Phenotypic Characteristics (phenotypic + characteristic)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Specific characteristic of radial glia in the human fetal telencephalon

GLIA, Issue 1 2004
Nada Zecevic
Abstract Phenotypic characteristics of cells in the developing human telencephalic wall were analyzed using electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry with various glial and neuronal cell markers. The results suggest that multiple defined cell types emerge in the neocortical proliferative zones and are differentially regulated during embryonic development. At 5,6 weeks gestation, three major cell types are observed. Most proliferating ventricular zone (VZ) cells are labeled with radial glial (RG) markers such as vimentin, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and glutamate astrocyte-specific transporter (GLAST) antibodies. A subpopulation of these RG cells also express the neuronal markers , III-tubulin, MAP-2, and phosphorylated neurofilament SMI-31, in addition to the stem cell marker nestin, indicating their multipotential capacity. In addition, the presence of VZ cells that immunoreact only with neuronal markers indicates the emergence of restricted neuronal progenitors. The number of multipotential progenitors in the VZ gradually decreases, whereas the number of more restricted progenitors increases systematically during the 3-month course of human corticogenesis. These results suggest that multipotential progenitors coexist with restricted neuronal progenitors and RG cells during initial corticogenesis in the human telencephalon. Since the multipotential VZ cells disappear during the major wave of neocortical neurogenesis, the RG and restricted neuronal progenitors appear to serve as the main sources of cortical neurons. Thus, the diversification of cells in human VZ and overlying subventricular zone (SVZ) begins earlier and is more pronounced than in rodents. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Phenotypic characteristics of novel swine-origin influenza A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) virus

Irina Kiseleva
Background, The 2009 novel A(H1N1) virus appears to be of swine origin. This strain causing the current outbreaks is a new virus that has not been seen previously either in humans or animals. We have previously reported that viruses causing pandemics or large outbreaks were able to grow at a temperature above the normal physiological range (temperature resistance, non-ts phenotype), were found to be inhibitor resistant and restricted in replication at suboptimal temperature (sensitivity to grow at low temperature, non-ca phenotype). In this study, we performed phenotypic analysis of novel A(H1N1) virus to evaluate its pandemic potential and its suitability for use in developing a live attenuated influenza vaccine. Objectives, The goal of this study is to identify phenotypic properties of novel A(H1N1) influenza virus. Methods, A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) swine-origin influenza virus was studied in comparison with some influenza A viruses isolated in different years with respect to their ability to grow at non-permissive temperatures. We also analyzed its sensitivity to gamma-inhibitors of animal sera and its ability to agglutinate chicken, human and guinea pig erythrocytes. Results, Swine-origin A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) virus was found to be non-ts and inhibitor resistant and was not able to grow at 25°C (non-ca). We did not find any difference in the ability of the hemagglutinin of A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) virus to bind to erythrocytes of different origin. Conclusion, The novel swine-origin A(H1N1) virus displays a phenotype typical of the past pandemic and epidemic viruses. This finding suggests that this virus might be a good wild type parental prototype for live vaccine for potential use for controlling pandemic influenza. [source]

Phenotypic characteristics of rhizobia isolates nodulating Acacia species in the arid and Saharan regions of Morocco

K. Zerhari
The phenotypic characteristics of 48 isolates obtained from root nodules of four Acacia species (Acacia cyanophylla, A. gummifera, A. horrida and A. raddiana) growing in soils collected from the arid and Saharan regions of Morocco were studied. The rhizobia were very diverse with respect to their cross-nodulation patterns, as well as their physiological and biochemical properties. Dendrograms obtained through computer numerical analysis of 52 phenotypic characteristics showed that isolates could fit into four clusters below the boundary level of 0·85 average distance and that they were very distinct from the reference strains. Some interesting isolates for inoculation trials have been identified. They were able to grow at pH ranging from 4 to 9, tolerate a high salt concentration (3% NaCl) and grew at a maximum temperature between 35 and 40 °C. [source]

Phenotypic characteristics of temporal lobe epilepsy: the impact of hippocampal sclerosis

K. Heuser
Objectives , Whether mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) is a condition with a unique biological background that can be delineated from other TLE, is unresolved. Here we performed a comparative analysis of two TLE patient cohorts , one cohort with HS and one without HS , in order to identify phenotypic characteristics specifically associated with MTLE-HS. Methods , Epidemiological data and clinical and diagnostic features were compared between patients with MTLE-HS and TLE patients without HS. When appropriate, data were compared with healthy controls. Results , Fifty-six (26%) patients were diagnosed with MTLE-HS and 162 (74%) with other TLE. Age at epilepsy onset was lower in patients with MTLE-HS (P = 0.003) than in TLE patients without HS. Incidence of simple partial seizures was higher in the MTLE-HS group (P = 0.006), as were complex partial seizures (P = 0.001), ictal psychiatric symptoms (P = 0.015), and autonomic symptoms (P < 0.001). Interictal psychiatric symptoms, including depression, were less frequent in MTLE-HS (P = 0.043). MTLE-HS patients had a higher incidence of childhood febrile seizures (FS; P = 0.043) than TLE patients without HS. In contrast, the former group had the lower frequency of first-grade family members with childhood FS (P = 0.019). Conclusions , We identified phenotypic characteristics that distinguish MTLE-HS from other types of TLE. These characteristics will be important in diagnostics, treatment, and determination of prognosis, and provide a basis for future phenotype,genotype studies. [source]

The emergence of Beijing family genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and low-level protection by bacille Calmette,Guérin (BCG) vaccines: is there a link?

F. Abebe
Summary The world is confronted with major tuberculosis (TB) outbreaks at a time when the protection of bacillus Calmette,Guérin (BCG) vaccine has become inconsistent and controversial. Major TB outbreaks are caused by a group of genetically similar strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains, including the Beijing family genotypes. The Beijing family genotypes exhibit important pathogenic features such high virulence, multi-drug resistance and exogenous reinfection. These family strains have developed mechanisms that modulate/suppress immune responses by the host, such as inhibition of apoptosis of infected macrophages, diminished production of interleukin (IL)-2, interferon (IFN)-,, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-, and elevated levels of IL-10 and IL-18. They demonstrate distinct expression of proteins, such as several species of ,-crystallin (a known Mtb virulence factor), but decreased expression of some antigens such as heat shock protein of 65 kDa, phosphate transport subunit S and a 47-kDa protein. In addition, the Beijing family strains specifically produce a highly bioactive lipid (a polyketide synthase)-derived phenolic glycolipid. This altered expression of proteins/glycolipids may be important factors underlying the success of the Beijing family strains. The Beijing family strains are speculated to have originated from South-east Asia, where BCG vaccination has been used for more than 60 years. The hypothesis that mass BCG vaccination may have been a selective factor that favoured genotypic and phenotypic characteristic acquired by the Beijing family strains is discussed. [source]

Development of murine hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells characterized by the expression of hyaluronan receptors

Hidenori Nonaka
Abstract Endothelial cells (ECs) display distinct structural and functional characteristics depending on the tissue and developmental stage; however, the development of tissue-specific ECs remains poorly understood. Here, we describe the development of hepatic sinusoids in mice based on the expression of hyaluronan receptors Stab2 and Lyve-1. Flk-1+ cells in and around the liver bud begin to express Stab2 at embryonic day (E) 9.5, before the formation of vascular lumen. Hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (HSECs) begin to express Lyve-1 at E10.5, and both markers continue to be expressed in HSECs thereafter. Although HSECs and lymphatic ECs (LECs) are known to share functional and phenotypic characteristics, we clearly show that HSECs can be distinguished from LECs by the expression of molecular markers and higher endocytotic activity. Our results provide new insight into the development of tissue-specific ECs and phenotypic criteria to distinguish HSECs from other types of ECs, including LECs. Developmental Dynamics 236:2258,2267, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Fetal valproate syndrome and autism: additional evidence of an association

Gail Williams MD
Autism has been described in association with a variety of medical and genetic conditions. We previously reported on a patient whose clinical phenotype was compatible with both fetal valproate syndrome (FVS) and autism. Here we present five additional patients with FVS and autism. In all five of our patients, there was evidence of cognitive deficits, manifestations of autism, and typical phenotypic characteristics of FVS. The association between this known teratogen and autism has both clinical and research implications. [source]

Innate and Learned Shoaling Preferences Based on Body Coloration in Juvenile Mollies, Poecilia latipinna

ETHOLOGY, Issue 11 2008
Jessica M. Ledesma
Shoaling offers fish enhanced protection from predators through a phenomenon known as the confusion effect. This phenomenon depends on a high degree of phenotypic homogeneity within a shoal, which may confuse predators that have difficulty in targeting a single individual as prey. Accordingly, fish typically choose shoalmates with similar phenotypic characteristics to themselves. In the molly (Poecilia latipinna), dramatic differences in body coloration have been shown to affect shoalmate choice in adults. Here, we show that juvenile mollies (50 d old) were capable of shoaling and that early experience impacted shoalmate choice. When raised in isolation, mollies chose shoalmates with similar body coloration to their own. When raised with other juvenile mollies, test fish chose to associate with individuals of the same coloration as the fish with whom they had been reared. These results show that P. latipinna are capable of the behavioral plasticity that has been demonstrated in other fish species, and that early experience affects the impact of body coloration on shoaling decisions in this species. [source]

Isolation and characterization of neural precursor cells from the Sox1,GFP reporter mouse

Perrine Barraud
Abstract We have made use of a reporter mouse line in which enhanced green fluorescence protein (GFP) is inserted into the Sox1 locus. We show that the GFP reporter is coexpressed with the Sox1 protein as well as with other known markers for neural stem and progenitor cells, and can be used to identify and isolate these cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) from the developing or adult brain and from neurosphere cultures. All neurosphere-forming cells with the capacity for multipotency and self-renewal reside in the Sox1,GFP-expressing population. Thus, the Sox1,GFP reporter system is highly useful for identification, isolation and characterization of neural stem and progenitor cells, as well as for the validation of alternative means for isolating neural stem and progenitor cells. Further, transplantation experiments show that Sox1,GFP cells isolated from the foetal brain give rise to neurons and glia in vivo, and that many of the neurons display phenotypic characteristics appropriate for the developing brain region from which the Sox1,GFP precursors were derived. On the other hand, Sox1,GFP cells isolated from the adult subventricular zone or expanded neurosphere cultures gave rise almost exclusively to glial cells following transplantation. Thus, not all Sox1,GFP cells possess the same capacity for neuronal differentiation in vivo. [source]

Red hair, fair skin and melanoma , melanocortin 1 receptor

J. L. Rees
We have previously shown that the MC1R is a key determinant of pigmentary phenotype in man. A range of common and uncommon alleles show diminished function leading to a change in the relative amounts of eumelanin and pheomelanin. As expected, these particular allelic variants are associated with both non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancer and other pigmentary phenotypic characteristics such as freckling. We have recently shown that even against very different genetic backgrounds, the MC1R variants show a phenotypic effect [J Invest Dermatol 2003: 121 (1): 207]. We will present data to explain how the human pigmentary phenotypes can be quantified more appropriately, in terms of both hair melanins and cutaneous response to ultraviolet radiation (submitted and in press). Our results, we would argue, are relevant to those interested in melanocortin signalling in skin and to studies of the genetics of human skin colour and evolution of skin colour. [source]

Burkholderia anthina sp. nov. and Burkholderia pyrrocinia, two additional Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria, may confound results of new molecular diagnostic tools

Peter Vandamme
Abstract Nineteen Burkholderia cepacia -like isolates of human and environmental origin could not be assigned to one of the seven currently established genomovars using recently developed molecular diagnostic tools for B. cepacia complex bacteria. Various genotypic and phenotypic characteristics were examined. The results of this polyphasic study allowed classification of the 19 isolates as an eighth B. cepacia complex genomovar (Burkholderia anthina sp. nov.) and to design tools for its identification in the diagnostic laboratory. In addition, new and published data for Burkholderia pyrrocinia indicated that this soil bacterium is also a member of the B. cepacia complex. This highlights another potential source for diagnostic problems with B. cepacia -like bacteria. [source]

Vibrio owensii sp. nov., isolated from cultured crustaceans in Australia

Ana Cano-Gómez
Abstract Two bacterial strains (DY05T and 47666-1) were isolated in Queensland, Australia, from diseased cultured crustaceans Panulirus ornatus and Penaeus monodon, respectively. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence identity, the strains were shown to belong to the Harveyi clade of the genus Vibrio. Multilocus sequence analysis using five housekeeping genes (rpoA, pyrH, topA, ftsZ and mreB) showed that the strains form a monophyletic group with 94.4% concatenated sequence identity to the closest species. DNA,DNA hybridization experiments showed that strains DY05T and 47666-1 had 76% DNA similarity to each other, but <70% to their closest neighbours Vibrio harveyi LMG 4044T (,55%), Vibrio campbellii LMG 11216T (,52%) and Vibrio rotiferianus LMG 21460T (,46%). Strains DY05T and 47666-1 could be differentiated from their relatives on the basis of several phenotypic characteristics. The major fatty acids were C15:0 iso 2-OH and/or C16:1,7, C16:0, C18:1,7 and C14:0. Based on the polyphasic evidence presented here, it can be concluded that strains DY05T and 47666-1 belong to the same novel species of the genus Vibrio, for which the name Vibrio owensii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DY05T (=JCM 16517T=ACM 5300T). [source]

Isolation of a Carnobacterium maltaromaticum- like bacterium from systemically infected lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis)

Thomas P. Loch
Abstract Herein we report on the first isolation of a Carnobacterium maltaromaticum -like bacterium from kidneys and swim bladders of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) caught from Lakes Michigan and Huron, Michigan. Isolates were Gram-positive, nonmotile, facultatively anaerobic, asporogenous rods that did not produce catalase, cytochrome oxidase, or H2S, and did not grow on acetate agar. Except for carbohydrate fermentation, many phenotypic characteristics of lake whitefish isolates coincided with those of C. maltaromaticum, the causative agent of pseudokidney disease. Partial sequencing of 16S and 23S rRNA genes, as well as the piscicolin 126 precursor gene, yielded 97% and 98% nucleotide matches with C. maltaromaticum, respectively (accession numbers EU546836 and EU546837; EU643471). Phylogenetic analyses showed that lake whitefish isolates of this study are highly related, yet not fully identical to C. maltaromaticum. The presence of the C. maltaromaticum -like bacterium was associated with splenomegaly, renal and splenic congestion, and thickening of the swim bladder wall with accumulation of a mucoid exudate. Examination of stained tissue sections revealed renal and splenic congestion, vacuolation and bile stasis within the liver, and hyperplasia within the epithelial lining of the swim bladder. The concurrent presence of pathological changes and the C. maltaromaticum -like bacteria suggests that this bacterium is pathogenic to lake whitefish. [source]

Morphological clines in dendritic landscapes

Summary 1. In complex landscapes such as river networks, organisms usually face spatio-temporal heterogeneity and gradients in geomorphological, water, ecological or landscape characteristics are often observed at the catchment scale. These environmental variables determine developmental conditions for larval stages of freshwater insects and influence adult phenotypic characteristics. Environmental clines are therefore expected to generate morphological clines. Such a process has the potential to drive gradual geographical change in morphology-dependent life history traits, such as dispersal. 2. We studied the influence of aquatic and terrestrial environmental factors on morphological variations in Calopteryx splendens across the Loire drainage. To investigate these effects we took explicitly into account the hierarchical structure of the river network. 3. We analysed eight morphological traits. Results showed significant body size variation between tributaries and the presence of a morphological cline at the drainage scale. We observed an effect of pH and water temperature on body size. Individuals in downstream sites were larger than individuals in upstream sites, and adults whose larval stages were exposed to alkaline pH and high temperatures during summer were larger. 4. Body size affects flight abilities in insects. Thus, our results suggest that morphological clines may generate an asymmetric dispersal pattern along the downstream,upstream axis, downstream populations dispersing farther than upstream ones. Such a process is expected to influence population genetic structure at the drainage scale if larval drift and floods do not balance an asymmetrical dispersal pattern of adults along the downstream,upstream gradient. To assess the influence of environmental gradients on the variation of life history traits it is important to understand the population biology of freshwater insects, and more generally of riverine organisms. It is also essential to integrate such data in conservation or restoration programmes. [source]

Absence of oligodendroglial glucosylceramide synthesis does not result in CNS myelin abnormalities or alter the dysmyelinating phenotype of CGT-deficient mice

GLIA, Issue 4 2010
Laleh Saadat
Abstract To examine the function of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) in oligodendrocytes, the myelinating cells of the central nervous system (CNS), mice were generated that lack oligodendroglial expression of UDP-glucose ceramide glucosyltransferase (encoded by Ugcg). These mice (Ugcgflox/flox;Cnp/Cre) did not show any apparent clinical phenotype, their total brain and myelin extracts had normal GSL content, including ganglioside composition, and myelin abnormalities were not detected in their CNS. These data indicate that the elimination of gangliosides from oligodendrocytes is not detrimental to myelination. These mice were also used to asses the potential compensatory effect of hydroxyl fatty acid glucosylceramide (HFA-GlcCer) accumulation in UDP-galactose:ceramide galactosyltransferase (encoded by Cgt, also known as Ugt8a) deficient mice. At postnatal day 18, the phenotypic characteristics of the Ugcgflox/flox;Cnp/Cre;Cgt,/, mutants, including the degree of hypomyelination, were surprisingly similar to that of Cgt,/, mice, suggesting that the accumulation of HFA-GlcCer in Cgt,/, mice does not modify their phenotype. These studies demonstrate that abundant, structurally intact myelin can form in the absence of glycolipids, which normally represent over 20% of the dry weight of myelin. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Genotype-phenotype analysis in childhood-onset Crohn's disease: NOD2/CARD15 variants consistently predict phenotypic characteristics of severe disease

Richard K Russell
Abstract Introduction: The incidence of early-onset CD in Scotland is among the highest worldwide. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) R702W, G908R and Leu1007finsC in the NOD2/CARD15 gene predispose to adult CD. We investigated the contribution of these variants to disease susceptibility and phenotype in the Scottish early-onset IBD population. Patients and Methods: 906 individuals including 247 Scottish IBD patients aged <16 years at diagnosis, 414 parents and 245 controls were genotyped. Transmission disequilibrium testing (TDT), case-control analysis and detailed genotype-phenotype analysis were performed. Results: The Leu1007finsC variant was associated with susceptibility to CD by case-control (4.2% versus. 1.4%, P = 0.01) and TDT analysis (P = 0.006). The Population Attributable Risk (PAR) for the 3 NOD2/CARD15 mutations was 7.9%. Carriage of NOD2/CARD15 variants was associated with, at diagnosis: decreased albumin (31.0% versus. 9.0%, P = 0.001) and raised CRP (25% versus. 9.5%, P = 0.04) and at follow up: need for surgery (39.5% versus. 12.8%, P = 0.0002) jejunal involvement (50% versus. 18.4%, P = 0.01) jejunal and ileal involvement (50% versus. 10.7%, P = 0.009), raised CRP (57.1% and 12.8%, P = 0.0009), lower weight/height centile (75.0% versus. 20.2%, P = 0.03, 50.0% versus. 16.0%, P = 0.001 respectively) and stricturing disease (45.5% versus. 19.4%, P < 0.05). Multifactorial analysis demonstrated carriage was associated with need for surgery (P = 0.004, OR 4.9 [1.5-14.7]). Conclusions: These NOD2/CARD 15 variants in the Scottish early onset CD population have a definite, albeit relatively small contribution to CD susceptibility (PAR 7.9%) but a major impact on phenotype. In particular NOD2/CARD15 variants are strongly associated with several markers of disease severity in pediatric CD, notably need for surgery. [source]

Id1 expression is transcriptionally regulated in radial growth phase melanomas

Byungwoo Ryu
Abstract Id genes have been demonstrated to be upregulated in a wide variety of human malignancies and their expression has been correlated with disease prognosis; however, little is known about the mechanisms of Id gene activation in tumors. We have previously shown that the helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Id1, is highly expressed in primary human melanomas during the radial growth phase and that Id1 is a transcriptional repressor of the familial melanoma gene CDKN2A. Here we use a series of melanoma cell lines that recapitulate the phenotypic characteristics of melanomas at varying stages of malignant progression to evaluate the expression levels of Id1 in this model system and determine the mechanism of Id1 dysregulation in these tumor cells. We find elevated protein levels of Id1 to be present consistently in radial growth phase tumor cells in accordance with our primary tumor data. Id1 transcript levels were also found to be elevated in these radial growth phase melanoma cells without any appreciable evidence of gene amplification and Id1 promoter activity was found to correlate with Id expression levels. We therefore conclude that Id1 expression is primarily regulated at the transcriptional level in radial growth phase melanomas and expect that therapies that target Id1 gene expression may be useful in the treatment of Id-associated malignancies. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Characteristics of 32 Supercentenarians

Emily A. Schoenhofen BA
OBJECTIVES: To report phenotypic characteristics of 32 age-validated supercentenarians. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: U.S.-based recruitment effort. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-two supercentenarians. MEASUREMENTS: Multiple forms of proof were used to validate age claims. Sociodemographic, activities of daily living, and medical history data were collected. RESULTS: Age range was 110 to 119. Fifty-nine percent had Barthel Index scores in the partially to totally dependent range, whereas 41% required minimal assistance or were independent. Few subjects had a history of clinically evident vascular-related diseases, including myocardial infarction (n=2, 6%) and stroke (n=4, 13%). Twenty-two percent (n=7) were taking medications for hypertension. Twenty-five percent (n=8) had a history of cancer (all cured). Diabetes mellitus (n=1, 3%) and Parkinson's disease (n=1, 3%) were rare. Osteoporosis (n=14, 44%) and cataract history (n=28, 88%) were common. CONCLUSION: Data collected thus far suggest that supercentenarians markedly delay and even escape clinical expression of vascular disease toward the end of their exceptionally long lives. A surprisingly substantial proportion of these individuals were still functionally independent or required minimal assistance. [source]

Genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of antibiotic-producing soil Streptomyces investigated by RAPD-PCR

Raad Gharaibeh
Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis has been used to determine the relatedness of 73 antibiotic-producing soil Streptomyces isolates that were recovered from different soil habitats in Jordan based on their RAPD-PCR fingerprints. Genetic polymorphisms between these isolates showed three common bands of 2777, 800 and 250 bp shared by approximately (95%) of them. Some specific bands were also observed. Further analysis of RAPD patterns with the UPGMA resulted in clustering the tested isolates into two main super clusters. Super cluster I was more homogenous than super cluster II and contained all the reference strains. However, super cluster II consists of unrelated isolates within five small groups. As RAPD fingerprints of the tested isolates linked to their phenotypes, differentiation between isolates with different cultural properties was observed. [source]

Increased frequency of IFN-,-producing peripheral CD8+ T cells with memory-phenotype in patients with chronic hepatitis C

Masayuki Murata
Abstract To identify the capacity for cytokine production and the phenotypic characteristics of peripheral CD8+ T cells in patients with chronic hepatitis C, 31 patients with chronic hepatitis C and 22 healthy controls were studied at the single cell level by three-color flow cytometry. Whole blood was stained with surface CD8, intracellular interferon-, (IFN-,), and interleukin-4 (IL-4), surface CD8, CD28, and intracellular IFN-, after stimulation with PMA plus ionomycin, and then surface CD8, CD45RA, and CD28. IFN-,-producing peripheral CD8+ T cells were found frequently in patients than in controls (P,<,0.05), whereas IL-4-producing peripheral CD8+ T cells were not. Although the frequency of peripheral CD28+CD8+ and CD28,CD8+ T cells in patients was not different from that of controls, CD28+CD8+ T cells exceeded CD28,CD8+ T cells in the capacity for IFN-,-production after mitogenic stimulation (P,<,0.01). In a more detailed analysis of the CD28+CD8+ T cells, CD45RA,CD28+CD8+ T cells, defined phenotypically as memory cells, were found frequently in patients than in controls (P,<,0.05). There were no significant correlations between the frequency of IFN-,-producing peripheral CD8+ T cells and hepatitis C virus RNA level or serum alanine aminotransferase level in patients. These data suggest that functionally T cytotoxic type 1 and memory CD8+ T cells are predominant in the peripheral blood of chronic hepatitis C patients and that such activated CD8+ T cells are associated with liver damage. J. Med. Virol. 67:162,170, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Activation of epidermal growth factor receptors in astrocytes: From development to neural injury

Bin Liu
Abstract The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway controls the phenotypic characteristics of astrocytes. In the developing central nervous system (CNS), activation of the EGFR pathway induces astrocyte differentiation, forming the cribriform structure that surrounds axons and providing a supportive environment for neurons. In the adult CNS, the EGFR pathway is absent from astrocytes but is highly up-regulated and activated following neuronal injury. Activation of the EGFR pathway triggers quiescent astrocytes to become reactive astrocytes. Although astrocytes regulated by the EGFR pathway play constructive roles in the developing CNS, astrocytes that become reactive in response to activation of the EGFR pathway appear to be destructive to neurons in the adult CNS. The reappearance and activation of EGFRs in astrocytes under pathological conditions may activate a developmental process in an adult tissue. Regulation of EGFR function in astrocytes may be a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of neural disorders. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics of Iranian Strains of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, the Causal Agent of Citrus bacterial Canker Disease

M. Mohammadi
Twenty-four strains of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac), the causal agent of bacterial canker of citrus, isolated from Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia) and lemon (Citrus limon) in southern Iran, were characterized phenotypically. Strains were all pathogenic on C. aurantifolia. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis revealed slight differences in soluble protein profiles among the strains. Based on host range specificity and phenotypic characteristics, representative strains were differentiated into two groups of Asiatic (A) and atypical Asiatic (aA) forms. DNA fingerprinting analysis using EcoRI as the restriction endonuclease showed a negligible difference in restriction pattern between the two groups. On the basis of isozymic analysis, the two groups were distinct with respect to superoxide dismutase (SOD) and esterase (EST) banding patterns. Plasmid DNA profile analysis showed that the bacterial strains were different from each other in terms of plasmid number and molecular weight. Phage typing study revealed that most of group A strains were susceptible to Cp1 and/or Cp2 and some were resistant to both phage types including the strain in aA group. Bacteriocin production test indicated that there was a variation among Xac strains using different indicators for each bacteriocin producer. It is concluded that the Iranian strains of Xac are heterogeneous and constitute a subgroup(s) within the pathotype A. Physiologische und biochemische Merkmale iranischer Stämme von Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, dem Erreger des bakteriellen Zitruskrebses Vierundzwanzig Stämme von Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, dem Erreger des bakteriellen Zitruskrebses, wurden von mexikanischen Sauren Limetten (Citrus aurantifolia) und Zitronen (Citrus limon) im Südiran isoliert und phänotypisch charakterisiert. Alle Stämme waren für C. aurantifolia pathogen. Eine SDS-PAGE-Analyse zeigte, daß zwischen den Stämmen geringfügige Unterschiede bei den Profilen der löslichen Proteine bestanden. Auf Grundlage der Spezifität des Wirtsspektrums und phänotypischer Merkmale wurden repräsentative Stämme in die zwei Gruppen asiatische (A) und atypische asiatische (aA) Formen eingeteilt. Eine Analyse mit DNA-Fingerabdrücken, wobei EcoRI als Restriktionsendonuclease diente, zeigte einen vernachlässigbar kleinen Unterschied bei den Restriktionsmustern der beiden Gruppen. Die Isoenzymanalyse ergab Unterschiede zwischen beiden Gruppen bezüglich der Bandenmuster von Superoxiddismutase (SOD) und Esterase (EST). Eine Analyse der Plasmid-DNA-Profile zeigte, daß die Bakterienstämme unterschiedliche Plasmidzahlen und verschiedene Molekülmassen aufwiesen. Eine Phagentypisierung ergab, daß die meisten Stämme der Gruppe A anfällig für Cp1 und/oder Cp2 waren; einige waren resistent gegen beide Phagentypen, darunter der Stamm in der aA-Gruppe. Ein Test der Bacteriocinproduktion ergab, daß die Xac -Stämme variierten; hier wurden verschiedene Indikatoren für jeden Bakteriocinbildner verwendet. Es wird gefolgert, daß die iranischen Stämme von Xac heterogen sind und eine oder mehrere Untergruppen innerhalb des Pathotyps A bilden. [source]

Discrepancies between the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Lactococcus lactis cheese isolates

M. De La Plaza
Abstract Aims:, The use of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR fingerprinting and plasmid profiles to determine at the strain level, the similarity of Lactococcus lactis isolates obtained during sampling of traditional cheeses and to verify its correspondence to the selected phenotypic characteristics. Methods and Results:, A total of 45 L. lactis isolates were genotypically analysed by RAPD-PCR fingerprinting and plasmid patterns. Phenotypic traits used to compare strains were proteolytic, acidifying, aminotransferase (aromatic and branched chain aminotransferase) and , -ketoisovalerate decarboxylase (Kivd) activities. The results show that 23 isolates could be grouped in clusters that exhibited 100% identity in both their RAPD and plasmid patterns, indicating the probable isolation of dominant strains during the cheese sampling process. However, there were phenotypic differences between isolates within the same cluster that included the loss of relevant technological properties such as proteinase activity and acidifying capacity or high variation in their amino acid converting enzyme activities. Likewise, the analysis of a specific attribute, Kivd activity, indicated that 7 of 15 isolates showed no detectable activity despite the presence of the encoding (kivd) gene. Conclusion:, Phenotypic differences found between genotypically similar strains of L. lactis strains could be linked to differences in enzymatic expression. Significance and Impact of the Study:, Phenotypic analysis of L. lactis isolates should be considered when selecting strains with new cheese flavour forming capabilities. [source]

Phenotypic characteristics of rhizobia isolates nodulating Acacia species in the arid and Saharan regions of Morocco

K. Zerhari
The phenotypic characteristics of 48 isolates obtained from root nodules of four Acacia species (Acacia cyanophylla, A. gummifera, A. horrida and A. raddiana) growing in soils collected from the arid and Saharan regions of Morocco were studied. The rhizobia were very diverse with respect to their cross-nodulation patterns, as well as their physiological and biochemical properties. Dendrograms obtained through computer numerical analysis of 52 phenotypic characteristics showed that isolates could fit into four clusters below the boundary level of 0·85 average distance and that they were very distinct from the reference strains. Some interesting isolates for inoculation trials have been identified. They were able to grow at pH ranging from 4 to 9, tolerate a high salt concentration (3% NaCl) and grew at a maximum temperature between 35 and 40 °C. [source]

Classification of perA sequences and their correlation with autoaggregation in typical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates collected in Japan and Thailand

Mariko Iida
ABSTRACT Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strains produce a bundle-forming pilus (BFP) that mediates localized adherence (LA) to intestinal epithelial cells. The major structural subunit of the BFP is bundlin, which is encoded by the bfpA gene located on a large EAF plasmid. The perA gene has been shown to activate genes within the bfp operon. We analyzed perA gene polymorphism among typical (eae - and bfpA - positive) EPEC strains isolated from healthy and diarrheal persons in Japan (n= 27) and Thailand (n= 26) during the period 1995 to 2007 and compared this with virulence and phenotypic characteristics. Eight genotypes of perA were identified by heteroduplex mobility assay (HMA). The strains isolated in Thailand showed strong autoaggregation and had an intact perA, while most of those isolated in Japan showed weak or no autoaggregation, and had a truncated perA due to frameshift mutation. The degree of autoaggregation was well correlated with adherence to HEp-2 cells, contact hemolysis and BFP expression. Our results showed that functional deficiency due to frameshift mutation and subsequent nonsense mutation in perA reduced BFP expression in typical EPEC strains isolated in Japan. [source]

Are cattle, sheep, and goats endangered species?

Abstract For about 10 000 years, farmers have been managing cattle, sheep, and goats in a sustainable way, leading to animals that are well adapted to the local conditions. About 200 years ago, the situation started to change dramatically, with the rise of the concept of breed. All animals from the same breed began to be selected for the same phenotypic characteristics, and reproduction among breeds was seriously reduced. This corresponded to a strong fragmentation of the initial populations. A few decades ago, the selection pressures were increased again in order to further improve productivity, without enough emphasis on the preservation of the overall genetic diversity. The efficiency of modern selection methods successfully increased the production, but with a dramatic loss of genetic variability. Many industrial breeds now suffer from inbreeding, with effective population sizes falling below 50. With the development of these industrial breeds came economic pressure on farmers to abandon their traditional breeds, and many of these have recently become extinct as a result. This means that genetic resources in cattle, sheep, and goats are highly endangered, particularly in developed countries. It is therefore important to take measures that promote a sustainable management of these genetic resources; first, by in situ preservation of endangered breeds; second, by using selection programmes to restore the genetic diversity of industrial breeds; and finally, by protecting the wild relatives that might provide useful genetic resources. [source]

Prevalence and phenotypic evaluation of Candida dubliniensis in pregnant women with vulvovaginal candidosis in a university hospital in Ankara

MYCOSES, Issue 1 2007
E. Us
Summary Candida dubliniensis is very similar to Candida albicans in terms of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. As the hormonal milieu of the vagina during pregnancy, characterised by a lack of maternal cell-mediated immunity, enhances Candida colonisation and serves as a risk factor for symptomatic expression, investigation into the isolation of C. dubliniensis in vaginal discharges of pregnant women with vulvovaginal candidosis was made. A total of 77 Candida isolates obtained from 60 patients positive for vulvovaginal candidosis collected from 218 pregnant women were investigated for C. dubliniensis subsistence. In total 41 Candida species phenotypically identified as C. albicans on the basis of a positive germ tube test and carbohydrate assimilation tests were screened for the presence of C. dubliniensis. Phenotypic tests for differentiation of C. dubliniensis from C. albicans, such as growth at 42 and 45 °C on Sabouraud dextrose agar, appearance on CHROMagar and colony morphology on Cornmeal,Tween-80 agar and Staib agar were carried out. Only one strain (2.43%) was phenotypically identified as C. dubliniensis. According to our study, a combination of at least five phenotypic methods is necessary for an exact diagnosis of C. dubliniensis. Large-scale studies of pregnant women are required to discover the aetiological importance of this yeast. [source]

Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of reference strains of the genus Aspergillus

MYCOSES, Issue 3-4 2001
P.-M. Rath
Aspergillus; Genotypisierung; Biotypisierung; SDS-PAGE; RAPD Summary. Twenty-five culture collection strains from four Aspergillus species (A. fumigatus n = 8, A. flavus n = 8, A. niger n= 4, A. nidulans n = 5) were characterized by four methods: (i) determination of patterns in an assimilation assay; (ii) protein pattern of whole mycelial cell lysates in the sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE); (iii) reactivity of a pool serum obtained from cystic fibrosis patients with mycelial lysates in the immunoblot; and (iv) random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) with eight primers having arbitrary or repetitive sequences. In the assimilation assay the A. fumigatus strains showed identical patterns in contrast to the strains of the species A. flavus, A. niger, and A. nidulans, which each showed four patterns. In the SDS-PAGE no differences in the band patterns in the A. fumigatus strains were found, in contrast to the A. flavus (three patterns), A. nidulans (five patterns) and A. niger strains (two patterns). The immunoblot patterns were characteristic for each species with bands at 62 and 17/18 kDa in the A. fumigatus strains, at 51 and 18 kDa in the A. flavus strains, at 51 kDa in the A. niger strains, and at 51, 40 and 17/18 kDa in the A. nidulans strains allowing, however, no intraspecies typing. In the RAPD assay four out of eight primers gave interpretable patterns with 3,20 bands. None of the primers showed sufficient discriminatory power when used alone. However, when combining the results of two of the primers (5,-GTA TTG CCC T-3, and 5,-GAT AGA TAG ATA GAT A-3,) all strains except two A. fumigatus strains could be clearly separated from each other. It is concluded that the the RAPD assay showed the most discriminatory power in all Aspergillus species investigated. In contrast to the phenotypically similar A. fumigatus strains, the strains of the species A. flavus, A. nidulans and A. niger differed in their phenotypic characteristics. The presented data of strains from international culture collections may serve as basis for interlaboratory standardization of typing methods. Zusammenfassung. Fünfundzwanzig Aspergillus -Stämme aus internationalen Stammsammlungen (A. fumigatus n = 8, A. flavus n = 8, A. niger n = 4, A. nidulans n = 5) wurden mit vier Methoden charakterisiert: (1) Reaktionsmuster in einem Assimilationstest (2) Proteinmuster von Ganzzell-Lysaten in der SDS-PAGE (3) Reaktionsmuster eines Poolserums von Patienten mit Mukoviszidose mit Zellextrakten im Immunoblot und (4) random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) mit acht Primern zufälliger oder repetitiver Sequenz. Im Assimilationstest zeigten die A. fumigatus -Stämme identische Muster, während die Stämme der Spezies A.flavus, A. niger und A. nidulans je vier Reaktionsmuster aufwiesen. In der SDS-PAGE wiesen die A. fumigatus -Stämme identische Muster auf, während die A. flavus -Stämme drei, die A. niger -Stämme zwei, und die A. nidulans -Stämme fünf verschiedene Muster zeigten. Im Immunoblot waren die Muster für jede Spezies charakteristisch mit Banden bei 62 kDa und 17/18 kDa bei A. fumigatus, bei 51 kDa und 18 kDa bei A. flavus, bei 51 kDa bei A. niger und bei 51, 40 und 17/18 kDa bei A. nidulans. Eine Intraspezies-Typisierung gelang jedoch nicht. In der RAPD ergaben vier der acht Primer interpretierbare Muster mit 3 bis 20 Banden. Keiner der Primer alleine zeigte eine ausreichende Diskriminationskapazität. Wurden die Resultate von zwei Primern (5,-GTA TTG CCC T-3, and 5,-GAT AGA TAG ATA GAT A-3,) kombiniert, konnten mit Ausnahme von zwei A. fumigatus -Stämmen alle Isolate voneinander abgegrenzt werden. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, daß die RAPD die größte Diskriminationskapazität aufweist. Im Gegensatz zu den phänotypisch ähnlichen A. fumigatus -Stämmen unterschieden sich die Stämme der Spezies A. flavus, A. nidulans und A. niger voneinander. Die gezeigten Daten von Stämmen internationaler Stammsammlungen können als Grundlage für die Standardisierung von Typisierungsmethoden dienen. [source]

Six costs of immunity to gastrointestinal nematode infections

SUMMARY The strength of the immune response and the outcome of the interaction of a host with a parasite are influenced by genetic and phenotypic characteristics of both parties, and by environmental variables. Allocation of host resources to immune defence reduces resources available for other life-history traits. This review identifies six potential costs to the host from immune activation. The costs are likely to be broadly applicable to other immune responses in vertebrate species. Five phenotypic costs arise from: (i) increased metabolic activity; (ii) reduced nutrient availability due to anorexia; (iii) altered priorities for nutrient utilization; (iv) change in size and turnover of pools of immune cells and proteins; and (v) immunopathology from inappropriate or excessive immune activation. Subsumed by these costs is the cost of altered efficiency of nutrient use. A sixth cost is the genetic cost which arises from a change in the capacity of offspring to express production and life-history traits following selection for parasite resistance. The sensitivity of immune responses to the phenotypic status of the host, and the role the immune system shares with the neuroendocrine system in controlling use of resources underpin the importance of immunocompetence to the life-history of the host. [source]

Human FOXP3+ Regulatory T Cells in Transplantation

P. Boros
CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ suppressive regulatory T cells (Treg) represent a subset of immune regulatory cells. Based on experimental results, Treg have recently been considered as a potential treatment option in several diseases. Compared with murine Treg, human CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ cells are less well characterized and understood, so a thorough understanding of their biology is vital before clinical applications can be initiated. This review summarizes knowledge on generation, phenotypic characteristics and function of human Treg. The possible role of these cells in organ transplantation, as well as interactions between immunosuppression and Treg are also discussed. [source]