Neuronal Firing (neuronal + firing)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Neuronal Firing

  • neuronal firing rate

  • Selected Abstracts

    Selective 5-HT1B receptor inhibition of glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic activity in the rat dorsal and median raphe

    Julia C. Lemos
    Abstract The dorsal (DR) and median (MR) raphe nuclei contain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) cell bodies that give rise to the majority of the ascending 5-HT projections to the forebrain. The DR and MR have differential roles in mediating stress, anxiety and depression. Glutamate and GABA activity sculpt putative 5-HT neuronal firing and 5-HT release in a seemingly differential manner in the MR and DR, yet isolated glutamate and GABA activity within the DR and MR has not been systematically characterized. Visualized whole-cell voltage-clamp techniques were used to record excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (EPSC and IPSC) in 5-HT-containing neurons. There was a regional variation in action potential-dependent (spontaneous) and basal [miniature (m)] glutamate and GABAergic activity. mEPSC activity was greater than mIPSC activity in the DR, whereas in the MR the mIPSC activity was greater. These differences in EPSC and IPSC frequency indicate that glutamatergic and GABAergic input have distinct cytoarchitectures in the DR and MR. 5-HT1B receptor activation decreased mEPSC frequency in the DR and the MR, but selectively inhibited mIPSC activity only in the MR. This finding, in concert with its previously described function as an autoreceptor, suggests that 5-HT1B receptors influence the ascending 5-HT system through multiple mechanisms. The disparity in organization and integration of glutamatergic and GABAergic input to DR and MR neurons and their regulation by 5-HT1B receptors may contribute to the distinction in MR and DR regulation of forebrain regions and their differential function in the aetiology and pharmacological treatment of psychiatric disease states. [source]

    Sex hormone-dependent desensitization of 5-HT1A autoreceptors in knockout mice deficient in the 5-HT transporter

    Saoussen Bouali
    Abstract The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is the target of most antidepressant drugs, whose therapeutic action is related to their facilitatory influence on 5-HT neurotransmission. In this study, we investigated the functional adaptive properties of 5-HT1A autoreceptors, which regulate serotonergic neuronal firing, in knockout mice deficient in 5-HTT. Neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) were recorded extracellularly under chloral hydrate anaesthesia in male and female knockout 5-HTT mice and their wild-type counterparts. The inhibitory response of DRN neurons to intravenous injection of the 5-HT1A agonist 8-OH-DPAT was dramatically reduced in knockout 5-HTT compared with wild-type mice, especially in females. Changes in 8-OH-DPAT-induced hypothermia and autoradiographic labelling of 5-HT1A sites in the DRN confirmed a greater level of desensitization/down-regulation of 5-HT1A autoreceptors in female than in male knockout 5-HTT mice. After gonadectomy, the functional status of 5-HT1A autoreceptors was unchanged in wild-type mice, whereas in knockout 5-HTT, castrated males exhibited a down-regulation, and ovariectomized females an up-regulation of these receptors, as shown by electrophysiological recording and autoradiographic labelling in the DRN, as well as by changes in 8-OH-DPAT-induced hypothermia. Finally, in gonadectomized knockout 5-HTT mice, treatment with testosterone or estradiol restored the DRN neuronal firing sensitivity to 8-OH-DPAT back to sham control level in males or females, respectively. These data indicate that sexual hormones participate in the mechanisms responsible for the desensitization of 5-HT1A autoreceptors in knockout 5-HTT mice. The differential effects of testosterone and estradiol on 5-HT1A -mediated control of 5-HT neurotransmission might be related to the well-established gender differences in the vulnerability to depression. [source]

    Hormonal enhancement of neuronal firing is linked to structural remodelling of excitatory and inhibitory synapses

    A. Parducz
    Abstract The ovarian hormone estradiol induces morphological changes in the number of synaptic inputs in specific neuronal populations. However, the functional significance of these changes is still unclear. In this study, the effect of estradiol on the number of anatomically identified synaptic inputs has been assessed in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. The number of axo-somatic, axodendritic and spine synapses was evaluted using unbiased stereological methods and a parallel electrophysiological study was performed to assess whether synaptic anatomical remodelling has a functional consequence on the activity of the affected neurons. Estradiol administration to ovariectomized rats induced a decrease in the number of inhibitory synaptic inputs, an increase in the number of excitatory synapses and an enhancement of the frequency of neuronal firing. These results indicate that oestrogen modifications in firing frequency in arcuate neurons are temporally linked to anatomical modifications in the numerical balance of inhibitory and excitatory synaptic inputs. [source]

    Electrophysiological and behavioural evidence for an antagonistic modulatory role of adenosine A2A receptors in dopamine D2 receptor regulation in the rat dopamine-denervated striatum

    Ingrid Strömberg
    Abstract It has been shown that striatal adenosine A2A receptors can antagonistically interact with dopamine D2 receptors at the membrane level leading to a decrease in the affinity and efficacy of D2 receptors. Extracellular recordings and rotational behaviour were employed to obtain a correlate to these findings in an animal model of Parkinson's disease (PD). The recordings were performed in rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced catecholamine depletion. While recording in the dopamine-depleted striatum, local applications of the dopamine D2 agonist quinpirole reduced neuronal activity. However, when the adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 was applied simultaneously with quinpirole, the inhibition of neuronal firing seen after quinpirole alone was significantly potentiated (P < 0.001, n = 11). In contrast, local application of CGS 21680 attenuated the effect of quinpirole. The doses of MSX-3 and CGS 21680 used to achieve the modulation of quinpirole action had no effect per se on striatal neuronal firing. Furthermore, rotational behaviour revealed that MSX-3 dose-dependently increased the number of turns when administrated together with a threshold dose of quinpirole while no enhancement was achieved when MSX-3 was combined with SKF 38393. MSX-3 alone did not induce rotational behaviour. In conclusion, this study shows that low ineffective doses of MSX-3 enhance the effect of quinpirole on striatal firing rate, while the A2A agonist exerts the opposite action. This mechanism gives a therapeutic potential to A2A antagonists in the treatment of PD by enhancing D2 receptor function. [source]

    Contrasting roles of neural firing rate and local field potentials in human memory

    HIPPOCAMPUS, Issue 8 2007
    Arne Ekstrom
    Abstract Recording the activity of neurons is a mainstay of animal memory research, while human recordings are generally limited to the activity of large ensembles of cells. The relationship between ensemble activity and neural firing rate during declarative memory processes, however, remains unclear. We recorded neurons and local field potentials (LFPs) simultaneously from the same sites in the human hippocampus and entorhinal cortex (ERC) in patients with implanted intracranial electrodes during a virtual taxi-driver task that also included a memory retrieval component. Neurons increased their firing rate in response to specific passengers or landmarks both during navigation and retrieval. Although we did not find item specificity in the broadband LFP, both ,- and ,-band LFPs increased power to specific items on a small but significant percent of channels. These responses, however, did not correlate with item-specific neural responses. To contrast item-specific responses with process-specific responses during memory, we compared neural and LFP responses during encoding (navigation) and retrieval (associative and item-specific recognition). A subset of neurons also altered firing rates nonspecifically while subjects viewed items during encoding. Interestingly, LFPs in the hippocampus and ERC increased in power nonspecifically while subjects viewed items during retrieval, more often during associative than item-recognition. Furthermore, we found no correlation between neural firing rate and broadband, ,-band, and ,-band LFPs during process-specific responses. Our findings suggest that neuronal firing and ensemble activity can be dissociated during encoding, item-maintenance, and retrieval in the human hippocampal area, likely relating to functional properties unique to this region. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Anatomical Markers of Activity in Neuroendocrine Systems: Are we all ,Fos-ed out'?

    G. E. Hoffman
    Abstract It has now been nearly 15 years since the immediate early gene, c -fos, and its protein product, Fos, were introduced as tools for determining activity changes within neurones of the nervous system. In the ensuing years, this approach was applied to neuroendocrine study with success. With it have come advances in our understanding of which neuroendocrine neurones respond to various stimuli and how other central nervous system components interact with neuroendocrine neurones. Use of combined tract-tracing approaches, as well as double-labelling for Fos and transmitter markers, have added to characterization of neuroendocrine circuits. The delineation of the signal transduction cascades that induce Fos expression has led to establishment of the relationship between neurone firing and Fos expression. Importantly, we can now appreciate that Fos expression is often, but not always, associated with increased neuronal firing and vice versa. There are remaining gaps in our understanding of Fos in the nervous system. To date, knowledge of what Fos does after it is expressed is still limited. The transience of Fos expression after stimulation (especially if the stimulus is persistent) complicates design of experiments to assess the function of Fos and makes Fos of little value as a marker for long-term changes in neurone activity. In this regard, alternative approaches must be sought. Useful alternative approaches employed to date to monitor neuronal changes in activity include examination of (i) signal transduction intermediates (e.g. phosphorylated CREB); (ii) transcriptional/translational intermediates (e.g. heteronuclear RNA, messenger RNA (mRNA), prohormones); and (iii) receptor translocation. Another capitalizes on the fact that many neuroendocrine systems show striking stimulus-transcription coupling in the regulation of their transmitter or its synthetic enzymes. Together, as we move into the 21st Century, the use of multiple approaches to study activity within neuroendocrine systems will further our understanding of these important systems. [source]

    Effect of MT1 melatonin receptor deletion on melatonin-mediated phase shift of circadian rhythms in the C57BL/6 mouse

    M. L. Dubocovich
    Abstract:, In the mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), melatonin activates MT1 and MT2 G-protein coupled receptors, which are involved primarily in inhibition of neuronal firing and phase shift of circadian rhythms. This study investigated the ability of melatonin to phase shift circadian rhythms in wild type (WT) and MT1 melatonin receptor knockout (KO) C57BL/6 mice. In WT mice, melatonin (90 ,g/mouse, s.c.) administered at circadian time 10 (CT10; CT12 onset of activity) significantly phase advanced the onset of the circadian activity rhythm (0.60 ± 0.09 hr, n = 41) when compared with vehicle treated controls (,0.02 ± 0.07 hr, n = 28) (P < 0.001). In contrast, C57 MT1KO mice treated with melatonin did not phase shift circadian activity rhythms (,0.10 ± 0.12 hr, n = 42) when compared with vehicle treated mice (,0.12 ± 0.07 hr, n = 43). Similarly, in the C57 MT1KO mouse melatonin did not accelerate re-entrainment to a new dark onset after an abrupt advance of the dark cycle. In contrast, melatonin (3 and 10 pm) significantly phase advanced circadian rhythm of neuronal firing in SCN brain slices independent of genotype with an identical maximal shift at 10 pm (C57 WT: 3.61 ± 0.38 hr, n = 3; C57 MT1KO: 3.45 ± 0.11 hr, n = 4). Taken together, these results suggest that melatonin-mediated phase advances of circadian rhythms of neuronal firing in the SCN in vitro may involve activation of the MT2 receptor while in vivo activation of the MT1 and possibly the MT2 receptor may be necessary for the expression of melatonin-mediated phase shifts of overt circadian activity rhythms. [source]

    Can Serotonin Transporter Genotype Predict Craving in Alcoholism?

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 8 2009
    Nassima Ait-Daoud
    Background:, We hypothesize that functional control of the serotonergic system is regulated in part by differential expression of the serotonin (5-HT) transporter (5-HTT). Alcohol-dependent individuals with the LL/LS genotype (L-carriers), compared with those with the SS genotype, have a lower 5-HT neurotransmission, which we hypothesize would be associated with higher craving for alcohol among L-carriers. We hypothesize further that acute peripheral depletion of tryptophan (5-HT's precursor), while further reducing 5-HT function, might decrease auto-inhibition of 5-HT neuronal firing, thereby increasing 5-HT neurotransmission transiently and lowering alcohol craving. Methods:, We tested these hypotheses by examining whether in 34 Hispanic alcohol-dependent individuals subjective and physiological cue craving for alcohol differed by genotype, age of onset of problem drinking, and tryptophan availability. Results:, On subjective "urge to drink" and "crave for a drink," we found a significant (p < 0.05) main effect of genotype and cue, as well as an interaction among genotype, age of onset of problem drinking, and tryptophan depletion. For the physiological measure of pulse, there was a main effect of genotype. L-carriers had higher craving than their SS counterparts, an effect that decreased under tryptophan depletion. While craving in L-carriers increased with an earlier age of onset of problem drinking, the opposite effect was seen in those with the SS genotype. Conclusion:, These results not only provide support for the hypothesis that alcoholics who are L-carriers have greater alcohol craving and possibly greater propensity for drinking but also propose that there is an important 5-HTT gene-by-environment interaction that alters cue craving response for alcohol. [source]

    Lactate efflux and the neuroenergetic basis of brain function

    NMR IN BIOMEDICINE, Issue 7-8 2001
    Robert G. Shulman
    Abstract In the unstimulated brain energy is primarily supplied by the oxidation of glucose. However the oxygen-to-glucose index (OGI), which is the ratio of metabolic rates of oxygen to glucose, CMRO2/CMRglc, diverges from the theoretical value of 6 as activity is increased. In vivo measurements of brain lactate show its concentration to increase with stimulation. The decreasing OGI with stimulation had led to the suggestion that activation, unlike resting activity, is supported by anaerobic glycolysis. To date a unifying concept that accommodates glucose oxidation at rest with lactate generation and OGI decrease during stimulation of brain is lacking. Furthermore, energetics that change with increasing activity are not consistent with a neuroenergetic model that has been proposed from 1- 13C-glucose MRS experiments. That model, based upon in vivo MRS measurements and cellular studies by Pellerin and Magistretti, showed that glutamate neurotransmitter cycling was coupled to glucose oxidation over a wide range of brain activities from rest down to deep anesthesia. Here we reconcile these paradoxical observations by suggesting that anaerobic glucose consumption (which can provide energy rapidly) increases with activation to meet the power requirements of millisecond neuronal firing. It is proposed, in accord with our neuroenergetic model, that the extra glucose mobilized rapidly for glial clearance of glutamate, is not needed for the oxidative processes that are responsible for neuronal firing and glutamate release, and consequently it is effluxed as lactate. A stoichiometric relation between OGI and lactate concentration is derived from the neuroenergetic model, showing that the enhanced glucose uptake during activation is consistent with neuronal activity being energetically supported by glucose oxidation. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Synchronization of enteric neuronal firing during the murine colonic MMC

    Nick J. Spencer
    DiI (1,1,didodecyl-3,3,3,,3,-tetramethylindocarbecyanine perchlorate) retrograde labelling and intracellular electrophysiological techniques were used to investigate the mechanisms underlying the generation of spontaneously occurring colonic migrating myoelectric complexes (colonic MMCs) in mice. In isolated, intact, whole colonic preparations, simultaneous intracellular electrical recordings were made from pairs of circular muscle (CM) cells during colonic MMC activity in the presence of nifedipine (1,2 ,m). During the intervals between colonic MMCs, spontaneous inhibitory junction potentials (IJPs) were always present. The amplitudes of spontaneous IJPs were highly variable (range 1,20 mV) and occurred asynchronously in the two CM cells, when separated by 1 mm in the longitudinal axis. Colonic MMCs occurred every 151 ± 7 s in the CM and consisted of a repetitive discharge of cholinergic rapid oscillations in membrane potential (range: 1,20 mV) that were superimposed on a slow membrane depolarization (mean amplitude: 9.6 ± 0.5 mV; half-duration: 25.9 ± 0.7 s). During the rising (depolarizing) phase of each colonic MMC, cholinergic rapid oscillations occurred simultaneously in both CM cells, even when the two electrodes were separated by up to 15 mm along the longitudinal axis of the colon. Smaller amplitude oscillations (< 5 mV) showed poor temporal correlation between two CM cells, even at short electrode separation distances (i.e. < 1 mm in the longitudinal axis). When the two electrodes were separated by 20 mm, all cholinergic rapid oscillations and IJPs in the CM (regardless of amplitude) were rarely, if ever, coordinated in time during the colonic MMC. Cholinergic rapid oscillations were blocked by atropine (1 ,m) or tetrodotoxin (1 ,m). Slow waves were never recorded from any CM cells. DiI labelling showed that the maximum projection length of CM motor neurones and interneurones along the bowel was 2.8 mm and 13 mm, respectively. When recordings were made adjacent to either oral or anal cut ends of the colon, the inhibitory or excitatory phases of the colonic MMC were absent, respectively. In summary, during the colonic MMC, cholinergic rapid oscillations of similar amplitudes occur simultaneously in two CM cells separated by large distances (up to 15 mm). As this distance was found to be far greater than the projection length of any single CM motor neurone, we suggest that the generation of each discrete cholinergic rapid oscillation represents a discreet cholinergic excitatory junction potential (EJP) that involves the synaptic activation of many cholinergic motor neurones simultaneously, by synchronous firing in many myenteric interneurones. Our data also suggest that ascending excitatory and descending inhibitory nerve pathways interact and reinforce each other. [source]

    Thalamic sensitization transforms localized pain into widespread allodynia

    ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY, Issue 1 2010
    Rami Burstein PhD
    Objective Focal somatic pain can evolve into widespread hypersensitivity to nonpainful and painful skin stimuli (allodynia and hyperalgesia, respectively). We hypothesized that transformation of headache into whole-body allodynia/hyperalgesia during a migraine attack is mediated by sensitization of thalamic neurons that process converging sensory impulses from the cranial meninges and extracephalic skin. Methods Extracephalic allodynia was assessed using single unit recording of thalamic trigeminovascular neurons in rats and contrast analysis of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals registered in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans of patients exhibiting extracephalic allodynia. Results Sensory neurons in the rat posterior thalamus that were activated and sensitized by chemical stimulation of the cranial dura exhibited long-lasting hyperexcitability to innocuous (brush, pressure) and noxious (pinch, heat) stimulation of the paws. Innocuous, extracephalic skin stimuli that did not produce neuronal firing at baseline (eg, brush) became as effective as noxious stimuli (eg, pinch) in eliciting large bouts of neuronal firing after sensitization was established. In migraine patients, fMRI assessment of BOLD signals showed that brush and heat stimulation at the skin of the dorsum of the hand produced larger BOLD responses in the posterior thalamus of subjects undergoing a migraine attack with extracephalic allodynia than the corresponding responses registered when the same patients were free of migraine and allodynia. Interpretation We propose that the spreading of multimodal allodynia and hyperalgesia beyond the locus of migraine headache is mediated by sensitized thalamic neurons that process nociceptive information from the cranial meninges together with sensory information from the skin of the scalp, face, body, and limbs. ANN NEUROL 2010 [source]