Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Persulfate

  • ammonium persulfate
  • potassium persulfate
  • sodium persulfate

  • Selected Abstracts

    ChemInform Abstract: Diversity-Oriented Synthesis of Benzimidazole, Benzoxazole, Benzothiazole and Quinazolin-4(3H)-one Libraries via Potassium Persulfate,CuSO4 -Mediated Oxidative Coupling Reactions of Aldehydes in Aqueous Micelles.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 37 2010
    Atul Kumar
    Abstract The diversity-oriented synthesis of the title heterocycles in aqueous micelles shows the advantages of short reaction times, high yields, high chemoselectivities, low coast, and environmental friendliness. [source]

    Ecofriendly Solid-State Oxidative Deprotection of 1,3-Dithianes and 1,3-Dithiolanes Using Ammonium Persulfate on Wet Montmorillonite K-10 Clay Support under Microwave Irradiation.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 30 2004
    Nemai C. Ganguly
    Abstract For Abstract see ChemInform Abstract in Full Text. [source]

    Type I ammonium persulfate allergy with no cross reactivity to potassium persulfate

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 6 2009
    A. Bregnhøj
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Electrochemical, Chemical and Enzymatic Oxidations of Phenothiazines

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 17 2005
    B. Blankert
    Abstract The oxidation of several phenothiazine drugs (phenothiazine, promethazine hydrochloride, promazine hydrochloride, trimeprazine hydrochloride and ethopropazine hydrochloride) has been carried out in aqueous acidic media by electrochemical, chemical and enzymatic methods. The chemical oxidation was performed in acetic acid with hydrogen peroxide or in formate buffers using persulfate. The enzymatic oxidation was performed in acetate or ammonium formate buffer by the enzyme horseradish peroxidase in the presence of H2O2. Molecules with, in the lateral chain, two carbon atoms (2C) separating the ring nitrogen and the terminal nitrogen, showed two parallel oxidation pathways, that is (i) formation of the corresponding sulfoxide and (ii) cleavage of the lateral chain with liberation of phenothiazine (PHZ) oxidized products (PHZ sulfoxide and PHZ quinone imine). Molecules with three carbon atoms (3C) separating the two nitrogens were oxidized to the corresponding sulfoxide. The chemical oxidation of all the studied molecules by hydrogen peroxide resulted in the corresponding sulfoxide with no break of the lateral chain. Oxidation by persulfate yielded, for the 3C derivatives, only the corresponding sulfoxide, but it produced cleavage of the lateral chain for the 2C derivatives. The origin of the distinct oxidation pattern between 2C and 3C molecules might be related to steric effects due to the lateral chain. The data are of interest in drug metabolism studies, especially for the early search. In the case of 2C phenothiazines, the results predict the possibility of an in vivo cleavage of the lateral chain with liberation of phenothiazine oxidized products which are known to produce several adverse side effects. [source]

    One-Pot Three-Step Synthesis of Naphtho[2,3- a]carbazole- 5,13-diones using a Tandem Radical Alkylation,Cyclization, Aromatization Reaction Sequence

    Chunyong Ding
    Abstract A three-step, one-pot tandem reaction including radical nucleophilic alkylation/cyclization/aromatization was developed using 0.3 equivalents of silver(I) acetate (AgOAc) as the catalyst and 2 equivalents of ammonium persulfate [(NH4)2S2O8] as the oxidant. This strategy is highly efficient for the assembly of pentacyclic complex carbazoles from aryl-fused bromobenzoquinones and indol-3-ylpropanoic acid acids in 52,72% overall yields (three steps). This new approach provides a significant improvement over the previously reported methods and would greatly facilitate analog library construction of pentacyclic complex carbazoles and benefit further biological evaluation of these compounds. [source]

    A fluorescence study on swelling of hydrogels (PAAm) at various cross-linker contents

    Demet Kaya Akta
    Abstract Disk-shaped acrylamide (AAm) gels were prepared from AAm with various N,N,-methylenebisacrylamide (Bis) contents as cross-linker in the presence of ammonium persulfate as an initiator by free-radical cross-linking copolymerization in water. Polyacrylamide (PAAm) gels were dried before using for swelling experiments. Steady-state fluorescence spectrometer was employed during the swelling of PAAm hydrogels in water. Pyranine was introduced as a fluorescence probe. Fluorescence intensity of pyranine from various Bis content gel samples was measured during in situ swelling process. It was observed that fluorescence intensity decreased as swelling has proceeded. Gravimetric and volumetric experiments were also performed. The Li,Tanaka equation was used to determine the swelling time constants, ,c, and cooperative diffusion coefficients, Dc, from intensity, weight, and volume variations during the swelling processes. It was observed that swelling time constants, ,c, increased and diffusion coefficients, Dc, decreased as the cross-linker content was increased. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Adv Polym Techn 28:215,223, 2009; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/adv.20163 [source]

    Comparison of poly(o -anisidine) and poly(o -anisidine- co -aniline) copolymer synthesized by chemical oxidative method

    J. Longun
    Abstract In this study, poly(o -anisidine) [POA], poly(o -anisidine- co -aniline) [POA- co -A], and polyaniline [PANi] were chemically synthesized using a single polymerization process with aniline and o -anisidine as the respective monomers. During the polymerization process, p -toluene sulfonic acid monohydrate was used as a dopant while ammonium persulfate was used as an oxidant. N -methyl-pyrolidone (NMP) was used as a solvent. We observed that the ATR spectra of POA- co -A showed features similar to those of PANi and POA as well as additional ones. POA- co -A also achieved broader and more extended UV,vis absorption than POA but less than PANi. The chemical and electronic structure of the product of polymerization was studied using Attenuated Total Reflectance spectroscopy (ATR) and UV,visible spectroscopy (UV,vis). The transition temperature of the homopolymers and copolymers was studied using differential scanning calorimetry and the viscosity average molecular weight was studied by using dilute solution viscometry. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]

    Stability study of inverse suspension copolymerization of 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguandium acrylate and N,N, -methylenebisacrylamide

    Jie Dong
    Abstract In a previous study, we synthesized crosslinked P(TMGA- co -MBA) via an inverse suspension copolymerization of 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguandium acrylate (TMGA) and N,N,-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) and found that the product is a good SO2 sorbent. However, the polymerization stability appeared to be poor under some reaction conditions and is far from being elucidated. In this study, the inverse suspension copolymerization was carried out using cyclohexane as solvent, Span60 as dispersant, and ammonium persulfate (APS) as initiator. The effects of the reaction conditions such as stirring speed, dispersant concentration, and temperature on the polymerization stability and particle size were systematically examined. It is found that the polymerization stability is a strong function of these parameters. Stable crosslinked poly(TMGA- co -MBA) particles from micrometer to millimeter diameters were synthesized under optimized conditions. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]

    Preparation and self-assembly of polyaniline nanorods and their application as electroactive actuators

    Seong Hun Kim
    Abstract To improve the performance of ion-exchange polymer,metal composite (IPMC) actuators, an electrical pathway material for enhancing the surface adhesion between the membrane and the metal electrodes of the IPMC was studied. As an efficient electrical pathway material, polyaniline nanorods (PANI-NRs) doped with p -toluene sulfonic acid (TSA) were synthesized with a template-free method. The factors affecting polyaniline morphology were studied with various dopant concentrations and oxidant feeding rates. Highly conductive PANI-NRs were formed when they were synthesized with ammonium persulfate at a 5.0 mL/min oxidant feeding rate and doped with 0.125M TSA. The conductivity of the PANI-NRs was 1.15 × 10,1 S/cm, and their diameters and lengths were 120,180 nm and 0.6,2 ,m, respectively. To apply the membrane as an actuator, perfluorosulfonated ionomer (Nafion)/PANI-NR blends were prepared by solution blending and casting. The actuating ability of the three-layered membrane consisting of Nafion/PANI-NR blends was then examined and compared with that of Nafion only. The actuating ability of the IPMC was improved when Nafion/PANI-NRs were used as electrical pathways. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]

    Using hydroxypropyl-,-cyclodextrin for the preparation of hydrophobic poly(ketoethyl methacrylate) in aqueous medium

    Lei Ding
    Abstract This work was committed to the polymerization of hydrophobic ketoethyl methacrylate monomer in aqueous medium in the presence of cyclodextrin, instead of polymerizing the monomer in toxic and volatile organic solvents. For this purpose, a new ketoethyl methacrylate monomer, p -methylphenacylmethacrylate (MPMA), was synthesized from the reaction of p -methylphenacylbromide with sodium methacrylate in the presence of triethylbenzylammonium chloride. The monomer was identified with FTIR, 1H and 13C-NMR spectroscopies. Hydroxypropyl-,-cyclodextrin (HPCD) was used to form a water-soluble host/guest inclusion complex (MPMA/HPCD) with the hydrophobic monomer. The complex was identified with FTIR and NMR techniques and polymerized in aqueous medium using potassium persulfate as initiator. During polymerization the resulting hydrophobic methacrylate polymer precipitated out with a majority of HPCD left in solution and a minority of HPCD bonded on the resulting polymer. The thus-prepared polymer exhibited little difference from the counterparts obtained in organic solvent in number average molecular weight (Mn), polydispersity (Mw/Mn) and yield. The investigation provides a novel strategy for preparing hydrophobic ketoethyl methacrylate polymer in aqueous medium by using a monomer/HPCD inclusion complex. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]

    Kinetics of methyl methacrylate grafting polymerization onto flaky aluminum powder

    Hui Liu
    Abstract With ammonium persulfate (APS) as the initiator, the kinetics of methyl methacrylate (MMA) grafting polymerization onto flaky aluminum powder (Al) was studied. It was found that the experimental apparent grafting polymerization rate, Rg = KC × C × C, was basically consistent with the theoretical result based on the theory of stable polymerization and equivalent activity, Rg = KC × C × CMMA. The activation energy of grafting, homogenous, and total polymerization rate was calculated as 65.1, 35.4, and 37.5 kJ mol,1, respectively. It could be validated that the relationship among these activation energies accorded with the theoretical result of parallel reactions. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]

    Synthesis of higher soluble nanostructured polyaniline by vapor-phase polymerization and determination of its crystal structure

    Sambhu Bhadra
    Abstract Higher soluble nanostructured polyaniline was prepared by vapor-phase polymerization after passing aniline vapor through an aqueous acidic solution of ammonium persulfate (PANI-V). Polyaniline was also synthesized by the conventional oxidative polymerization method (PANI-C) in an aqueous medium for the comparison of its properties with PANI-V. PANI-V exhibited lower conductivity but higher hydrophilicity and higher solubility (2,3 times) in different solvents, such as tetrahydrofuran, N -methyl-2-pyrrolidone, dimethylsulfoxide, N,N -dimethyl formamide, and m -cresol at room temperature compared with that of PANI-C. The thermal stability of PANI-V was higher than that of PANI-C. In-depth investigations of the crystal structures of PANI-C and PANI-V were performed through powder X-ray diffraction analysis. The PANI-V showed a less ordered structure with a lower crystallinity and crystallite size and with a higher d-spacing and interchain separation compared with PANI-C. The unit cell volume of PANI-V was significantly higher with a greater number of atoms in the unit cell than that of PANI-C. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2009 [source]

    Swelling properties of CMC- g -poly (AAm- co -AMPS) superabsorbent hydrogel

    Ali Pourjavadi
    Abstract A series of biopolymer-based superabsorbent hydrogels based on carboxymethyl cellulose has been prepared by free-radical graft copolymerization of acrylamide and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropan sulfonic acid (AMPS) in aqueous solution using methylenebisacrylamide as a crosslinking agent and ammonium persulfate as an initiator. The effect of variables on the swelling capacity such as: acrylamide/AMPS weight ratio, reaction temperature, and concentration of the initiator and crosslinker were systematically optimized. The results indicated that with increasing the amount of AMPS, the swelling capacity is increased. FT-IR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope analysis were used to confirm the hydrogel structure. Swelling measurements of the synthesized hydrogels in different salt solutions indicated considerable swelling capacity. The absorbency under load of the superabsorbent hydrogels was determined by using an absorbency under load tester at various applied pressures. A preliminary swelling and deswelling behaviors of the hydrogels were also studied. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2009 [source]

    A study in the uranyl ions uptake on acrylic acid and acrylamide copolymeric hydrogels

    Ghanshyam S. Chauhan
    Abstract A series of copolymeric hydrogels comprising of acrylic acid and acrylamide and crosslinked with trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) were prepared using ammonium persulfate (APS) as initiator. The hydrogels were functionalized further by partial hydrolysis and were characterized by SEM, FTIR, nitrogen analysis, and also by water uptake studies as a function of time, temperature, pH, NaCl, and concentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). These hydrogels were used as sorbents for the uranyl ions uptake in the presence of 5% NaCl, which was studied as function of time, temperature, pH, and ion strength. The uranyl uptake was found to be affected both by the structural aspects of the hydrogels as well as by the external environmental factors. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]

    Polymerization of itaconic acid initiated by a potassium persulfate/N,N -dimethylethanolamine system

    S. J. Veli
    Abstract The synthesis and characterization of poly(itaconic acid) (PIA) with a novel initiator/activator system is presented. The initiator in this system was potassium persulfate, whereas the activator was N,N -dimethylethanolamine (DMEA). PIA was synthesized in distilled water and in 0.1M HCl at 40°C with reaction times of 72 and 96 h. PIA was investigated with differential scanning calorimetry, gel permeation chromatography, and pulse gradient spin echo-NMR and compared to the same polymer synthesized in dioxane with 2,2,-azobisisobutyronitrile as the initiator. It was shown that, despite the fact that some residual DMEA remained in the system, the properties of the PIA polymerized in the aqueous phase were very similar to the dioxane-synthesized polymer, which will enable a faster, cheaper, and environmentally more acceptable polymerization of itaconic acid. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]

    Photoinitiating polymerization to prepare biocompatible chitosan hydrogels

    Xiaohong Hu
    Abstract Chitosan hydrogels were prepared from water soluble chitosan derivatives (chitosan-MA-LA, CML) by photoinitiating polymerization under the existence of Irgacure2959 and the irradiation of UV light. The CML was obtained by amidation of the amine groups of chitosan with lactic acid and methacrylic acid. Gelation time of the hydrogel could be adjusted within a range of 5,50 min, and controlled by factors such as the degree of MA substitution, initiator concentration, existence of oxygen, and salt. The dry hydrogel adsorbed tens to hundred times of water, forming a highly hydrated gel. The swelling ratio was smaller at the higher degree of MA substitution, higher pH, and higher salt concentration. Rheological test showed that the hydrogel is elastomeric in the measuring frequency range, with a storage modulus and loss modulus of 0.8,7 kPa and 10,100 Pa, respectively. In vitro culture of chondrocytes demonstrated that the cells could normally proliferate in the extractant of the hydrogels, showing no cytotoxicity at lower initiator concentration. By contrast, the extractant of the hydrogel made by the redox initiating system, i.e., ammonium persulfate (APS) and N,N,N,,N,-tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED), showed apparent cytotoxicity. Thus, the chitosan hydrogels initiated by the Irgacure2959 have better comprehensive properties, in particular better biocompatibility, and are more suitable for biomedical applications. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]

    Grafting emulsion polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate onto leather by chemical initiation systems

    K. A. Shaffei
    Abstract The kinetics of the grafting polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto leather were studied with chemical initiation systems. The results showed that the rate of grafting of GMA onto leather was dependent on different rates in the chemical initiation systems; for ammonium persulfate (AmPS)/acetone sodium bisulfite (ASBS), potassium persulfate (PPS)/ASBS, and sodium persulfate (SPS)/ASBS, the powers were 1.06, 0.48, and 0.43 and 0.63, 0.46, and 0.43, respectively, with respect to the concentration of the emulsifier sodium dodecyl sulfate, whereas the powers were 1.41, 0.70, and 0.81, respectively, with respect to the monomer concentration. The apparent activation energy was calculated for each initiation system and was found to be 180.8, 361.63, and 542.45 kcal for the AmPS/ASBS, PPS/ASBS, and SPS/ASBS systems, respectively. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]

    Synthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial properties of novel quaternary amine methacrylate copolymers

    Supriya Punyani
    Abstract A novel amine methacrylate monomer trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate,piperazine,ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TMPTMA-PPZ-EGDMA) was synthesized by amination of trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) with excess of piperazine (PPZ) followed by reaction with ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA). Copolymerization of TMPTMA-PPZ-EGDMA with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) was carried out by free radical polymerization using ammonium persulfate (APS) and N,N,N,,N,-tetramethyl ethylenediamine (TEMED) as a redox initiator. The copolymers obtained were then quaternized with 1-iodooctane. The monomers were characterized by FTIR and 1H NMR spectral studies. The molecular weights and polydispersity values of the monomers were determined with gel permeation chromatography. Quaternized copolymers containing more than 20% amine methacrylate monomer showed microporosity in the range of 9.9,10.4 ,m. The antibacterial activity of the quaternized copolymers against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was studied using UV,vis spectrophotometer and scanning electron microscopy. Quaternized copolymers showed broad-spectrum contact-killing antibacterial properties without releasing any active agent as checked by iodide selective ion meter. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]

    Microwave accelerated synthesis and characterization of poly(acrylamide)

    Vandana Singh
    Abstract Poly(acrylamide) (PAM) was efficiently synthesized under microwave (MW) irradiation using catalytic amount of potassium persulfate. The synthesis does not require any inert atmosphere and could be accomplished in very short time. Microwave power, exposure time, concentration of persulfate, and concentration of the acrylamide were varied to optimize the polymerization in terms of the % conversion (%C). The maximum %C that could be achieved was in 98.5%. The average molecular weight of the synthesized PAM samples ranged from 4.11 × 104 to 1.30 × 105, depending upon the MW power used for their synthesis. The representative PAM was characterized by Fourier transform-infrared, SEM, and X-ray diffraction studies. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 104: 3702,3707, 2007 [source]

    Effect of grafting methacrylate monomers onto jute constituents with a potassium persulfate initiator catalyzed by Fe(II)

    Md. Ibrahim H. Mondal
    Abstract The graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate and ethyl methacrylate monomers onto jute fiber was carried out in an aqueous medium with potassium persulfate as an initiator under the catalytic influence of ferrous sulfate in the presence of air. The effects of parameter variables, such as the monomer, initiator, and catalyst concentrations, the reaction time, and the temperature, on grafting and the effect of grafting the monomers onto jute constituents were studied. The degree of grafting depended on the kinds of monomers and the parameter variables. The maximum graft yield percentages with methyl methacrylate and ethyl methacrylate under optimized conditions were 18.9 and 38.8%, respectively, and the grafting onto jute fiber was largely affected by one of its main constituents, such as hemicellulose. The graft copolymers were characterized, and their improved properties were also examined. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 103: 2369,2375, 2007 [source]

    Synthesis and properties of carboxymethyl cellulose- graft -poly(acrylic acid- co -acrylamide) as a novel cellulose-based superabsorbent

    Aili Suo
    Abstract A new cellulose-based superabsorbent polymer, carboxymethyl cellulose- graft -poly(acrylic acid- co -acrylamide), was prepared by the free-radical grafting solution polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) and acrylamide (AM) monomers onto carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) in the presence of N,N,-methylenebisacrylamide as a crosslinker with a redox couple of potassium persulfate and sodium metabisulfite as an initiator. The influences of reaction variables such as the initiator content, crosslinker content, bath temperature, molar ratio of AA to AM, and weight ratio of the monomers to CMC on the water absorbency of the carboxymethylcellulose- graft -poly(acrylic acid- co -acrylamide) copolymer were investigated. The copolymer's structures were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The optimum reaction conditions were obtained as follows: the bath temperature was 50°C; the molar ratio of AA to AM was 3 : 1; the mass ratio of the monomers to CMC was 4 : 1; and the weight percentages of the crosslinker and initiator with respect to the monomers were 0.75 and 1%, respectively. The maximum water absorbency of the optimized product was 920 g/g for distilled water and 85 g/g for a 0.9 wt % aqueous NaCl solution. In addition, the superabsorbent possessed good water retention and salt resistance. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 103: 1382,1388, 2007 [source]

    Detection of creatinine enriched on a surface imprinted polystyrene film using FT-ATR-IR

    K. Sreenivasan
    Abstract The surface of polystyrene (PS) was chemically modified by coating a thin layer of polyaniline (PANI) by oxidizing aniline using ammonium persulfate. Affinity sites for creatinine, a clinically relevant molecule, were created in the coated layer by adding creatinine as print molecules during the oxidation. The imprinted layer adsorbed creatinine was compared to non-imprinted surface reflecting the creation of creatinine-specific sites on the surface. The equilibrium was attained rapidly, indicating that a material of this kind is suitable for sensing applications. The adsorbed creatinine on the surface was detected using the technique of Fourier transform attenuated total internal reflection infra red spectroscopy (FT-ATR-IR). The results show that molecularly imprinted surface can enrich molecules of interest and the enriched molecules can be detected using FT-IR. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Synthesis of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) latexes using poly(N -vinylpyrrolidone)-based copolymers as reactive stabilizers

    Muhammad Mumtaz
    Abstract The synthesis by oxidative polymerization of well-defined poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nano-objects in the presence of modified and unmodified poly(N -vinylpyrrolidone)-based copolymers used as stabilizers in aqueous media is reported. Ammonium persulfate or a mixture of ammonium persulfate with CuCl2 or CuBr2 was used as oxidants. The effects of several parameters such as the molar mass and the concentration of the stabilizer as well as the nature of the oxidants on the size, morphology, and the conductivity of the PEDOT particles have been investigated. The distribution of the reactive moieties along the copolymer stabilizer backbone was shown to be crucial to get well-defined PEDOT nano-objects. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 48: 3841,3855, 2010 [source]

    Photoreactive nanomatrix structure formed by graft-copolymerization of 1,9-nonandiol dimethacrylate onto natural rubber

    Yoshimasa Yamamoto
    Abstract Formation of photoreactive nanomatrix structure was investigated by graft-copolymerization of an inclusion complex of 1,9-nonandiol dimethacrylate (NDMA) with ,-cyclodextrin (,-CD) onto natural rubber particle using potassium persulfate (KPS), tert -butyl hydroperoxide/tetraethylenepentamine (TBHPO/TEPA), cumene hydroperoxide/tetraethylenepentamine (CHPO/TEPA), and benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as an initiator. The graft copolymer was characterized by 1H NMR and FTIR after coagulation. The conversion of NDMA and the amount of residual methacryloyl group were found to be 58.5 w/w % and 1.81 w/w %, respectively, under the suitable condition of the graft-copolymerization. The morphology of the film specimen, prepared from the graft copolymer, was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after staining the film with OsO4. Natural rubber particle of about 1.0 ,m in diameter was dispersed in poly(NDMA) matrix of about 10 nm in thickness. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 48: 2418,2424, 2010 [source]

    Modification of multiwall carbon nanotubes via soap-free emulsion polymerization of acrylonitrile

    Zhenping Cheng
    Abstract A novel method for the synthesis of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-coated multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) via a simple soap-free emulsion polymerization is presented for the first time. The polymerization was initiated with conventional anionic ammonium persulfate (APS) at 65 °C. The modification of PAN on MWCNT surfaces was confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and Raman spectroscopy. It is found that all the surfaces of the MWCNTs were coated by PAN chains, and the PAN coating thickness could be controlled by simply adjusting the polymerization time. The obtained PAN-coated MWCNTs could be well dispersed in water. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 48: 2057,2062, 2010 [source]

    Developing a hybrid emulsion polymerization system to synthesize Fe3O4/polystyrene latexes with narrow size distribution and high magnetite content

    Longlan Cui
    Abstract A hybrid emulsion polymerization was formulated for synthesizing Fe3O4/polystyrene composite latex. This system, containing binary droplets that are magnetic (Mag)-droplets with a diameter of 100,200 nm and styrene (St)-droplets with a diameter of 3,4 ,m, was obtained by mixing Mag-miniemulsion and St-macroemulsion. With extremely low surfactants concentration (,critical micelle concentration, CMC), the nucleated loci are selectively controlled in the Mag-droplets, as the result of smaller droplet size and larger surface ratio. Both water-soluble potassium persulfate (KPS) and oil-soluble 2,2,-azobis(2-isobutyronitrile) was adopted to initiate the polymerization. In the presence of KPS, magnetic polystyrene latices with particles size of 60,200 nm, narrow size distribution, and high magnetite content (86 wt % measured by TGA) were attained successfully. The synthesized magnetic Fe3O4/polystyrene latices assembled into well-ordered hexagonal structure in the surface of a carbon supported copper grid. The influence of various parameters on various aspects of the as-synthesized Fe3O4/polystyrene was investigated in detail: type of initiator on composite morphology, feed ratio of Mag-miniemulsion and St-macroemulsion on magnetite content, and hydrophobic agent or amount of surfactant on size and size distribution. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 45: 5285,5295, 2007 [source]

    Starch- graft -(synthetic copolymer) latexes initiated with Ce4+ and stabilized by amylopectin

    Hank De Bruyn
    Abstract A method is presented for synthesizing surfactant-free latexes comprising starch- graft -(vinyl polymer) starting with a suspension of amylopectin, either native or modified, then using cerium(IV) with either potassium persulfate or glucose to create grafting sites on the starch. Latex particles comprising polystyrene, poly(styrene- co -(n -butyl acrylate)) and poly(vinyl acetate) grafted onto high molecular weight amylopectin were developed, with up to 80% of the starch effectively grafted to the particles. These latexes were colloidally stable against electrolyte (several months in 4 M NaCl). Reaction rates of Ce4+ with simple sugars and polysaccharides were investigated, as well as the gelation mechanism of the latex. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 45: 4185,4192, 2007 [source]

    Frontal free-radical copolymerization of urethane,acrylates

    Ting Hu
    Abstract We report the first synthesis of urethane,acrylate copolymers via free-radical frontal polymerization. In a typical run, the appropriate amounts of the reactants (urethane,acrylate macromonomer and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate) and initiator (ammonium persulfate) were dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide. Frontal polymerization was initiated by the heating of the wall of the tube with a soldering iron, and the resultant hot fronts were allowed to self-propagate throughout the reaction vessel. Once it was initiated, no further energy was required for the polymerization to occur. The dependence of the front velocity and front temperature on the initiator concentration was investigated. The front temperatures were between 55 and 65 °C, depending on the persulfate concentration. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the urethane,acrylate copolymers had higher thermal stability than pure frontally prepared polyurethane. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 44: 3018,3024, 2006 [source]

    Highly magnetic latexes from submicrometer oil in water ferrofluid emulsions

    Franck Montagne
    Abstract The synthesis of functionalized submicrometer magnetic latex particles is described as obtained from a preformed magnetic emulsion composed of organic ferrofluid droplets dispersed in water. Composite (polystyrene/,-Fe2O3) particles were prepared according to a two-step procedure including the swelling of ferrofluid droplets with styrene and a crosslinking agent (divinyl benzene) followed by seeded emulsion polymerization with either an oil-soluble [2,2,-azobis(2-isobutyronitrile)] or water-soluble (potassium persulfate) initiator. Depending on the polymerization conditions, various particle morphologies were obtained, ranging from asymmetric structures, for which the polymer phase was separated from the inorganic magnetic phase, to regular core,shell morphologies showing a homogeneous encapsulation of the magnetic pigment by a crosslinked polymeric shell. The magnetic latexes were extensively characterized to determine their colloidal and magnetic properties. The desired core,shell structure was efficiently achieved with a given styrene/divinyl benzene ratio, potassium persulfate as the initiator, and an amphiphilic functional copolymer as the ferrofluid droplet stabilizer. Under these conditions, ferrofluid droplets were successfully turned into superparamagnetic polystyrene latex particles, about 200 nm in size, containing a large amount of iron oxide (60 wt %) and bearing carboxylic surface charges. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 44: 2642,2656, 2006 [source]

    Determination of the extent of incorporation of a reactive surfactant in polystyrene latex particles via GPC

    Zhen Lai
    The reactive surfactant HITENOL BC20 (polyoxyethylene alkylphenyl ether ammonium sulfate containing 20 units of ethylene oxide) was used in emulsion polymerizations of styrene with potassium persulfate as initiator. A new method to determine the amount of chemically bound surfactant was developed using GPC combined with UV detection as shown in the figure. Comparing this GPC method with the serum replacement/FTIR method reveals it to be a relatively simple and more effective means of characterization. [source]