Novel Concept (novel + concept)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

A Novel Concept for Highly Oriented Carbon Nanotube Composite Tapes or Fibres with High Strength and Electrical Conductivity

Hua Deng
Abstract A new concept is described for the creation of multifunctional polymer nanocomposite tapes (or fibres) that combines high stiffness and strength with good electrical properties and a low percolation threshold of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The concept is based on a bicomponent tape (or fibre) construction consisting of a highly oriented polymer core and a conductive polymer composite (CPC) skin based on a polymer with a lower melting temperature than the core, enabling thermal annealing of these skins to improve conductivity through a dynamic percolation process while retaining the properties of the core and hence those of the tape (or fibre). The percolation threshold in the CPC skins of the highly drawn conductive bicomponent tapes could be decreased from 5.3 to 1.1,wt.-% after annealing. [source]

Asynchronous, Out-of-Sequence, Transcontinental Chain Kidney Transplantation: A Novel Concept

F. K. Butt
The organ donor shortage has been the most important hindrance in getting listed patients transplanted. Living kidney donors who are incompatible with their intended recipients are an untapped resource for expanding the donor pool through participation in transplant exchanges. Chain transplantation takes this concept further, with the potential to benefit even more recipients. We describe the first asynchronous, out of sequence transplant chain that was initiated by transcontinental shipment of an altruistic donor kidney 1 week after that recipient's incompatible donor had already donated his kidney to the next recipient in the chain. The altruistic donor kidney was transported from New York to Los Angeles and functioned immediately after transplantation. Our modified-sequence asynchronous transplant chain (MATCH) enabled eight recipients, at four different institutions, to benefit from the generosity of one altruistic donor and warrants further exploration as a promising step toward addressing the organ donor shortage. [source]

Synthesis and Reactivity of Enediynyl Amino Acids and Peptides: A Novel Concept in Lowering the Activation Energy of Bergman Cyclization by H-Bonding and Electrostatic Interactions.

CHEMINFORM, Issue 7 2004
Amit Basak
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

ChemInform Abstract: A Novel Concept for the Synthesis of an Improved LiFePO4 Lithium Battery Cathode.

CHEMINFORM, Issue 21 2002
F. Croce
Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a "Full Text" option. The original article is trackable via the "References" option. [source]

Non-Covalent Polyvalent Ligands by Self-Assembly of Small Glycodendrimers: A Novel Concept for the Inhibition of Polyvalent Carbohydrate,Protein Interactions In Vitro and In Vivo

Gebhard Thoma Dr.
Abstract Polyvalent carbohydrate,protein interactions occur frequently in biology, particularly in recognition events on cellular membranes. Collectively, they can be much stronger than corresponding monovalent interactions, rendering it difficult to control them with individual small molecules. Artificial macromolecules have been used as polyvalent ligands to inhibit polyvalent processes; however, both reproducible synthesis and appropriate characterization of such complex entities is demanding. Herein, we present an alternative concept avoiding conventional macromolecules. Small glycodendrimers which fulfill single molecule entity criteria self-assemble to form non-covalent nanoparticles. These particles,not the individual molecules,function as polyvalent ligands, efficiently inhibiting polyvalent processes both in vitro and in vivo. The synthesis and characterization of these glycodendrimers is described in detail. Furthermore, we report on the characterization of the non-covalent nanoparticles formed and on their biological evaluation. [source]

Affective Modelling: Profiling Geometrical Models with Human Emotional Responses

Cheng-Hung Lo
Abstract In this paper, a novel concept, Affective Modelling, is introduced to encapsulate the idea of creating 3D models based on the emotional responses that they may invoke. Research on perceptually-related issues in Computer Graphics focuses mostly on the rendering aspect. Low-level perceptual criteria taken from established Psychology theories or identified by purposefully-designed experiments are utilised to reduce rendering effort or derive quality evaluation schemes. For modelling, similar ideas have been applied to optimise the level of geometrical details. High-level cognitive responses such as emotions/feelings are less addressed in graphics literatures. This paper investigates the possibility of incorporating emotional/affective factors for 3D model creations. Using a glasses frame model as our test case, we demonstrate a methodological framework to build the links between human emotional responses and geometrical features. We design and carry out a factorial experiment to systematically analyse how certain shape factors individually and interactively influence the viewer's impression of the shape of glasses frames. The findings serve as a basis for establishing computational models that facilitate emotionally-guided 3D modelling. [source]

The significance of a small, level-3 ,semi evacuation' hospital in a terrorist attack in a nearby town

DISASTERS, Issue 3 2007
Moshe Pinkert
Terrorist attacks can occur in remote areas causing mass-casualty incidents MCIs far away from level-1 trauma centres. This study draws lessons from an MCI pertaining to the management of primary and secondary evacuation and the operational mode practiced. Data was collected from formal debriefings during and after the event, and the medical response, interactions and main outcomes analysed using Disastrous Incidents Systematic Analysis through Components, Interactions and Results (DISAST-CIR) methodology. A total of 112 people were evacuated from the scene,66 to the nearby level 3 Laniado hospital, including the eight critically and severely injured patients. Laniado hospital was instructed to act as an evacuation hospital but the flow of patients ended rapidly and it was decided to admit moderately injured victims. We introduce a novel concept of a ,semi-evacuation hospital'. This mode of operation should be selected for small-scale events in which the evacuation hospital has hospitalization capacity and is not geographically isolated. We suggest that level-3 hospitals in remote areas should be prepared and drilled to work in semi-evacuation mode during MCIs. [source]

Prospects for therapeutic vaccination with glatiramer acetate for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease

Michal Schwartz
Abstract Neurodegenerative diseases, whatever their primary causes, are characterized by certain common features, one of which is their self-perpetuating nature. The ongoing progression of the disorder is due to the effects of destructive self-compounds, whose presence in the tissues is an outcome of the early phase of the disease and which gradually destroy remaining functional neurons. Studies in our laboratory have led to the recent formulation of a novel concept of protective autoimmunity as the body's mechanism of defense against these destructive self-compounds. This autoimmune response to central nervous system (CNS) insults is mediated by T-cells and presumably operates by activating and regulating local microglia and infiltrating macrophages (inflammatory response) to carry out their function of clearing destructive material from the tissue at risk. We suggest that a well-controlled autoimmunity counteracts and overcomes the destructive effects of the potentially harmful self-compounds, at the cost of some loss of tissue. An additional risk to the individual is the induction of an autoimmune disease, which is likely to occur if the autoimmune response is malfunctioning. An optimal balance of the various factors will lead to an outcome of maximal benefit at minimal cost to the tissue. A procedure for safely boosting the autoimmune response, by vaccination with a weak self-crossreactive antigen such as glatiramer acetate (also known as Cop-1) was found to protect rats from glutamate toxicity, a major mediator of the spread of damage and a well-known causative factor in neurodegenerative disorders. Cop-1, when administered according to a different regimen, is an FDA-approved drug for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Different formulations of the same drug can therefore be used to treat two extreme manifestations of chronic degenerative diseases of the CNS. Drug Dev. Res. 56:143,149, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

CpG ODN enhance antigen-specific NKT cell activation via plasmacytoid dendritic cells

Anja Marschner
Abstract Human V,24+ V,11+ natural killer T cells (NKT cells) are "natural memory" T cells that detect glycolipid antigens such as ,-galactosylceramide (,-GalCer) presented on CD1d. In the present study we found that highly purified V,24+ NKT cells lack TLR9 mRNA, and thus are not sensitive towards stimulation with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN). Within PBMC, however, CpG ODN synergistically activated NKT cells stimulated with their cognate antigen ,-GalCer. Depletion of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC) or myeloid dendritic cells (MDC) revealed that both DC subsets were necessary for the synergistic activation of NKT cells by ,-GalCer and CpG ODN. While PDC were responsible for the stimulation of NKT cells with CpG ODN, MDC but not PDC presented ,-GalCer via CD1d. Partial activation of NKT cells was mediated by PDC-derived IFN-,, whereas full activation of NKT cells as indicated by IFN,, production required cell-to-cell contact of PDC and NKT cells in addition to IFN-,; OX40 was involved in this interaction. We conclude that CpG-activated PDC enhance ,-GalCer-specific NKT cell activation, and bias activated NKT cells towards a Th1 phenotype. Our results lead to a novel concept of PDC function: to regulate effector activity of antigen-stimulated T cells in a cell contact-dependent manner without the need of simultaneous presentation of the cognate T cell antigen. [source]

Dynamic COI-tracking concept for the control of generators in multi-machine power systems

Zhou Lan
Abstract In the conventional excitation control concept, the power angle and frequency of a generator are driven to a pre-designed operation point after the fault occurs. It is named as Constant Point Stabilization (CPS) concept in this paper. A novel concept, called dynamic Center of Inertia (COI)-tracking concept is proposed in this paper. In the concept, the power angle and frequency of each generator track the dynamic COI of the power system. Compared to CPS concept, a salient feature the suggested dynamic COI-tracking concept has is that the generators are not restricted to constant angle point or frequency any longer but track the dynamic COI trajectory of the system to keep synchronous in rotor angle and frequency. Wide area measurement system (WAMS) will be used to transform COI signals to each generator. The time delay within a certain limit of WAMS signals is permitted. To make comparison between the two concepts, the control system models based on the two concepts are first established. Then, using the back-stepping method, two robust controllers are designed to achieve the control objectives of the two concepts. At last, dynamic simulations are carried out based on a 2-area-4-machine test power system, and the control effects of the two controllers, together with that of the conventional AVR,+,PSS excitation system, are compared. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Insulin resistance, a new target for nitric oxide-delivery drugs

Stéphane Cook
Abstract In the Western hemisphere, the incidence of insulin resistance and its complications has been growing rapidly and is reaching epidemic proportions. Over the past decade, evidence has accumulated, indicating that nitric oxide (NO) plays a key role in the regulation of metabolic and cardiovascular homeostasis. Defective endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) driven NO synthesis causes insulin resistance, arterial hypertension and dyslipidemia in mice, and characterizes insulin-resistant humans. On the other hand, stimulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and NO overproduction in mice, may also cause metabolic insulin resistance, suggesting a Yin,Yang effect of NO in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. Here, we will review the evidence for this novel concept, and thereby provide the conceptual framework for the use of NO-delivery drugs and pharmacological agents that modulate the bioavailability of endogenously produced NO for the treatment of insulin resistance. [source]

Magnetic Multi-Functional Nano Composites for Environmental Applications

Jie Dong
Abstract A novel concept is proposed to synthesize a new class of composites featuring magnetic, molecular sieve and metallic nanoparticle properties. These multi-functional materials have potential applications as recyclable catalysts, disinfectants and sorbents. The magnetic property enables effective separation of the spent composites from complex multiphase systems for regeneration and recycle, safe disposal of the waste and/or recovery of loaded valuable species. The zeolite molecular sieve provides a matrix which supports a remarkably new, simple, efficient and economical method to make stable, supported silver nanoparticles by silver ion exchange and controlled thermal reduction. The silver nanoparticles generated in this way have excellent properties such as high reactivity and good thermal stability without aggregation, which act as nano reactors for desired functionality in a wide range of applications. Magnetic component (Fe3O4), molecular sieve matrix (zeolite) and silver nanoparticles generated by ion exchange followed by controlled reduction, together form this unique novel composite with designed functions. It represents a practically operational, economical, sustainable and environmentally friendly new advanced functional material. This paper focuses on the novel synthesis and characterization of the composite, with an example of applications as sorbents for the removal of vapor-phase mercury from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants. [source]

Induction of cellular resistance against Kupffer cell,derived oxidant stress: A novel concept of hepatoprotection by ischemic preconditioning

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 2 2003
Rolf J. Schauer
Ischemic preconditioning (IP) triggers protection of the liver from prolonged subsequent ischemia. However, the underlying protective mechanisms are largely unknown. We investigated whether and how IP protects the liver against reperfusion injury caused by Kupffer cell (KC)-derived oxidants. IP before 90 minutes of warm ischemia of rat livers in vivo significantly reduced serum alanine aminotransferase (AST) levels and leukocyte adherence to sinusoids and postsinusoidal venules during reperfusion. This protective effect was mimicked by postischemic intravenous infusion of glutathione (GSH), an antioxidative strategy against KC-derived H2O2. Interestingly, no additional protection was achieved by infusion of GSH to preconditioned animals. These findings and several additional experiments strongly suggest IP mediated antioxidative effects: IP prevented oxidant cell injury in isolated perfused rat livers after selective KC activation by zymosan. Moreover, IP prevented cell injury and pertubations of the intracellular GSH/GSSG redox system caused by direct infusion of H2O2 (0.5 mmol/L). IP-mediated resistance against H2O2 could neither be blocked by the adenosine A2a antagonist DMPX nor mimicked by A2a agonist CGS21680. In contrast, H2O2 resistance was abolished by the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) inhibitor SB203580, but induced when p38 MAPK was directly activated by anisomycin. In conclusion, we propose a novel concept of hepatoprotection by IP: protection of liver cells by enhancing their resistance against KC-derived H2O2. Activation of p38 MAPK and preservation of the intracellular GSH/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) redox system, but not adenosine A2a receptor stimulation, seems to be pivotal for the development of H2O2 resistance in preconditioned livers. [source]

SensLED: An Electro-Optical Active Probe for Oxygen Determination

Stefan Sax
A novel concept for an electro-optical active gas probe capable of oxygen detection is presented. Based on a modified organic light-emitting device, we demonstrate that a reversible analyte,indicator interaction can be used for analyte determination. [source]

Probabilistic yielding and cyclic behavior of geomaterials

Kallol Sett
Abstract In this paper, the novel concept of probabilistic yielding is used for 1-D cyclic simulation of the constitutive behavior of geomaterials. Fokker,Planck,Kolmogorov equation-based probabilistic elastic,plastic constitutive framework is applied for obtaining the complete probabilistic (probability density function) material response. Both perfectly plastic and hardening-type material models are considered. It is shown that when uncertainties in material parameters are taken into consideration, even the simple, elastic-perfectly plastic model captures some of the important features of geomaterial behavior, for example, modulus reduction with cyclic strain, which, deterministically, is only possible with more advanced constitutive models. Furthermore, it is also shown that the use of isotropic and kinematic hardening rules does not significantly improve the probabilistic material response. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Harvesting Triplet Excitons from Fluorescent Blue Emitters in White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,

G. Schwartz
A novel concept for white organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) enabling the utilization of all electrically generated excitons for light generation is introduced. The key feature is a fluorescent blue emitter with high triplet energy, rendering it possible to harvest its triplet excitons by letting them diffuse to an orange phosphorescent iridium complex. [source]

Global hybrid modeling and control of a buck converter: A novel concept

Mohammad Hejri
Abstract Several attempts have been made to design suitable controllers for DC,DC converters. However, these designs suffer from model inaccuracy or their inability to desirably function in both continuous and discontinuous current modes. This paper presents a novel switching scheme based on hybrid modeling to control a buck converter using mixed logical dynamical (MLD) methodologies. The proposed method is capable of globally controlling the converter in both continuous and discontinuous current modes of operation by considering all constraints in the physical plant such as maximum inductor current and capacitor voltage limits. Different loads and input voltage disturbances are simulated in MATLAB and results are presented to demonstrate the suitability of the controller. The transient and steady-state performance of the closed-loop control over a wide range of operating points shows satisfactory operation of the proposed controller. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Postpartum plasma exchange as adjunctive therapy for severe acute fatty liver of pregnancy

James N. Martin Jr.
Abstract Acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) is a rare disease of progressive hepatic insufficiency and secondary systemic compromise that poses significant fetal-maternal risk. Plasma exchange (PEX) is an effective bridge therapy to sustain liver function and enable hepatocellular regeneration to occur in nonpregnant patients following acute decompensation of a chronic liver disease or while awaiting liver transplantation. The application of PEX for patients with AFLP is a novel concept; since 1988 we have utilized postpartum PEX (PPEX) as adjunctive medical therapy for six patients with severe AFLP. Before PPEX initiation, four patients had signs and symptoms of encephalopathy, three required ventilatory support, five had advanced liver insufficiency, and all six were developing renal failure. PPEX was initiated 2,8 days following delivery and repeated (two to four times, mean = 3) at 24,48-h intervals thereafter. All patients responded with composite clinical (symptoms/signs) and laboratory improvement; the average length of hospitalization following final PPEX for five of six patients was 7 days. No significant PPEX-related complications occurred. PPEX utilization in patients with severe AFLP may enhance maternal recovery by preventing secondary sequelae from hepatic insufficiency until spontaneous healing can occur. Further study appears to be indicated to validate a role for PPEX as supportive therapy for puerperal patients with AFLP suffering multiorgan failure. J. Clin. Apheresis, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Follicular porokeratosis: distinct clinical entity or histologic variant?

M. Pongpudpunth
Various clinical subtypes of porokeratosis, clinically characterized by annular plaques with a normal or atrophic center and a distinctive keratotic ridge, are described based on the age of onset, size, number and distribution of the lesions. Follicular involvement, identified by follicular localization of cornoid lamellae, is uncommon and has only been reported in association with other subtypes such as disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis and porokeratosis of Mibelli. We present a case of follicular porokeratosis in a 40-year-old male who presented initially with scaly red "papules" in a follicular distribution on the upper extremity. Microscopic examination of a punch biopsy specimen revealed parakeratosis confined to the follicle and mild interface change. A repeat biopsy performed in 2008 revealed identical histologic features. In terms of etiopathogenesis, a clone of cells at the base of the follicle demonstrating abnormal keratinization is not a novel concept and has been demonstrated in other porokeratotic dermatoses. However, the presence of lesions that are solely follicular based, in terms of clinical presentation and histologic findings, and static over a 3-year period favors the concept that follicular porokeratosis is a distinct clinical entity and not merely a histologic variant of the porokeratotic dermatoses described in the literature thus far. [source]

Complete mesocolic excision (CME): A "novel" concept?

A. M. Hogan
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Effects of granularity of search results on the relevance judgment behavior of engineers: Building systems for retrieval and understanding of context

Panos Balatsoukas
Granularity is a novel concept for presenting information in search result interfaces of hierarchical query-driven information retrieval systems in a manner that can support understanding and exploration of the context of the retrieved information (e.g., by highlighting its position in the granular hierarchy and exposing its relationship with relatives in the hierarchy). Little research, however, has been conducted on the effects of granularity of search results on the relevance judgment behavior of engineers. Engineers are highly motivated information users who are particularly interested in understanding the context of the retrieved information. Therefore, it is hypothesized that the design of systems with careful regard for granularity would improve engineers' relevance judgment behavior. To test this hypothesis, a prototype system was developed and evaluated in terms of the time needed for users to find relevant information, the accuracy of their relevance judgment, and their subjective satisfaction. To evaluate the prototype, a user study was conducted where participants were asked to complete tasks, complete a satisfaction questionnaire, and be interviewed. The findings showed that participants performed better and were more satisfied when the prototype system presented only relevant information in context. Although this study presents some novel findings about the effects of granularity and context on user relevance judgment behavior, the results should be interpreted with caution. For example, participants in this research were recruited by convenience and performed a set of simulated tasks as opposed to real ones. However, suggestions for further research are presented. [source]

Chronic inflammation in asthma: a contest of persistence vs resolution

ALLERGY, Issue 9 2008
C. L. Van Hove
Recent investigations have highlighted that endogenous anti-inflammatory mediators and immune regulating mechanisms are important for the resolution of inflammatory processes. A disruption of these mechanisms can be causally related not only to the initiation of unnecessary inflammation, but also to the persistence of several chronic inflammatory diseases. In asthma, chronic Th-2 driven eosinophilic inflammation of the airways is one of the central abnormalities. To date, elucidating the role of the different pro-inflammatory mediators involved in orchestrating the inflammatory processes in asthma has been the subject of intense research in both humans and animal models. However, the counter-regulatory mechanisms that co-determine the outcome in the contest of resolution vs persistence of the eosinophilic airway inflammation remain poorly understood. These are currently being investigated in animal models of chronic asthma. Elucidating these mechanisms is of relevance, since it can give rise to a new therapeutic approach in the treatment of chronic airway inflammation in asthmatics. This novel concept of treatment involves the stimulation of endogenous anti-inflammatory pathways, rather than solely antagonising the various pro-inflammatory mediators. Here, we review and discuss the current knowledge about these endogenous anti-inflammatory mediators in clinical and experimental asthma. [source]

Dual-band-rejection filter based on split ring resonator (SRR) and complimentary SRR

Xin Hu
Abstract A novel concept of a compact, low insertion-loss dual-band-rejection filter (DBRF) is proposed, and its equivalent circuit model is given. The filter consists of single split ring resonators (SRRs) on the top of the host microstrip line and Complimentary SRR etched on the back ground plane. The dimensions of the structure are as small as 1.4 cm × 2 cm, while high frequency selectivity is achieved at both band edges due to the presence of two transmission zeros. The filter has an insertion loss of better than 1 dB, a return loss of larger than 10 dB in the passband from 3.3 to 4.0 GHz, and two rejections of greater than 30 dB within 2.5,2.6 and 5.2,5.6 GHz. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 51: 2519,2522, 2009; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/mop.24596 [source]

Monoclonal antibody against rat podocyte-derived macrophagic cells reacts with crescent-forming cells in an experimental model

NEPHROLOGY, Issue 5 2003
SUMMARY: The origin of crescent-forming cells in crescentic glomerulonephritis has not been clarified in spite of the application of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against glomerular epithelial cells or monocytes/macrophages. This study was undertaken to characterize the cellular composition of crescents using a new marker, mAb OS-3, produced against macrophagic cells derived from podocytes in normal rat glomerular culture. Monoclonal antibody OS-3 was confirmed to be reactive with some normal epithelial cells of Bowman's capsule. Female Wistar Kyoto rats were injected with rabbit antiglomerular basement membrane (GBM) serum and killed at 2 h, 1, 3, 7, 14 days and 2 months, respectively. The mAb OS-3-positive cells were segmentally observed in glomeruli at 3 days, increased at 14 days, but decreased at 2 months. These cells lacked reactivity with antipodocalyxin in double immunofluorescence (IF) staining. In immunoelectron microscopy of a glomerulus on day 3 and 7, however, reaction products were observed within cells located on the outer surface of the GBM, which were considered to be podocyte in terms of its localization. In conclusion, we have shown a possibility that damaged podocytes partly constitute crescent-forming cells with phenotypic changes, visualized by positive staining with mAb OS-3. We propose a novel concept of crescent formation, suggesting that crescents may be partly composed of phenotypically changed cells, which could not be detected by typical markers for glomerular epithelial cells or monocytes/macrophages. [source]

Review: Familial Parkinson's disease , genetics, clinical phenotype and neuropathology in relation to the common sporadic form of the disease

Carola Schiesling
The identification of the first gene in familial Parkinson's disease (PD) only 10 years ago was a major step in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms in neurodegeneration. Alpha-synuclein aggregation was not only recognized as a key event in neurodegeneration in patients carrying mutations in this gene, but it turned out to be the most consistent marker to define Lewy body pathology also in non-heritable idiopathic PD (IPD). Subsequent comprehensive pathoanatomical studies of IPD brains led to a novel concept of an ascending pathological process in variable stages that are reflected by alpha-synuclein aggregation at specific predilection sites. To date, more than seven genes are known to cause familial PD. The fact that these genetic forms of Parkinsonism present with clinical features indistinguishable from IPD, but may display neuropathological features that are not consistent with IPD, underscores the need of a more differentiated approach to familial and sporadic forms of Parkinsonism. Indeed, in distinct populations, mutations in one single gene were found to cause the disease in up to 40% of patients formerly described as ,idiopathic' cases. These findings indicate that IPD, as defined by a late-onset disorder with no (apparent) genetic contribution, is part of a clinical syndrome that becomes more and more heterogeneous in terms of aetiology, with overlapping clinical and pathoanatomical features. Thus in the present review, we discuss clues from familial PD to our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of neurodegeneration with special consideration of the variable clinical and neuropathological aspects. [source]

Immunoaffinity separation of plasma proteins by IgY microbeads: Meeting the needs of proteomic sample preparation and analysis

Lei Huang
Abstract Separation of complex protein mixtures that have a wide dynamic range of concentration, such as plasma or serum, is a challenge for proteomic analysis. Sample preparation to remove high-abundant proteins is essential for proteomics analysis. Immunoglobulin yolk (IgY) antibodies have unique and advantageous features that enable specific protein removal to aid in the detection of low-abundant proteins and biomarker discovery. This report describes the efficiency and effectiveness of IgY microbeads in separating 12 abundant proteins from plasma with an immunoaffinity spin column or LC column. The protein separation and sample preparation process was monitored via SDS-PAGE, 2-DE, LC-MS/MS, or clinical protein assays. The data demonstrate the high specificity of the protein separation, with removal of 95,99.5% of the abundant proteins. IgY microbeads against human proteins can also selectively remove orthologous proteins of other mammals such as mouse, rat, etc. Besides the specificity and reproducibility of the IgY microbeads, the report discusses the factors that may cause potential variations in protein separation such as protein,protein interactions (known as "Interactome"), binding and washing conditions of immunoaffinity reagents, etc. A novel concept of Seppromics is introduced to address methodologies and science of protein separation in a context of proteomics. [source]

A variable order constitutive relation for viscoelasticity

ANNALEN DER PHYSIK, Issue 7-8 2007
L.E.S. Ramirez
Abstract A constitutive relation for linear viscoelasticity of composite materials is formulated using the novel concept of Variable Order (VO) differintegrals. In the model proposed in this work, the order of the derivative is allowed to be a function of the independent variable (time), rather than a constant of arbitrary order. We generalize previous works that used fractional derivatives for the stress and strain relationship by allowing a continuous spectrum of non-integer dynamics to describe the physical problem. Starting with the assumption that the order of the derivative is a measure of the rate of change of disorder within the material, we develop a statistical mechanical model that is in agreement with experimental results for strain rates varying more than eight orders of magnitude in value. We use experimental data for an epoxy resin and a carbon/epoxy composite undergoing constant compression rates in order to derive a VO constitutive equation that accurately models the linear viscoelastic deformation in time. The resulting dimensionless constitutive equation agrees well with all the normalized data while using a much smaller number of empirical coefficients when compared to available models in the literature. [source]

Mechanics with variable-order differential operators

ANNALEN DER PHYSIK, Issue 11-12 2003
C.F.M. Coimbra
Abstract This work presents the novel concept of Variable-Order (VO) Calculus through the description of a simple problem in Mechanics. A mathematical definition for the VO-differential operator that is suitable to mechanical modelling is proposed, and an example concerning the effect of nonuniform viscoelastic frictional forces is described. A numerical method for the solution of Variable Order Differential Equations (VODEs) is proposed. The physical model under study requires mathematical tools that lie beyond the traditional methods of Constant-Order (CO) differential equations. The VO-Calculus formulation is compared to a CO-Calculus model in order to show the limitations of the latter in resolving the transition between the relevant dynamic regimes. [source]

The Aachen MiniHLM,A Miniaturized Heart-Lung Machine for Neonates With an Integrated Rotary Blood Pump

Jutta Arens
Abstract The operation of congenital heart defects in neonates often requires the use of heart-lung machines (HLMs) to provide perfusion and oxygenation. This is prevalently followed by serious complications inter alia caused by hemodilution and extrinsic blood contact surfaces. Thus, one goal of developing a HLM for neonates is the reduction of priming volume and contact surface. The currently available systems offer reasonable priming volumes for oxygenators, reservoirs, etc. However, the necessary tubing system contains the highest volumes within the whole system. This is due to the use of roller pumps; hence, the resulting placement of the complete HLM is between 1 and 2 m away from the operating table due to connective tubing between the components. Therefore, we pursued a novel approach for a miniaturized HLM (MiniHLM) by integrating all major system components in one single device. In particular, the MiniHLM is a HLM with the rotary blood pump centrically integrated into the oxygenator and a heat exchanger integrated into the cardiotomy reservoir which is directly connected to the pump inlet. Thus, tubing is only necessary between the patient and MiniHLM. A total priming volume of 102 mL (including arterial filter and a/v line) could be achieved. To validate the overall concept and the specific design we conducted several in vitro and in vivo test series. All tests confirm the novel concept of the MiniHLM. Its low priming volume and blood contact surface may significantly reduce known complications related to cardiopulmonary bypass in neonates (e.g., inflammatory reaction and capillary leak syndrome). [source]

Secure parallel file distribution through a streaming worm network

Michael J. Sheehan
This paper introduces the novel concept of streaming worms and applies the concept to secure parallel file transfer. A streaming worm (sworm) is a powerful class of software that can replicate itself as well as a chunk of arbitrary payload code on a predetermined set of nodes in a network very quickly, while streaming data between all of the nodes in parallel. By harnessing the parallelism and scalability of sworms in a file distribution application, large gigabyte files can be efficiently and securely distributed to a large number of nodes over a Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) network without congesting the network. But unlike traditional file transfer tools such as File Transfer Protocol (FTP), remote copy (RCP), or secure copy (SCP), the total sworm transfer time is relatively independent of the number of target nodes for large files. As such, this method of parallel file distribution is particularly useful when a large array or cluster of similar computers has to be quickly updated with a large amount of identical software or data. © 2007 Alcatel-Lucent. [source]