blighted crops, permitting alternative inoculum via germinating sexually produced oospores to influence dynamics of late blight populations. Studies of inheritance of ploidy, host-specific pathogenicity, mating type and resistance to antibiotics and phenylamide fungicides have provided insight into mechanisms of variation in this potent pathogen. © 2002 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Population changes in Phytophthora infestans in Taiwan associated with the appearance of resistance to metalaxyl,

    Kenneth L Deahl
    Abstract In recent years, late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans (Mont) De Bary, has increased in severity in many parts of the world, and this has been associated with migrations which have introduced new, arguably more aggressive, populations of the pathogen. In Taiwan, late blight has been endemic on outdoor tomato crops grown in the highlands since the early 1900s, but recent epidemics have been more damaging. To ascertain the present status of the Taiwanese population of P infestans, 139 isolates of the pathogen collected and maintained by the Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center (AVRDC) were characterized using mating type, metalaxyl sensitivity, allozyme genotype, mitochondrial haplotype and RFLP fingerprinting. Up to 1997, all isolates were found to belong to the old clonal lineage of P infestans (US-1 and variants), but in isolates from 1998 a new genotype appeared, and by 2000 this had apparently completely displaced the old population. This new genotype was an A1 mating type and has the dilocus allozyme genotype 100/100/111, 100/100 for the loci coding for glucose-6-phosphate isomerase and peptidase, respectively. These characters, together with RG57 fingerprinting, indicated that these isolates belonged to the US-11 clonal lineage, a minority (11%) being a previously unreported variant of US-11. Whereas metalaxyl-resistant isolates were not detected in the old population, 96% of the new genotypes proved resistant, with the remainder being intermediate in sensitivity. It may be inferred from this sudden, marked change in the characteristics of the Taiwanese P infestans that a new population of the pathogen was introduced around 1997,98 and that this may well have already been metalaxyl-resistant when it arrived, although a role for in situ selection cannot be excluded. © 2002 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Modification of Primary and Secondary Metabolism of Potato Plants by Nitrogen Application Differentially Affects Resistance to Phytophthora infestans and Alternaria solani

    PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 5 2006
    K. Mittelstraß
    Abstract: Potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Indira) were grown at two levels of N supply in the greenhouse. Plants supplied with 0.8 g N per plant (high N variant) showed significantly increased biomass as compared to plants without additional N fertilisation (low N variant). C/N ratio was lower and protein content was higher in leaves of the high N variant. The concentration of chlorogenic acids and flavonols was significantly lower in leaves from the high N variant. Whereas resistance to Alternaria solani increased when plants were supplied with additional nitrogen, these plants were more susceptible to Phytophthora infestans. After infection with both pathogens, we found a strong induction of p-coumaroylnoradrenaline and p-coumaroyloctopamine, which are identified for the first time in potato leaves and are discussed as resistance factors of other solanaceous plants. [source]

    Comparative Analysis of Phytophthora infestans Induced Gene Expression in Potato Cultivars with Different Levels of Resistance

    PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 6 2005
    B. Ros
    Abstract: Differential gene expression was analyzed after infection with Phytophthora infestans in six potato cultivars with different levels of resistance to late blight. To verify the infection of the potato leaflets, the amount of phytopathogen mRNA within the plant material was quantified by real-time quantitative PCR. The expression of 182 genes selected from two subtracted cDNA libraries was studied with cDNA array hybridization using RNA from non-infected and infected potato leaflets. Gene up- and down-regulation were clearly detectable in all cultivars 72 h post inoculation. Gene expression patterns in susceptible cultivars differed from those in potato varieties with a higher level of resistance. In general, a stronger gene induction was observed in the susceptible cultivars compared to the moderately to highly resistant potato varieties. Five genes with the highest homology to stress and/or defence-related genes were induced specifically in the susceptible cultivars. Four genes responded to pathogen attack independently of the level of resistance of the cultivar used, and three genes were repressed in infected tissue of most cultivars. Even in the absence of P. infestans infection, six genes showed higher expression levels in the somewhat resistant cultivars Bettina and Matilda. Possible reasons for the different levels of gene expression are discussed. [source]

    NmDef02, a novel antimicrobial gene isolated from Nicotiana megalosiphon confers high-level pathogen resistance under greenhouse and field conditions

    Roxana Portieles
    Summary Plant defensins are small cysteine-rich peptides that inhibit the growth of a broad range of microbes. In this article, we describe NmDef02, a novel cDNA encoding a putative defensin isolated from Nicotiana megalosiphon upon inoculation with the tobacco blue mould pathogen Peronospora hyoscyami f.sp. tabacina. NmDef02 was heterologously expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris, and the purified recombinant protein was found to display antimicrobial activity in vitro against important plant pathogens. Constitutive expression of NmDef02 gene in transgenic tobacco and potato plants enhanced resistance against various plant microbial pathogens, including the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, causal agent of the economically important potato late blight disease, under greenhouse and field conditions. [source]

    Foliar and tuber late blight resistance in a Solanum tuberosum breeding population

    PLANT BREEDING, Issue 2 2010
    H. Mayton
    With 2 figures and 2 tables Abstract The purpose of this research was to identify the genetic basis of foliar and tuber resistance to Phytophthora infestans in a potato breeding population developed from a cross between two tetraploid Solanum tuberosum lines, NY121 and NY115. The parent with high foliar resistance, NY121, was highly susceptible to tuber blight. Foliar resistance was assessed in field trials, while tuber blight was assessed both in the field and in the laboratory. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) explaining ca. 50% of the phenotypic variance for foliar resistance was located on the lower arm of linkage group V, and was loosely associated with tuber blight resistance (significantly in one of two trials). This QTL was confirmed in a separate sample from the same population. Tuber blight detected via laboratory assays was not correlated with tuber blight incidence in the field. Most markers associated with tuber blight resistance were not associated with foliar resistance and most markers associated with foliar resistance were not associated with tuber blight resistance. [source]

    Mapping polygenes for tuber resistance to late blight in a diploid Solanum phureja × S. stenotomum hybrid population

    PLANT BREEDING, Issue 4 2006
    I. Simko
    Abstract Potato tuber blight is a disease caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary. Due to the significant economic impact of this disease, introgression of durable resistance into the cultivated potato is one of the top priorities of breeding programmes worldwide. Though numerous resistance loci against this devastating disease have already been mapped, most of the detected loci are contributing towards foliar resistance while specific information on tuber resistance is limited. To identify the genetic components of tuber resistance and its relationship to foliar resistance and plant maturity we have investigated the host-pathogen interaction in a segregating diploid hybrid Solanum phureja × S. stenotomum family. Mature tubers from this mapping family were inoculated with a sporangial suspension of P. infestans (US-8 clonal lineage) and evaluated for lesion expansion. No significant correlation was detected between late blight resistance in foliage and tubers, and between plant maturity and tuber resistance. Four chromosomal regions were significantly associated with tuber resistance to the disease. The largest effect was detected near the marker locus PSC (LOD 10.7) located on chromosome 10. This locus explained about 63% of the total phenotypic variation of the trait. The other three resistance-related loci were mapped on chromosomes 8 (GP1282, LOD 4.4), 6 (CP18, LOD 4.0) and 2 (CP157, LOD 3.8). None of the four tuber resistance loci coincides with the foliage resistance loci detected in this same family. Tuber blight resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) on chromosomes 2, 8 and 10 are distinct from the maturity QTLs and have an additive effect on tuber resistance. These results indicate that different genes are involved in foliar and tuber resistance to P. infestans in the present family and that some of the resistance genes might be associated with late maturity. [source]

    Linkage and quantitative trait locus mapping of foliage late blight resistance in the wild species Solanum vernei

    PLANT BREEDING, Issue 3 2006
    K. K. Sørensen
    Abstract The global cultivation of potato (Solanum tuberosum) is threatened by epidemics caused by new variants of the late blight pathogen, Phytophthora infestans. New sources of durable late blight resistance are urgently needed and these may be found in wild Solanum species. The diploid wild species, S. vernei, has not previously been subjected to mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for late blight resistance. Two populations designated HGIHJS and HGG, originating from a cross between a clone of S. vernei and two different S. tuberosum clones were evaluated in field trials for late blight infestation. The relative area under the disease progress curve (RAUDPC) was estimated and used for QTL mapping. A linkage map of S. vernei, comprising 11 linkage groups, nine of which could be assigned to chromosomes, was constructed. Results indicated that the resistance in S. vernei was quantitatively inherited. Significant QTLs for late blight resistance were identified on chromosomes VIII (HGG), VI and IX (HGIHJS). In addition, potential QTLs were detected on chromosomes VII (HGIHJS) and IX (HGG). A putative and a significant QTL for tuber yield were found on chromosomes VI and VII in HGG, but no linkage between yield and resistance was indicated. The QTL for late blight resistance, which mapped to chromosome IX, could be useful for late blight resistance breeding as it was located close to the microsatellite marker STM1051 in both populations. [source]

    Late blight resistance in a diploid full-sib potato family

    PLANT BREEDING, Issue 4 2004
    S. Costanzo
    Abstract Late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary, is the most destructive disease of potato worldwide. As this pathogen can rapidly overcome major race-specific resistance genes, identifying the basis for enhanced quantitative resistance has become a crucial element for implementing advanced breeding strategies. A population of 230 full-sib progeny derived from a cross between two diploid hybrid Solanum phureja × S. stenotomum clones was evaluated for foliage resistance against late blight in replicated trials at multiple locations in Pennsylvania between 1999 and 2002. In field experiments, plants were evaluated visually for per cent defoliation, and area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) was determined. The two parents and three control cultivars (,Atlantic', ,Kennebec' and ,Katahdin') were included in all trials. In all three experiments, the presence of a significant number of clones exhibiting transgressive segregation were observed. There were significant differences among environments as well as among clones, and the clone × environment interaction was also significant. Stability analysis revealed that 37 clones made a significant contribution to the overall environment × clone interaction. Broad-sense heritability for resistance, measured as AUDPC, was estimated as 0.67. The overall results indicate the presence in this potato family of a high level of field resistance against late blight. This segregating diploid family appears to be a good candidate for quantitative trait loci mapping to identify and characterize the genetic components of partial late blight resistance. [source]

    The reaction of potato differentials to Phytophthora infestans isolates collected in nature

    PLANT BREEDING, Issue 2 2000
    K. M. Swiezy
    Abstract Available data have been evaluated on the reaction of potato differentials to over 5000 Phytophthora infestans isolates, collected in various parts of the world. The differentials were able to identify up to 11 virulence factors in P. infestans. The isolates differed in virulence expression, depending on the isolate and testing conditions. All 11 virulence factors were found in both ,old' and ,new'P. infestans populations. The resistance of individual differentials was not overcome with equal frequency. The resistance of differentials R5, R8 and R9 was overcome least frequently. This may be due to instability of expression of the respective virulence factors in P. infestans and/or the kind of resistance present in the differentials. Whatever the reason, such resistance may possibly be used in breeding potato cultivars with durable resistance to P. infestans. [source]

    Comparison of three diagrammatic keys for the quantification of late blight in tomato leaves

    PLANT PATHOLOGY, Issue 6 2009
    F. M. Corrêa
    Three diagrammatic grading keys were designed for the assessment of the severity of late blight (caused by Phytophthora infestans) in tomato leaves. Simplified and broad keys considered, respectively, six (3, 12, 22, 40, 60 and 77%) and eight (3, 6, 12, 22, 40, 60, 77 and 90%) levels of disease severity, whilst a modified key based on a previous proposal for potato late blight considered six levels (1, 5, 10, 16, 32 and 50%). The keys were validated by 24 evaluators who assessed digital images of tomato leaves exhibiting different areas with lesions. Evaluator errors were compared using a mixed model in which evaluators were considered as random effects and the keys and evaluations as fixed effects. The accuracy and precision of the evaluators were compared by simple linear regression between the estimated and actual values of disease severity. The repeatability of evaluators was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. There was significant (P , 0·001) variability amongst the errors made by evaluators, although the precision of each of the three keys was high with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0·96, 0·93 and 0·83 for the simplified, broad and modified key, respectively. Repeatability of estimations amongst the evaluators was adequate (correlation coefficients of 0·91, 0·91 and 0·90 for the three keys, respectively). The simplified and broad keys resulted in higher precision and accuracy for the estimation of severity than did the modified key. Since the simplified key considers a smaller number of disease severity levels, its use is recommended in the assessment of late blight in tomato leaves. [source]

    Aggressiveness of Phytophthora infestans and phenotypic analysis of resistance in wild Petota accessions in Ecuador

    PLANT PATHOLOGY, Issue 4 2007
    M. G. Chacón
    The aggressiveness of four Phytophthora infestans isolates collected from wild and cultivated potato species (sect. Petota) and the level of resistance of nine Petota species were assessed in the highland tropics of Ecuador. For this, isolates of P. infestans were inoculated on whole plants of Petota species in the field and net house and six epidemiological components , infection frequency (IF), incubation period (IP), latent period (LP), lesion size (LS), lesion growth rate (LGR), and relative area under the lesion expansion curve (RAULEC) , were measured during a single infection cycle. Additionally, host specificity was determined by testing for a significant host by pathogen interaction using the same components. The results showed significant differences among isolates of the EC-1 clonal lineage for IP, IF, and RAULEC. Significant differences among isolates were not found for the other components measured. There were significant differences in resistance among the accessions of Petota hosts tested. RAULEC, LGR, LP, and LS were in general more adequate in differentiating among the more resistant and more susceptible accessions but the importance of each component varied with host species. There was slight and inconsistent evidence for the existence of host specificity in some isolates of Petota hosts. IP was the only component for which a significant host by isolate interaction was observed and in most cases the isolates had the greatest aggressiveness on their hosts of origin. [source]

    Genetic structure and pathogenicity of populations of Phytophthora infestans from organic potato crops in France, Norway, Switzerland and the United Kingdom

    PLANT PATHOLOGY, Issue 4 2007
    W. G. Flier
    Genetic variation and pathogenicity of Phytophthora infestans isolates collected from organic potato crops of the susceptible cv. Bintje and the moderately resistant cv. Santé were assessed in France, Norway, and the United Kingdom in 2001 and in Switzerland in 2001 and 2002. Population structures differed considerably between the four P. infestans populations. Those from France, Switzerland and the UK were mainly clonal populations showing restricted levels of genetic diversity, whilst those from Norway were mixed A1 and A2 mating type populations with high levels of genetic diversity, suggesting periodical sexual reproduction. Isolates collected from cv. Bintje were on average more aggressive than or comparable to isolates from cv. Santé. Race complexity varied considerably between the regional P. infestans populations, with isolates from France and Switzerland showing the highest number of virulence factors. In all pathogen samples but the French, isolates collected from cv. Santé were more complex than isolates collected from cv. Bintje. No directional selection towards increased aggressiveness towards the more resistant cultivar Santé was observed. This suggests that there is no shift towards increased levels of pathogenicity in P. infestans populations following the large-scale introduction of more resistant potato varieties in organic production systems in Europe. [source]

    Novel microsatellite markers for the analysis of Phytophthora infestans populations

    PLANT PATHOLOGY, Issue 3 2006
    A. K. Lees
    Co-dominant microsatellite molecular markers for Phytophthora infestans were developed and their potential for monitoring the genetic variation in populations was demonstrated in the UK, across Europe and worldwide. Markers were developed according to two strategies. First, several thousand P. infestans expressed sequence tag (EST) and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequences were screened for the presence of simple sequence repeat (SSR) motifs, and, of these, 100 candidate loci were selected for further investigation. Primer pairs developed to these loci were tested against a panel of 10 P. infestans isolates and approximately 10% were shown to be polymorphic and therefore appropriate for further testing. Secondly, the construction and screening of a partial genomic library resulted in the development of one additional polymorphic marker. The resulting 12 SSR markers were converted to higher-throughput fluorescence-based assays and used in combination with two previously published markers to characterize a wider collection of 90 P. infestans isolates from the UK and six other countries. Several isolates from the closely related species P. mirabilis, P. ipomoea and P. phaseoli collected from around the world were also genotyped using these markers. Amongst the 90 isolates of P. infestans examined, considerable SSR diversity was observed, with 68 different genotypes and an average of 3·9 (range 2,9) alleles per locus. When other Phytophthora species were genotyped, all loci were successfully amplified and the majority were polymorphic, indicating their transferability for the potential study of other closely related taxa. [source]

    The Northern Ireland Phytophthora infestans population 1998,2002 characterized by genotypic and phenotypic markers

    PLANT PATHOLOGY, Issue 3 2006
    L. R. Cooke
    A total of 204 isolates of Phytophthora infestans from Northern Ireland, almost all from commercial potato crops, were collected over 5 years (1998,2002). Phenotypic diversity was assessed using mating type and metalaxyl resistance; genotypic diversity was assessed using two allozyme loci (glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, Gpi, and peptidase, Pep), mitochondrial DNA haplotype and the multilocus RFLP probe RG57. All isolates were A1 mating type and Gpi 100/100. The majority were Pep 100/100, but four Pep 83/100 and six Pep 96/100 isolates were identified. Three mtDNA haplotypes were detected; haplotype IIa was the most common, but each year up to 2001 its frequency declined, with a concomitant increase in Ia isolates. Three isolates had the rare haplotype IIb, but this was only detected in 1998. Metalaxyl resistance and mtDNA haplotype were markedly associated: most haplotype Ia isolates were metalaxyl-resistant, whereas haplotype IIa was more commonly associated with metalaxyl sensitivity. Analysis of a subsample of 91 isolates revealed nine RG57 genotypes, three associated exclusively with haplotype IIa and six exclusively with haplotype Ia. The most common RG57 genotype (51% of isolates) comprised both metalaxyl-resistant and -sensitive haplotype IIa isolates. However, of haplotype Ia isolates, all metalaxyl-resistant phenotypes belonged to one of four RG57 types, one of which was the second most frequent overall (29% of isolates), while all metalaxyl-sensitive isolates belonged to one of two other types. The P. infestans population in Northern Ireland appears to consist of a limited number of clones related to, but differentiated from, the populations in mainland Britain and elsewhere in Europe. [source]

    Evaluation of foliar resistance in potato to Phytophthora infestans based on an international field trial network

    PLANT PATHOLOGY, Issue 2 2005
    J. G. Hansen
    During the period 2000,03, local potato cultivars in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Denmark were tested for foliar resistance to Phytophthora infestans (late blight) in an international field trial network. Four standard cultivars were included in the trials: Sava, Oleva, Danva and Kuras. Primary disease-assessment data were entered into a common database, and parameters from the disease progress curves were calculated and made available on interactive web pages. A regression model, using relative area under disease progress curve (RAUDPC) values for cv. Oleva as a reference, was developed for the estimation of 1,9 scale values, where 1 = most susceptible. Standard deviations for the estimated 1,9 scale values and a nonparametric rank stability analysis of RAUDPC were used to evaluate the stability of resistance of the cultivars. Overall, the results showed stability of resistance for cvs Sava, Oleva and Danva, but not for Kuras. Use of the Internet-based Web-Blight service in this study facilitated comparison of results among countries for the level and stability of resistance. The estimated 1,9 scale values were similar to, or slightly lower than, those from official cultivar lists or from the European Cultivated Potato Database, especially for the more resistant cultivars. Possible reasons for discrepancies from different sources and locations are discussed. It is concluded that RAUPDC and the derived 1,9 scale values are useful for ranking cultivars for resistance to P. infestans, but this information is not detailed enough for use in a decision support system for late blight control. [source]

    Gas chromatography,mass spectrometry analyses of volatile organic compounds from potato tubers inoculated with Phytophthora infestans or Fusarium coeruleum

    PLANT PATHOLOGY, Issue 4 2001
    B. P. J. De Lacy Costello
    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) collected from potato tubers inoculated with Phytophthora infestans (late blight), Fusarium coeruleum (dry rot) or sterilized distilled water (as a control) were analysed using gas chromatography,mass spectrometry (GC,MS) and gas chromatography,flame ionization detection (GC,FID). A total of 52 volatiles were identified by GC,MS in the headspaces above P. infestans- and F. coeruleum- inoculated tubers after incubation for 42 days in the dark at 10°C. Of these VOCs, the six most abundant were common to both pathogens. These were benzothiazole (highest abundance), 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (second highest abundance), and at approximately equal third abundance, hexanal, 2-methylpropanoic acid-2,2-dimethyl-1-(2-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-propyl ester, 2-methylpropanoic acid-3-hydroxy-2,4,4-trimethyl-pentyl ester and phenol. In addition, styrene also occurred at approximately equal third abundance in the headspace of F. coeruleum- inoculated tubers, but at lower abundance in the headspace of P. infestans- inoculated tubers. Some VOCs were specific to each pathogen. Butanal, 3-methylbutanal, undecane and verbenone were found at low levels only in the headspace of tubers inoculated with P. infestans, while 2-pentylfuran and copaene were found only in the headspace of tubers inoculated with F. coeruleum. Additionally GC,FID analysis identified ethanol and 2-propanol in the liquid exudate from both P. infestans - and F. coeruleum -inoculated tubers after incubation for 35 days, and in the headspace after incubation for 42 days. These data provide key information for developing a sensor-based early warning system for the detection of postharvest diseases in stored potato tubers. [source]

    Differential interaction of Phytophthora infestans on tubers of potato cultivars with different levels of blight resistance

    PLANT PATHOLOGY, Issue 3 2001
    W. G. Flier
    Differential interactions in tuber blight attack between potato cultivars and Phytophthora infestans isolates were studied using whole tuber and tuber slice assays. Tuber blight incidence and severity were studied in a whole tuber assay, whilst necrosis and mycelium coverage were evaluated in a tuber slice assay. The overall defence reaction of the potato cultivars tested varied considerably. Cultivars like Kartel and Producent showed resistant reactions, whilst Bintje and, to a lesser extent, Astarte reacted more susceptibly after inoculation with aggressive strains of P. infestans. A highly significant cultivar by year interaction was observed when tuber blight incidence was evaluated in two successive years. Differential responses were revealed by changing ranked order of cultivars after exposure to aggressive isolates of P. infestans. The results show that cultivar by isolate interactions existed for all components of tuber blight resistance studied. The quantitative nature of the observed resistance responses suggests the presence of quantitative trait loci governing resistance to tuber blight. The consequences of differential interactions in relation to the stability of tuber resistance are discussed. [source]

    Host adaptation to potato and tomato within the US,1 clonal lineage of Phytophthora infestans in Uganda and Kenya

    PLANT PATHOLOGY, Issue 5 2000
    M. E. Vega-Sánchez
    Twenty isolates of Phytophthora infestans from potato and twenty-two from tomato, collected in Uganda and Kenya in 1995, were compared for dilocus allozyme genotype, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype, mating type and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) fingerprint using probe RG57. Based on RFLP fingerprint and mtDNA haplotype, all isolates were classified in the US,1 clonal lineage. Nonetheless, isolates from potato differed from isolates from tomato in several characteristics. Isolates from potato had the 86/100 glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (Gpi) genotype, while those from tomato were 100/100, which represents a variant of US,1 that had been identified previously as US,1.7. Furthermore, while pure cultures of the pathogen were acquired from infected potato leaflets by first growing the isolates on potato tuber slices, this approach failed with infected tomato tissue because the isolates grew poorly on this medium. Tomato isolates were eventually purified using a selective medium. Six isolates from each host were compared for the diameter of lesions they produced on three tomato and three potato cultivars in one or two detached-leaf assays (four isolates from the first test were repeated in the second). On potato leaflets, isolates from potato caused larger lesions than isolates from tomato. On tomato leaflets, isolates from that host caused larger lesions than did isolates from potato, but the difference was significant in only one test. The interaction between source of inoculum (potato or tomato) and inoculated host (potato or tomato) was significant in both tests. Isolates from tomato were highly biotrophic on tomato leaflets, producing little or no necrosis during the seven days following infection, even though abundant sporulation could be seen. In contrast, isolates from potato sporulated less abundantly on tomato leaflets and produced darkly pigmented lesions that were most visible on the adaxial side of the leaflets. Nonetheless, all isolates infected and sporulated on both hosts, indicating that host adaptation is not determined by an ability to cause disease but rather by quantitative differences in pathogenic fitness. Assessment of Gpi banding patterns, mtDNA haplotype and RFLP fingerprint of 39 isolates from potato collected in Uganda and Kenya in 1997 indicated that the population had not changed on this host. The population of P. infestans from Kenya and Uganda provides an interesting model for the study of quantitative host adaptation. [source]