Pain Scores (pain + score)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Pain Scores

  • average pain score
  • change in pain score
  • difference in pain score
  • improvement in pain score
  • in pain score
  • lower pain score
  • mean pain score
  • postoperative pain score
  • scale pain score
  • significant difference in pain score
  • vas pain score
  • verbal pain score

  • Terms modified by Pain Scores

  • pain score decreased

  • Selected Abstracts

    Pain Scores Improve Analgesic Administration Patterns for Trauma Patients in the Emergency Department

    Paul A. Silka MD
    Abstract Objective: To determine the efficacy of pain scores in improving pain management practices for trauma patients in the emergency department (ED). Methods: A prospective, observational study of analgesic administration to trauma patients was conducted over a nine-week period following educational intervention and introduction of verbal pain scores (VPSs). All ED nursing and physician staff in an urban Level I trauma center were trained to use the 0,10 VPS. Patients younger than 12 years old, having a Glasgow Coma Scale score (GCS) <8, or requiring intubation were excluded from analysis. Demographics, mechanism of injury, vital signs, pain scores, and analgesic data were extracted from a computerized ED database and patients' records. The staff was blinded to the ongoing study. Results: There were 150 patients studied (183 consecutive trauma patients seen; 33 patients excluded per criteria). Pain scores were documented for 73% of the patients. Overall, 53% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 45% to 61%) of the patients received analgesics in the ED. Of the patients who had pain scores documented, 60% (95% CI = 51% to 69%) received analgesics, whereas 33% (95% CI = 18% to 47%) of the patients without pain scores received analgesics. No patient with a VPS < 4 received analgesics, whereas 72% of patients with a VPS > 4 and 82% with a VPS > 7 received analgesics. Mean time to analgesic administration was 68 minutes (95% CI = 49 to 87). Conclusions: Pain assessment using VPS increased the likelihood of analgesic administration to trauma patients with higher pain scores in the ED. [source]

    Intensity of Central Pain: Analysis of Pain Scores in 18 Patients

    PAIN PRACTICE, Issue 2 2003
    Hisashi Yanagida MD
    Abstract: The aim of this clinical study was to investigate the intensity of central pain in 18 patients. Each patient systematically recorded their own pain scores a total of 700 times (ie, 7 times/day for 100 consecutive days) using a standard four-point scale. In all 18 patients, the intensity of pain varied considerably (ranging in grade from no pain, mild pain, moderate pain to severe pain). During the 100 days, the average number of times (percentage of total) that each grade of pain intensity was scored was: no pain 7.4 (1.1%); mild pain 570.9 (81.6%); moderate pain 93.4 (13.3%), and severe pain 28.3 (4%). The difference between mild pain and moderate, severe, or no pain was significant. Thus, in our patient group the intensity of central pain was mostly mild, not severe. In contrast to other reports, our data suggest that to state that the intensity of central pain continues to be intolerable and severe throughout the day is an exaggeration. Among our 18 patients, an exacerbation of pain intensity was observed 507 times. Of these 507 events, 392 (77.3%) were due to specifiable factors and 115 (22.7%) were due to unknown factors. The specifiable factors could be attributed to: emotional factors 261 times (66.6%), somatic stimuli 44 times (11.2%), weather 38 times (9.7%), fatigue 29 times (7.4%), visceral activity 20 times (5.1%). Since there is no universally effective treatment for central pain, the strategy to manage central pain should primarily focus (if possible) on prevention of the exacerbating factors of central pain. [source]

    Intervertebral Disc Biacuplasty for the Treatment of Lumbar Discogenic Pain: Results of a Six-Month Follow-Up

    PAIN MEDICINE, Issue 1 2008
    Leonardo Kapural MD
    ABSTRACT Objective., Intradiscal biacuplasty (IDB) is a novel bipolar cooled radiofrequency system for the treatment of degenerative disk disease. We present the results of a pilot trial with 6-month follow-up. Design, Setting, Patients, and Interventions., Fifteen patients, 22,55 years old, underwent one- or two-level IDB treatment of their painful lumbar discs. All had chronic low back pain >6 months, back pain exceeding leg pain, concordant pain on provocative discography, disc height >50% of control, and evidence of single- or two-level degenerative disc disease without evidence of additional changes on magnetic resonance imaging. IDB was performed under fluoroscopy using two radiofrequency probes positioned bilaterally in the intervertebral disc. Thirteen patients completed follow-up questionnaires at 1, 3, and 6 months. Pain disability was evaluated with Oswestry and Short Form (SF)-36 questionnaires. Results., Median visual analog scale pain scores were reduced from 7 (95% confidence interval [CI] 6, 8) to 4 (2, 5) cm at 1 month, and remained at 3 (2, 5) cm at 6 months. The Oswestry improved from 23.3 (SD 7.0) to 16.5 (6.8) points at 1 month and remained similar after 6 months. The SF-36 Physical Functioning scores improved from 51 (18) to 70 (16) points after 6 months, while the SF-36 Bodily Pain score improved from 38 (15) to 54 (23) points. Daily opioid use did not change significantly from baseline: from 40 (95% CI 40, 120) before IDB to 5 (0, 40) mg of morphine sulfate equivalent 6 months after IDB. No procedure-related complications were detected. Conclusions., Patients showed improvements in several pain assessment measures after undergoing IDB for discogenic pain. A randomized controlled study is warranted and needed to address the efficacy of the procedure. [source]

    The effect of topical lignocaine gel in pain relief for colposcopic assessment and biopsy: is it useful?

    GCY Wong
    We investigated the use of topical ligocaine gel in pain relief for colposcopy and cervical punch biopsy. Ninety women referred for colposcopy due to abnormal cervical cytology were randomised to receive 5 ml of either 2% xylocaine gel or KY jelly to the cervix and the upper part of the vagina for at least 10 minutes prior to the colposcopic procedures. Pain score was obtained at several points of the procedure. Topical lignocaine gel did not significantly relieve pain from cervical punch biopsy and alleviate the stinging sensation from application of acetic acid and Lugol's iodine to cervix and vagina. However, it may be beneficial to a subgroup of women with prior unpleasant experience towards speculum examination. [source]

    Influence of economic and demographic factors on quality of life in renal transplant recipients

    Marie A. Chisholm
    Abstract:, Background:, The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of annual income, Medicare status, and demographic variables on the health-related quality of life (HQoL) of renal transplant recipients. Methods:, A cross-sectional survey was mailed to 146 Georgia renal transplant recipients who had functional grafts. Data were collected using the SF-12 Health Survey (version 2), a demographics survey, and 2003 tax documents. One-way ANOVAs and Pearson's R correlations were used to examine relationships between annual income, Medicare status, demographic variables and SF-12 scores. Significant variables were included in stepwise multiple regression analyses. Results:, Data from 130 participants (89% response rate) were collected. Recipients with no Medicare coverage had significantly higher scores on the Physical Functioning and Role Physical SF-12 scales (p = 0.005) compared to recipients with Medicare. Annual income was positively correlated with General Health (p < 0.05). Age and race were significant predictors of Vitality (p = 0.004) and Physical Component Summary (p < 0.001) scores. Age, race, and Medicare status were significant predictors of Physical Functioning and Role Physical scores (p < 0.001). Age, annual income, race, and years post-transplant were significant predictors of General Health score (p < 0.001). Age was the sole predictor of Bodily Pain score (p = 0.002), and marital status was the sole predictor of Social Functioning score (p = 0.005). Conclusions:, Interventions designed to offset financial barriers may be needed to bolster renal transplant recipients' HQoL. [source]

    A Randomized, Double-Blind Comparison of Two Topical Anesthesic Formulations Prior to Electrodesiccation of Dermatosis Papulosa Nigra

    BACKGROUND Liposomal lidocaine 4% (L.M.X.4 cream, Ferndale Laboratories Inc., Ferndale, MI, USA) has been proposed as a more rapidly acting topical anesthetic than the eutectic mixture of lidocaine 2.5% and prilocaine 2.5% (EMLA cream, AstraZeneca LP, Wilmington, DE, USA) for venipuncture and laser procedures. However, their anesthetic efficacy has not been previously compared for electrosurgical destruction of superficial skin lesions. OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that L.M.X.4 and EMLA differ in anesthetic efficacy when applied under occlusion for 30 minutes prior to electrodesiccation of papules of dermatosis papulosa nigra. METHODS Forty adults were randomly assigned to treatment with either agent for 30 minutes under Tegaderm. The study drug was administered for an additional 30 minutes if the electrodesiccation of the first few papules was too painful. RESULTS One subject treated with EMLA versus none treated with L.M.X.4 experienced complete anesthesia after a single 30-minute application. Nineteen of 20 (95%) subjects treated with EMLA versus 18 of 20 (90%) subjects treated with L.M.X.4 required only a single application (p=.49). Pain scores after the initial 30-minute application (scale: 0=none to 10=very severe) were EMLA 3.3±2.2 (mean±SD) versus L.M.X. 4 2.9±2.0 (p=.46). CONCLUSION EMLA and L.M.X.4 provide comparable levels of anesthesia after a single 30-minute application under occlusion prior to electrodesiccation of superficial skin lesions. [source]

    Pain Scores Improve Analgesic Administration Patterns for Trauma Patients in the Emergency Department

    Paul A. Silka MD
    Abstract Objective: To determine the efficacy of pain scores in improving pain management practices for trauma patients in the emergency department (ED). Methods: A prospective, observational study of analgesic administration to trauma patients was conducted over a nine-week period following educational intervention and introduction of verbal pain scores (VPSs). All ED nursing and physician staff in an urban Level I trauma center were trained to use the 0,10 VPS. Patients younger than 12 years old, having a Glasgow Coma Scale score (GCS) <8, or requiring intubation were excluded from analysis. Demographics, mechanism of injury, vital signs, pain scores, and analgesic data were extracted from a computerized ED database and patients' records. The staff was blinded to the ongoing study. Results: There were 150 patients studied (183 consecutive trauma patients seen; 33 patients excluded per criteria). Pain scores were documented for 73% of the patients. Overall, 53% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 45% to 61%) of the patients received analgesics in the ED. Of the patients who had pain scores documented, 60% (95% CI = 51% to 69%) received analgesics, whereas 33% (95% CI = 18% to 47%) of the patients without pain scores received analgesics. No patient with a VPS < 4 received analgesics, whereas 72% of patients with a VPS > 4 and 82% with a VPS > 7 received analgesics. Mean time to analgesic administration was 68 minutes (95% CI = 49 to 87). Conclusions: Pain assessment using VPS increased the likelihood of analgesic administration to trauma patients with higher pain scores in the ED. [source]

    The use of an intra-oral injection of ketorolac in the treatment of irreversible pulpitis

    A. C. Mellor
    Abstract Aim, To examine whether an intra-oral injection of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (ketorolac), in association with conventional local anaesthetic techniques, would improve the pulp extirpation rate in teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Methodology, A two group double-blind clinical trial was undertaken in the Dental Casualty Department of the University of Manchester School of Dentistry. Patients were randomly allocated to either the test or control group. The test group received an intra-oral injection of ketorolac (30 mg in 1 mL) in the buccal sulcus adjacent to the tooth being treated. After an interval of 15 min, they then received 2.2 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1 : 80 000 epinephrine by buccal infiltration in the maxilla or by inferior dental block in the mandible. The control group received an intra-oral injection of normal saline (1 mL) in the buccal sulcus adjacent to the tooth being treated, followed by the same local anaesthetic regime as the test group after the 15 min interval. Fifteen minutes after the local anaesthetic injections, pulp extirpation was attempted. All patients completed the short-form McGill pain questionnaire prior to treatment and completed identical questionnaires at 6 and 24 h after treatment. Results, The study protocol set the number of patients to be treated at twenty. However, as the study progressed it became apparent that the intra-oral injection of ketorolac caused significant pain to four of the five patients who received it; therefore the study was terminated after ten patients had been treated. The results from the patients treated showed no significant difference in the pulp extirpation rate between the test and control groups. However, patients with higher pain scores at baseline were less likely to have the pulp completely extirpated, irrespective of whether they were in the test or control group. Pain scores for all patients decreased significantly from baseline to 24 h. Conclusion, An intra-oral injection of ketorolac did not improve the pulp extirpation rate in a small group of patients with irreversible pulpitis compared with a placebo. In addition, it was associated with such significant pain on injection that it cannot be recommended as a treatment in this situation. [source]

    Ondansetron is as effective as diphenhydramine for treatment of morphine-induced pruritus after cesarean delivery

    Background: Subarachnoid (SA) morphine, highly effective for the management of pain after a cesarean delivery, is associated with a significant incidence of pruritus in up to 80% of patients. No previous study has compared the effectiveness of ondansetron (5-HT3 antagonist) vs. diphenhydramine (H1 receptor blocker) for the treatment of this side effect. Methods: In this randomized, double-blind study, 113 patients with a pruritus score 3 or 4 (1=absent; 2=mild, no treatment required; 3=moderate pruritus, treatment required; and 4=severe pruritus) after SA morphine 0.2 mg were assigned to group ondansetron, which received 4 mg intravenously (i.v.) ondansetron, and group diphenhydramine, which received 25 mg i.v. diphenhydramine. Patients who continued to have pruritus ,3 30 min after the study drug were considered treatment failures and were treated with naloxone 0.04 mg i.v. repeatedly, as well as patients who relapsed. Pain scores, nausea, vomiting, and sedation were determined before and 30 min after the study drugs were administered. Patients were followed up for 24 h. Results: The success rate was comparable between the two groups [40/57 (70%) and 38/56 (70%), P=0.79, in group ondansetron and group diphenhydramine, respectively]. Among the successfully treated patients, the recurrence rates of moderate to severe pruritus were 11/40 (28%) in group ondansetron and 13/38 (35%) in group diphenhydramine, P=0.52. The side effect profile was similar between the two groups. Conclusion: Ondansetron is as effective as diphenhydramine in relieving pruritus caused by SA morphine in patients undergoing a cesarean delivery. However, up to 50% of patients required naloxone either for primary failure or for recurrence. [source]

    Caudal analgesia for prostate biopsy

    M. CESUR
    Background: Although various local anesthesia techniques have been suggested to decrease pain and discomfort during a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy, the best method has not yet been defined. The present prospective, double-blind, randomized study aims to investigate the clinical efficacy of ,walking' caudal block compared with an intrarectal lidocaine gel for this procedure. Methods: One hundred patients were randomly assigned to two groups. In the lidocaine gel group, 10 ml of gel containing 2% lidocaine was given intrarectally. In the caudal group, 20 ml 0.1% bupivacaine with 75 ,g fentanyl was injected. Pain scores, anal sphincter tone and patient satisfaction were evaluated. Results: The pain scores were significantly lower in the caudal group at all stages. Verbal rating scores (scale 1,4) during probe insertion, probe maneuver and biopsies were 1 (0,2), 1 (0,2) and 1 (0,2) vs. 3 (0,5), 2 (1,3) and 4 (2,6), respectively (P value <0.0001 at all stages). The anal sphincter was more relaxed in the caudal group than in the gel group (P value <0.0001 in all categories). Highly satisfied patients were more frequently encountered in the caudal group, 34 (68%) vs. 8 (16%), P<0.0001, and unsatisfied patients were more frequently found in the gel group 1 (2%) vs. 12 (24%); P<0.001. All patients were able to walk without any assistance immediately after the procedures. Conclusion: ,Walking' caudal analgesia is an efficacious method for relieving the pain during TRUS-guided prostate biopsies in ambulatory practice. [source]

    Femoral nerve block with ropivacaine or bupivacaine in day case anterior crucial ligament reconstruction

    H. WULF
    Background/Objective: Our aim was to evaluate analgesia, motor block and pharmacokinetics of ropivacaine 0.2% and 0.75% in a femoral nerve block (FNB) in day case patients for anterior crucial ligament (ACL)-reconstruction compared with bupivacaine 0.25% and placebo. Methods: Following ethics committee approval and informed consent, 280 patients were randomly allocated to four groups for single-shot FNB [30 ml ropivacaine 0.2% (group RO2.0), 0.75% (RO7.5), bupivacaine 0.25% (BU2.5) and NaCl 0.9% (NaCl)]. Analgesia (pain scores, primary outcome) and motor block were assessed at 4 h (dismissal) and up to 24 h. Plasma concentration was determined up to 240 min thereafter. Results: Pain scores at 4 h were significantly higher for NaCl 4 (0,8) (median, range) (vs.) BU2.5 2 (0,8), RO2.0 3 (0,9) and RO7.5 2 (0,8) (NS within the LA groups). Patients of the NaCl group needed analgesics significantly more often (93%) within 4 h after surgery vs. 16% of group RO2.0, 19% of group RO7.5 and 19% of group BU2.5. Motor block was significantly increased with all local anesthetics without a significant difference within the LA groups 3 (0,5) in RO2.0, 3 (0,5) in RO7.5 and 3 (0,4) in BU2.5 vs. 0 (0,3) in group NaCl (median (range); scale from 0=full strength to 5=complete paralysis). Peak plasma concentrations differed significantly: RO7.5: 1.4 ± 0.4 (0.73,2.6) [,g/ml, mean ± SD (range)] after 33 ± 14 (10,40) min, RO2.0: 0.6 ± 0.3 (0.13,1.0) after 22+17 (10,60) and BU2.5: 0.3 ± 0.16 (0.05,0.62) at 31 ± 17 (10,60), respectively. Conclusion: FNB for ACL reconstruction with ropivacaine or bupivacaine provided better post-operative analgesia than placebo without reaching toxic plasma concentrations. Significant motor block was observed after 4 h in all groups including the lowest concentration of ropivacaine but occurred even with placebo. [source]

    Caffeine does not attenuate experimentally induced ischemic pain in healthy subjects

    Background and aims: Caffeine is likely the most widely used psychoactive substance in the world. It is also an analgesic adjuvant and has individual analgesic properties. The latter effect has been attributed to adenosine receptor antagonism, but the site of action is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic properties of caffeine on experimentally induced ischemic pain and to attempt to elucidate whether the site of action is central or peripheral. Materials and methods: Seventeen healthy subjects received intravenous (i.v.) regional and systemic infusions of caffeine at 10 mg/kg or placebo in a double-blind, crossover fashion to investigate the site of action for caffeine-induced analgesia. Subjects underwent a sub-maximum effort tourniquet test. Pain scores [visual analogue scale (VAS), 0,100] were assessed every minute up to a maximum of 45 min. Results: The sum of pain scores (SPS, accumulation of VAS scores) was attenuated neither by systemic 2405 (±234) nor by i.v. regional caffeine 2427 (±190) as compared with placebo 2442 (±205), P=0.99 (mean±SEM). Time to maximal VAS score did not differ significantly between treatments, P=0.94. There was no correlation between caffeine concentration in plasma and time to maximal pain score, or between SPS and plasma concentration. Conclusion: Caffeine does not have an analgesic effect on ischemic pain, either by a peripheral or by a central site of action. [source]

    Epidural sufentanil provides better analgesia from 24 h after surgery compared with epidural fentanyl in children

    J. E. CHO
    Background: Studies comparing epidural fentanyl and sufentanil in adults reported a similar analgesic effect with variable side effects. We hypothesized that epidural fentanyl and sufentanil will have a similar analgesic effect in children undergoing urological surgery. Methods: Sixty-four children undergoing urological surgery were randomized into two groups: fentanyl in ropivacaine (fentanyl group, n=32) and sufentanil in ropivacaine (sufentanil group, n=32). After anaesthesia, an epidural catheter was inserted at the L2,3, L3,4 or L4,5 interspace. For post-operative pain relief, a solution consisting of fentanyl 0.1 mcg/kg/ml or sufentanil 0.015 mcg/kg/ml in 1.5 mg/ml ropivacaine was infused at a rate of 2 ml/h. To assess post-operative pain, the faces pain scale and the face, legs, activity, cry, consolability score were recorded at 1, 6, 24, 48 and 72 h after surgery. The incidence of adverse effects such as hypoxia, sedation, pruritus, nausea and/or vomiting was also evaluated. Results: Pain scores demonstrated no significant difference between the groups. The need for rescue analgesia during 24,72 h was higher in the fentanyl group than in the sufentanil group (6/32 vs. 0/32, P=0.012). The incidence of pruritus was higher in the sufentanil group compared with that in the fentanyl group (5/32 vs. 0/32). Conclusions: Epidural sufentanil provides better analgesia from 24 h after surgery compared with epidural fentanyl in infants and children undergoing urological surgery. The incidence of pruritus in the sufentanil group was higher than that in the fentanyl group. [source]

    Prospective Evaluation of Laparoscopic Pancreatic Biopsies in 11 Healthy Cats

    K.L. Cosford
    Background: Definitive diagnosis of feline pancreatic disease is dependent on histologic examination of biopsies. Hypothesis: Laparoscopic punch biopsy of the pancreas does not significantly affect pancreatic health or clinical status of healthy cats, and provides an adequate biopsy sample for histopathology. Animals: Eleven healthy female domestic shorthair cats. Methods: Effects of laparoscopic pancreatic visualization alone in 5 cats compared with laparoscopic pancreatic visualization and punch biopsy in 6 cats were studied. Temperature, pulse, and respiratory rate, physical examination, and daily caloric intake were evaluated for 1 week before and 1 week after the procedure. Pain scores (simple descriptive score and dynamic interactive visual assessment score) were evaluated hourly during the 1st 6 hours postprocedure. Complete blood cell counts, serum biochemical profiles, serum feline pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity, and urine specific gravity were evaluated before the procedure and at 6, 24, and 72 hours postprocedure. One month postprocedure, during sterilization, the pancreas was reassessed visually in all cats, and microscopically in the biopsy group. Results: For all variables evaluated, there were no significant differences between biopsy and control cats. Re-evaluation of the pancreatic biopsy site 1 month later documented a normal tissue response to biopsy. The laparoscopic punch biopsy forceps provided high-quality pancreatic biopsy samples with an average size of 5 mm × 4 mm on 2-dimensional cut section. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Laparoscopic pancreatic biopsy is a useful and safe technique in healthy cats. [source]


    PAIN PRACTICE, Issue 1 2004
    Article first published online: 15 MAR 200
    In this study, the authors prospectively evaluated whether abnormalities at the lumbar level as diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are confirmed by epiduroscopy, and assessed if targeted epidural injection of medication alleviates sciatic pain. A flexible, 0.9-mm fiberoptic endoscope was introduced through a disposable steering shaft into the caudal epidural space and advanced until the targeted spinal nerve was identified. Adhesions were mechanically mobilized under direct vision, and a mixture of 120 mg methylprednisolone acetate, 600 IU hyaluronidase, and 150 ,g clonidine was applied locally. Pain scores were measured by the visual analog scale (VAS) and global subjective efficacy rating. Nineteen of 20 patients studied showed adhesions via epiduroscopy. Six patients showed concomitant signs of active root inflammation. Of 20 patients treated with a targeted epidural injection, 11 patients experienced significant pain relief at 3 months. This was maintained at 6 months for eight of the patients, at 9 months for seven of the patients, and at 12 months for seven of the patients. Mean VAS at 3 months was significantly reduced and this persisted at 12 months Epiduroscopy is of value in the diagnosis of spinal root pathology. In sciatica, adhesions unreported by MRI can be identified. Targeted epidural medication administered near the compromised spinal nerve results in substantial and prolonged pain relief. [source]

    An acute pain service improves postoperative pain management for children undergoing selective dorsal rhizotomy

    Summary Background:, A continuous epidural infusion of morphine is the pain treatment modality for children undergoing selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) in our institution. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of having an organized acute pain service (APS) on postoperative pain management of these children. Methods:, We conducted a retrospective cohort study using anesthetic records and the APS database to compare the postoperative pain management of children undergoing SDR before and after the introduction of the APS at the Montreal Children's Hospital in April 2001. Ninety-two consecutive children who had their surgery between January 1997 and July 2006 were included. We collected data regarding postoperative pain, opioid-induced side effects, complications (sedation, desaturations < 92%), and hospital length of stay. Results:, Pain scores were documented more frequently after the implementation of the APS (61% vs 48.5%). Sedation scores were documented only after the implementation of the APS. Postoperative desaturation was significantly more frequent in the pre-APS group compared to the APS group (45.5% vs 6.8%, P < 0.001). Despite the fact that the epidural catheter was in place for the same duration for both groups [median of 3 days (3,3 25,75%ile)], the duration of hospitalization was 1 day shorter in the APS group compared to the pre-APS group [median of 5 (5,5 25,75%ile) vs 6 (5,6 25,75%ile) days, P < 0.001]. Conclusions:, Although we recognize that it is possible that there were changes in care not related specifically to the introduction of a dedicated APS that occurred in our institution that resulted in improvements in general postoperative care and in length of stay, our study did show that having an organized APS allowed to significantly decrease the incidence of postoperative oxygen desaturation and to decrease the hospital length of stay by 1 day. [source]

    Two different doses of caudal neostigmine co-administered with levobupivacaine produces analgesia in children

    Summary Background:, This study was aimed to evaluate the analgesic efficacy, duration of analgesia, and side effects of two different doses of caudal neostigmine used with levobupivacaine in children. Methods:, Sixty boys, between 5 months and 5 years, undergoing genito-urinary surgery were allocated randomly to one of three groups (n = 20 each). Group I patients received caudal 0.25% levobupivacaine (1 ml·kg,1) alone. Groups II and III patients received neostigmine (2 and 4 ,g·kg,1 respectively) together with levobupivacaine used in the same dose as Group I. Pain scores were assessed using Children's and Infant's Postoperative Pain Scale (CHIPPS) at 15th (t1) min after arrival to postanesthetic care unit, and 1st (t2), 2nd (t3), 3rd (t4), 4th (t5), 8th (t6), 16th (t7), and 24th (t8) hour postoperatively. Duration of analgesia, amount of additional analgesic (paracetamol), score of motor blockade and complications were recorded for 24 h postoperatively, and compared between groups. Results:, CHIPPS scores were higher during t2, t3, t6, t7 and t8 periods, duration of analgesia was shorter, and total analgesic consumption was higher in Group I compare to neostigmine groups (P < 0.05). Duration of postoperative analgesia and total analgesic consumption were similar in Groups II and III (P > 0.05). Adverse effects were not different between three groups. Conclusions:, Caudal neostigmine in doses of 2 and 4 ,g·kg,1 with levobupivacaine extends the duration of analgesia without increasing the incidence of adverse effects, and 2 ,g·kg,1 seems to be the optimal dose, as higher dose has no further advantages. [source]

    Use of intravenous ketorolac in the neonate and premature babies

    Patrizia Papacci MD
    Summary Background :,Ketorolac is a powerful nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug widely used for pain control in children and adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate its safety and analgesic efficacy in the neonate. Methods :,Ketorolac was used in a group of 18 spontaneously breathing neonates presenting with chronic lung disease, for the control of postsurgical pain and pain from invasive procedures. Pain scores (Neonatal Infant Pain Scale) were assessed before and after i.v. administration of 1 mg·kg,1 of ketorolac. Results :,Total pain control was achieved in 94.4% of the neonates. None of the neonates had haematological, renal or hepatic changes prior to treatment, and these complications did not occur after treatment. No neonate had systemic haemorrhage or bleeding from injection and blood withdrawal sites. Conclusions :,Ketorolac could represent an efficacious analgesic alternative to opioids, particularly in neonates. It would avoid the side-effects associated with opioid analgesics, especially respiratory depression. [source]

    Retrospective evaluation of pain assessment and treatment for acute vasoocclusive episodes in children with sickle cell disease

    PEDIATRIC BLOOD & CANCER, Issue 2 2008
    William T. Zempsky MD
    Abstract Background This study was conducted to assess the care of pediatric patients hospitalized for sickle cell disease-related vasoocclusive episodes (VOE). The aim of this research was to illustrate the course of pain scores and methods of therapeutic intervention during hospitalization. Procedure Retrospective medical chart reviews were conducted to collect pain assessment and management data about children hospitalized during a 2-year period at an urban children's hospital. T tests and Chi-square analyses were used to identify differences in demographic variables, pain scores and opiate utilization. Results There were 59 children with 134 hospitalizations for VOE in a 2-year period. 50.8% of the patients were male; the mean age was 11.5,±,4.9 years. The average length of hospitalization was 4.6,±,2.7 days (range 1,19 days). Older patients stayed in the hospital significantly longer than younger patients (P,=,0.002). Pain scores remained in the moderate to severe range (,5 out of 10) for many days in the majority of patients. Results failed to reveal significant differences in pain scores and opiate utilization between patients who had short versus extended hospitalizations, and for those patients with frequent versus infrequent hospitalizations for pain. Conclusions Despite opiate dosing within recommended guidelines, mean pain scores remain in the moderate to severe range for several days following hospitalization for VOE. Future research should explore the factors which influence pain scores, as well as improved pain assessment and management techniques. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2008;51:265,268. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Pilot study of continuous co-infusion of morphine and naloxone in children with sickle cell pain crisis

    Josh Koch
    Patients with sickle cell disease experience painful crises that often require hospitalization for a continuous infusion of morphine that may cause significant pruritus. We conducted a pilot study to determine the feasibility of simultaneous continuous co-infusion of naloxone with morphine, test novel assessment instruments for pruritus, and explore whether pruritus could be reduced while maintaining effective analgesia. Patients with sickle cell disease and painful crisis requiring continuous infusion morphine received continuous co-infusion of naloxone at 0.25 (low dose) or 1.0 mcg/kg·hr (high dose). Pain scores were obtained using the FACES scale and a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS). Itching was quantified by a modified VAS score. Evaluable data were obtained on 16 patients. Simultaneous co-infusion of naloxone and morphine was feasible, did not seem to reduce the analgesic efficacy of morphine, and was associated with no adverse effects. The high dose group reported a lower median "VAS worst itch" score than the low dose group (4.8 vs. 7.3, P = 0.08). Simultaneous continuous infusion of naloxone with morphine in pediatric patients with sickle cell disease and pain crisis was feasible and well tolerated. A quantitative pruritus score allowed us to systematically measure pruritus. Further evaluation by randomized, placebo-controlled study of 1 mcg/kg·hr naloxone in this setting is required. Am. J. Hematol., 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The effect of warming local anaesthetic on the pain of injection during sub-Tenon's anaesthesia for cataract surgery

    ANAESTHESIA, Issue 3 2008
    M. J. Allen
    Summary In a double blind, randomised controlled trial, we examined the effect of warming local anaesthetic solutions on the pain experienced by patients undergoing a sub-Tenon's block for cataract surgery. In all, 140 patients were randomly allocated to receive either local anaesthetic stored at room temperature (control group) or local anaesthetic warmed to 37 °C (study group). Pain scores were assessed using a verbal analogue scale from 0 to 10. There was no significant difference in pain scores between the two groups. We conclude that the practice of warming local anaesthetic prior to performing a sub-Tenon's block does not significantly reduce the amount of pain experienced by patients. [source]

    The use of patient-controlled epidural fentanyl in elderly patients,

    ANAESTHESIA, Issue 12 2007
    T. Ishiyama
    Summary We studied whether delivering postoperative analgesia, using a patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) device was effective and safe in elderly patients. We enrolled 40 patients aged >,65 years (elderly group) and 40 patients aged 20,64 years (young group) scheduled for elective major abdominal surgery. PCEA infusion was started following completion of surgery. Mean (SD) fentanyl consumption (10.7 (3.7) compared with 10.5 (2.7) ,,1, p = 0.76) and number of times patients pressed the bolus switch (32 (36) compared with 44 (38), p = 0.16) during the first 24 h postoperatively were similar in the two groups. Pain scores, which were similar in both groups at rest, were significantly lower in the elderly on coughing (at 24 h, p < 0.05). In addition, average pain scores were similar at the time of PCEA bolus demands in the two groups. Elderly and young adult patients therefore required similar amounts of patient-controlled epidural fentanyl to produce satisfactory pain relief. [source]

    Evaluation of a needle-free injection system for local anaesthesia prior to venous cannulation

    ANAESTHESIA, Issue 3 2000
    J. A. Cooper
    We evaluated a single-use, disposable, carbon-dioxide-powered, needleless injector (J-Tip, National Medical Products Inc., CA, USA), which is claimed to deliver a virtually painless, subcutaneous injection. Seventy-two patients undergoing various types of surgery had a large-bore intravenous cannula inserted prior to induction of general anaesthesia. Three minutes beforehand, a subcutaneous injection of 0.3 ml of 1% plain lidocaine was administered. Subjects were randomly allocated to receive the lidocaine either by the needleless injector or from a conventional syringe and a 25G needle. Pain scores were recorded on injection of the lidocaine and on insertion of the cannula. There was significantly less pain on injection with the needleless injector than with the 25G needle (p < 0.001) but, surprisingly, there was more pain on cannulation (p < 0.001). We conclude that the device certainly delivers a less painful subcutaneous injection than a 25G needle, but perhaps provides less effective skin anaesthesia for venous cannulation at sites where the subcutaneous space is small; its use might be better suited to areas where the subcutaneous space is deeper. [source]

    Adolescent endometriosis in the Waikato region of New Zealand , A comparative cohort study with a mean follow-up time of 2.6 years

    Jose D ROMAN
    Study objective:, To describe our experience with laparoscopic excision of endometriosis on an adolescent population and to compare it with a non-adolescent population treated during the same period. Design:, Comparative cohort study of patients with endometriosis treated consecutively between July 2003 and January 2009 with a follow-up between six months and six years. Setting:, Braemar Hospital, Hamilton, New Zealand. Results:, We treated 20 adolescents. Ninety-five per cent (19/20) of adolescents were using pain relief other than Paracetamol, in contrast to only 59% (84/143) of non-adolescents. Thirty per cent (6/20) of adolescents had a first-degree relative with endometriosis, in contrast to 8% (11/143) of non-adolescents. Endometriosis was found to be stage I in 40% (8/20) of patients, stage II in 45% (9/20) of patients, stage III in 5% (1/20) of patients and stage IV in 10% (2/20) of patients. The main type of endometriotic lesion in the adolescent was an atypical red vascular lesion, which was present in 60% (12/20) of adolescents; but it was present in only 20% (29/143) of non-adolescents. There were no intra-operative complications. Minor postoperative complications included one case of urinary tract infection and one case of port infection. The operative complications that developed when treating the non-adolescent group are presented for comparison. Pain scores recorded at follow-up revealed a significant reduction in dysmenorrhoea and pelvic pain and there was a positive effect on the quality of life of adolescents as measured by the EQ-5D questionnaire tool. Conclusion:, Adolescents with endometriosis use significantly more pain relief than non-adolescents to control symptoms. They have a higher rate of a first degree relative with the disease and they present with more atypical endometriotic lesions when compared with an adult population with endometriosis. All the stages of disease are present in the adolescent, including stages III and IV. The laparoscopic excision of endometriosis has a positive effect on the relief of pain symptoms and on the improvement in quality of life in the adolescent. [source]

    Bedside Ultrasound Diagnosis of Clavicle Fractures in the Pediatric Emergency Department

    Keith P. Cross MD
    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:687,693 © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Abstract Objectives:, Clavicle fractures are among the most common orthopedic injuries in children. Diagnosis typically involves radiographs, which expose children to radiation and may consume significant time and resources. Our objective was to determine if bedside emergency department (ED) ultrasound (US) is an accurate alternative to radiography. Methods:, This was a prospective study of bedside US for diagnosing clavicle fractures. A convenience sample of children ages 1,18 years with shoulder injuries requiring radiographs was enrolled. Bedside US imaging and an unblinded interpretation were completed by a pediatric emergency physician (EP) prior to radiographs. A second interpreter, a pediatric EP attending physician with extensive US experience, determined a final interpretation of the US images at a later date. This final interpretation was blinded to both clinical and radiography outcomes. The reference standard was an attending radiologist's interpretation of radiographs. The primary outcome was the accuracy of the blinded US interpretation for detecting clavicle fractures compared to the reference standard. Secondary outcome measures included the interrater reliability of the unblinded bedside and the blinded physicians' interpretations and the FACES pain scores (range, 0,5) for US and radiograph imaging. Results:, One-hundred patients were included in the study, of whom 43 had clavicle fractures by radiography. The final US interpretation had 95% sensitivity (95% confidence interval [CI] = 83% to 99%) and 96% specificity (95% CI = 87% to 99%), and overall accuracy was 96%, with 96 congruent readings. Positive and negative predictive values (PPVs and NPVs, respectively) were 95% (95% CI = 83% to 99%) and 96% (95% CI = 87% to 99%), respectively. Interrater reliability (kappa) was 0.74 (95% CI = 0.60 to 0.88). FACES pain scores were available for the 86 subjects who were at least 5 years old. Pain scores were similar during US and radiography. Conclusions:, Compared to radiographs, bedside US can accurately diagnose pediatric clavicle fractures. US causes no more discomfort than radiography when detecting clavicle fractures. Given US's advantage of no radiation, pediatric EPs should consider this application. [source]

    Randomised clinical trial of a laxative alone versus a laxative and a bulking agent after primary repair of obstetric anal sphincter injury

    M Eogan
    Objective, To compare two postpartum laxative regimens in women who have undergone primary repair of obstetric anal sphincter injury. Design, Randomised controlled trial. Setting, National Maternity Hospital, Dublin. Population, A total of 147 postpartum women who had sustained anal sphincter injury at vaginal birth. Methods, Women were randomised to receive either lactulose alone thrice daily for the first three postpartum days followed by sufficient lactulose to maintain a soft stool over the following 10 days (lactulose group, n= 77) or the lactulose regimen combined with a sachet of ispaghula husk daily for the first 10 postpartum days (FybogelÔ group, n= 70). All patients kept a diary of bowel habit for the first 10 postpartum days and were invited to return for review at 3 months postpartum. Main outcome measures, Patient discomfort with first postpartum bowel motion, incidence of postnatal constipation and incontinence and incontinence score in postnatal period. Results, Pain scores were similar in the two treatment groups; but incontinence in the immediate postnatal period was more frequent with the two preparations compared with lactulose alone (32.86% versus 18.18%, P= 0.03). Conclusions, This study does not support routine prescribing of a stool-bulking agent in addition to a laxative in the immediate postnatal period for women who have sustained anal sphincter injury at vaginal delivery. [source]

    Rectal analgesia for the relief of perineal pain after childbirth: a randomised controlled trial of diclofenac suppositories

    Jodie M. Dodd
    Objective To evaluate rectal diclofenac in the relief of perineal pain after trauma during childbirth. Design A randomised, double-blind trial. Setting Delivery Suite, Women's and Children's Hospital, South Australia. Population Women with a second-degree (or greater) perineal tear or episiotomy. Methods Women were randomly allocated to either diclofenac or placebo suppositories (Anusol), using a computer-generated randomisation schedule with stratification for parity and mode of birth. Treatment packs contained two × 100 mg diclofenac or two placebo suppositories, the first being inserted when suturing was complete, and the second 12,24 hours after birth. Women were asked to complete questionnaires at 24 and 48 hours after birth relating to their degree of perineal pain using the validated Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire. Main outcome measures Pain scores at 24 and 48 hours after birth. Results A total of 133 women were recruited, with 67 randomised to diclofenac suppositories and 66 to placebo. Women in the diclofenac group were significantly less likely to experience pain at 24 hours while walking (RR 0.8; 95% CI 0.6 to 1.0), sitting (RR 0.8; 95% CI 0.6 to 1.0), passing urine (RR 0.6; 95% CI 0.4 to 1.0) and on opening their bowels (RR 0.6; 95% CI 0.2 to 0.9) compared with those women who received placebo. These differences were not sustained 48 hours after birth. Conclusions The use of rectal non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug suppositories is a simple, effective and safe method of reducing the pain experienced by women following perineal trauma within the first 24 hours after childbirth. [source]

    Randomised clinical trial of suture compared with adhesive strip for skin closure after HRT implant

    Daniel O. Selo-Ojeme
    To determine which method of skin closure was associated with less bleeding, 250 women were randomly allocated to have either a suture closure (3-0 Dexon II) or an adhesive strip closure (Steri-Strip) following subcutaneous insertion of hormone (HRT) implants. Data were collected via a tested questionnaire and analysed. Significantly, more women in the adhesive strip group recorded postprocedure bleeding (RR = 2.26; 95% CI 1.42,3.60) and considered the bleeding excessive (RR = 4.17; 95% CI 1.18,14.76) and unacceptable (RR = 12.52; 95% CI 1.63,96.19). Pain scores and symptoms of local infection were similar in both groups. Routine use of adhesive strips for implant skin incision closure is not recommended. [source]

    Oral hypertonic glucose spray: a practical alternative for analgesia in the newborn

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 10 2004
    M Akçam
    Aim: Pain and stress have been shown to induce significant physiological and behavioural reactions in newborn infants. Pharmacological agents are not recommended in neonates for pain relief in minor procedures. Since different sweet solutions given orally by syringe have been shown to relieve pain in neonates, we decided to compare the analgesic effects of a small dose of glucose solution given orally by spray and by syringe during heel lancing in term neonates, using a validated behavioural acute pain rating scale. Methods: Sixty hyperbilirubinaemic full-term neonates were studied. We used a randomized, masked, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Each infant was assessed three times receiving 0.5 ml 30% glucose in spray form, 0.5 ml 30% glucose by syringe or 0.5 ml sterile water by syringe in random order, 2 min before heel lancing. Results: Pain scores were significantly lower in the 30% glucose given either spray or syringe groups compared with the placebo group. No statistically significant difference in pain scores was found between the 30% glucose spray group and 30% glucose syringe group. Conclusions: A small dose of 0.5 ml 30% glucose spray has an equal analgesic effect to the same dose given by syringe. The spray form has the advantage of being easy to use and is well accepted by newborn babies. [source]

    Day case stapled haemorrhoidopexy for prolapsing haemorrhoids

    COLORECTAL DISEASE, Issue 1 2006
    G. C. Beattie
    Abstract Objective, Conventional surgical management of prolapsing haemorrhoids is by excisional haemorrhoidectomy. Postoperative pain has restricted the application of such procedures in the day case setting. These operations remain associated with a period of restricted activity. The use of circular stapling devices as an alternative to the excisional approach in the management of haemorrhoids has been described. This study reports our experience of stapled haemorrhoidopexy as a day case procedure. Methods, Patients with third or fourth degree haemorrhoids were eligible for the procedure. Patients were considered suitable candidates for day case surgery based on conventional parameters. Symptoms were assessed using a previously validated symptom severity rating score. Stapled haemorrhoidopexy was carried out using a circular stapling device. Pain scores were obtained prior to discharge. Patients were admitted if pain was uncontrolled despite oral analgesia. Symptoms were re-scored at six-week follow-up. Results, Over a 70-month period 168 consecutive stapled haemorrhoidopexies were performed or directly supervised by one consultant colorectal surgeon. One hundred and ten (65%) patients were considered appropriate candidates for day case surgery by conventional criteria. Ninety-six (87.3%) patients successfully underwent stapled haemorrhoidopexy on a day case basis. Fourteen (12.7%) patients required admission on the day of surgery (5 for early postoperative bleeding, 4 for pain necessitating continuing opiate analgesia, two for urinary retention and three for surgery performed late in the day). Six (5%) patients were re-admitted postoperatively; four for pain relief and two because of urinary retention. Of the day case patients, 91 (82.7%) and 56 (50.9%) had been seen for 6 week and 6 month review, respectively, at the time of analysis. Symptom scores were 6 (pre-operatively) vs 0 (postoperatively) (P < 0.01). 76/91 (83.5%) patients reviewed at 6/52 were asymptomatic. Conclusion, Stapled haemorrhoidopexy is a safe and effective procedure that can be carried out on selected patients on a day case basis. Complications are of a similar nature to excisional haemorrhoidectomy. [source]