Negative Consequences (negative + consequence)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Assessing Negative Consequences in Patients with Substance Use and Bipolar Disorders: Psychometric Properties of the Short Inventory of Problems (SIP)

Rachel E. Bender BA
The Short Inventory of Problems (SIP), a questionnaire that measures negative consequences of alcohol use, has not been validated among substance users with co-occurring psychiatric illness. This study examined the psychometric properties of the SIP in 57 outpatients diagnosed with substance use disorder and bipolar disorder. We modified the items to assess drugs in addition to alcohol and, further, we added corresponding items to assess consequences of bipolar disorder. This modified version of the SIP was psychometrically sound, and may be useful in patients with both disorders. A greater understanding of perceived negative consequences may enhance outcome assessment in dually diagnosed populations. [source]

Absconding: A review of the literature 1996,2008

Eimear Muir-Cochrane
ABSTRACT:, Absconding is a significant problem with potential for harm to patients or the general public. The consequences of absconding include physical harm, prolonged treatment time, and substantial economic costs. The aim of this systematic literature review is to synthesize quality literature about absconding from psychiatric facilities, identify gaps in knowledge, and make recommendations for practice. An electronic search yielded 39 journal articles that met the review criteria. Findings demonstrate that a single definition of absconding remains elusive, making the prevalence of absconding difficult to establish. Absconding events are multifactorial, with environmental, psychosocial, and organic aspects. Negative consequences exist including violence, aggression, and self-neglect and harm to self and others. Papers are clustered around the following themes: harm and risk, absconder profiles, absconding rates, and perceptions of nurses and patients. Nursing interventions designed to decrease absconding have been implemented with success, but only in a few studies and in Australia, none have been reported in the literature to date. Further research is required to identify appropriate nursing-based interventions that may prove useful in reducing the risk of absconding. [source]

Negative consequences of community group participation for women's mental health and well-being: Implications for gender aware social capital building

Katy Osborne
Abstract Participation in community groups is argued to be an important way to create health-promoting social capital. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the ways in which gender affects the health promotion potential of participation. This paper reports on a qualitative study of women's experiences of participation in a diverse range of community groups, and considers how such involvement can potentially have a negative impact upon mental well-being. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 women in Adelaide, South Australia. Women's accounts of their group involvement reflected that their identities as mothers were particularly important in shaping their participation. Some women reported difficulties in combining group involvement with their family responsibilities. Stress attached to negotiating social interaction within groups was also raised as an issue. It was found that participation can reinforce gender inequality and potentially have severe negative consequences for mental health, issues that need to be considered alongside the potential health benefits. The findings are considered in light of Bourdieu's critical conceptualization of social capital. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The burden of overweight and obesity in the Asia,Pacific region

Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration
Summary The rise in the prevalence of overweight and obesity (body mass index ,25 kg m,2) is, in part, a negative consequence of the increasing economic developments of many lower- and middle-income countries in the Asia,Pacific region. To date, there has been no systematic quantification of the scale of the problem in countries of this region. From the most recent nationally representative estimates for the prevalence of overweight and obesity in 14 countries of the region, it is apparent that overweight and obesity is endemic in much of the region, prevalence ranging from less than 5% in India to 60% in Australia. Moreover, although the prevalence in China is a third of that in Australia, the increase in prevalence in China over the last 20 years was 400% compared with 20% in Australia. In addition, across various countries in the region, the population attributable fractions because of overweight and obesity ranged from 0.8% to 9.2% for coronary heart disease mortality, 0.2% to 2.9% for haemorrhagic stroke mortality, and 0.9% to 10.2% for ischaemic stroke mortality. These results indicate that consequences of overweight and obesity for health and the economy of many of these countries are likely to increase in coming years. [source]

Energy consumption and economic growth: causality relationship for Nigeria

Suleiman Sa'ad
In this paper, cointegration and causality between energy consumption and gross domestic product (GDP) in Nigeria over the period 1971,2006 were analysed. The study used vector error correction models to test the relationships. The results of these tests showed the existence of cointegration as well as unidirectional causality-running from GDP to energy in Nigeria. The conclusion from these results was that decline in GDP or economic recession may have an adverse effects on energy consumption in Nigeria. However, energy conservation policies could be effectively implemented without any negative consequence on the growth of GDP in Nigeria. [source]

Affect-Congruent Social-Cognitive Evaluations and Behaviors

Kätlin Peets
This study examined whether the affect children feel toward peers would influence children's social-cognitive evaluations and behaviors. The sample consisted of 209 fifth-grade children (11- to 12-year-olds; 119 boys and 90 girls). For each child, 3 target peers (liked, disliked, and neutral) were identified via a sociometric nomination procedure. The names of the targets were then inserted into hypothetical vignettes in which the target peer's behavior had a negative consequence for the child. After each vignette, questions about intent, outcome expectations, and self-efficacy beliefs were asked. In addition, self-reports regarding relationship-specific proactive and reactive aggression and regarding victimization were collected. The results demonstrate that children social-cognitively differentiate between the relationship types and that relationship-specific evaluations are associated with relationship-specific behaviors. [source]

Management and Recovery Options for Ural River Beluga Sturgeon

caviar; CITES; criadero; Mar Caspio; puntos de referencia; sobrepesca Abstract:,Management of declining fisheries of anadromous species sometimes relies heavily on supplementation of populations with captive breeding, despite evidence that captive breeding can have negative consequences and may not address the root cause of decline. The beluga sturgeon (Huso huso), a species threatened by the market for black caviar and reductions in habitat quality, is managed through harvest control and hatchery supplementation, with an emphasis on the latter. We used yield per recruit and elasticity analyses to evaluate the population status and current levels of fishing and to identify the life-history stages that are the best targets for conservation of beluga of the Ural River. Harvest rates in recent years were four to five times higher than rates that would sustain population abundance. Sustainable rates of fishing mortality are similar to those for other long-lived marine species such as sharks and mammals. Yield per recruit, which is maximized if fish are first harvested at age 31 years, would be greatly enhanced by raising minimum size limits or reducing illegal take of subadults. Improving the survival of subadult and adult females would increase population productivity by 10 times that achieved by improving fecundity and survival from egg to age 1 year (i.e., hatchery supplementation). These results suggest that reducing mortality of subadults and adult wild fish is a more effective conservation strategy than hatchery supplementation. Because genetics is not factored into hatchery management practices, supplementation may even reduce the viability of the beluga sturgeon. Resumen:,El manejo de pesquerías de peces anádromos en declinación a veces depende estrechamente de la suplementación de poblaciones mediante la reproducción en cautiverio, no obstante la evidencia de que la reproducción en cautiverio puede tener consecuencias negativas y no abordar la causa principal de la declinación. El esturión beluga (Huso huso), una especie amenazada por el mercado de caviar negro y por reducciones en la calidad del hábitat, es manejado mediante el control de la cosecha y suplementación de poblaciones, con énfasis en esta. Utilizamos análisis de producción por recluta y de elasticidad para evaluar el estatus de la población y los niveles de pesca actuales y para identificar las etapas de la historia de vida que son los mejores blancos para la conservación del beluga en el Río Ural. Las tasas de cosecha en años recientes fueron cuatro a cinco veces mayores que las tasas que sustentarían la abundancia de la población. Las tasas sustentables de mortalidad por pesca son similares a las de otras especies marinas longevas como tiburones y mamíferos. La producción por recluta, que es maximizada si los peces son cosechados a la edad de 31 años, podría incrementar significativamente elevando los límites de talla mínima o reduciendo la captura ilegal de subadultos. La mejora de la supervivencia de hembras subadultas y adultas incrementaría la productividad de la población 10 veces más que la mejora obtenida incrementando la fecundidad y supervivencia de huevo a 1 año de edad (i. e., suplementación de poblaciones mediante reproducción en cautiverio). Estos resultados sugieren que la reducción de la mortalidad de peces silvestres subadultos y adultos es una mejor estrategia de conservación que la suplementación. Debido a que la genética no es considerada en las prácticas de manejo en los criaderos, la suplementación incluso puede reducir la viabilidad del esturión beluga. [source]

Physiological and Behavioral Differences in Magellanic Penguin Chicks in Undisturbed and Tourist-Visited Locations of a Colony

corticoesterona; ecoturismo; perturbación humana; Spheniscus magellanicus Abstract:,Studies examining anthropogenic effects on wildlife typically focus on adults and on behavioral responses rather than the physiological consequences of human disturbances. Here we examined how Magellanic Penguin ( Spheniscus magellanicus) chicks living in either tourist-visited or undisturbed areas of a breeding colony were affected by human visitation by comparing the baseline and stress-induced levels of corticosterone during three periods of the breeding season. Newly hatched chicks in visited areas had higher corticosterone stress responses than newly hatched chicks in undisturbed areas (p =0.007), but baseline levels were similar (p =0.61). By 40,50 days of age and around fledging time, both visited and undisturbed chicks showed a robust corticosterone stress response to capture. Tourist-visited chicks did not flee when approached by humans, however, whereas undisturbed chicks fled significantly sooner (i.e., when approached no closer than 9 m; p < 0.0001). Although it is unknown whether Magellanic Penguin chicks raised in visited areas suffer negative consequences from the elevation of the corticosterone stress response at hatching, they do exhibit behavioral habituation to human contact by the time they are ready to fledge. Unlike adults living in tourist areas, however, fledging chicks in visited areas do not have a decreased stress response to capture and restraint. Our results show that the coupling of behavioral and physiological habituation in Magellanic Penguins is complex and life-history context may greatly affect the ability of wildlife to adapt to anthropogenic disturbances. Resumen:,Los estudios de los efectos antropogénicos sobre la vida silvestre se centran típicamente en adultos y en las respuestas conductuales en lugar de las consecuencias fisiológicas de las perturbaciones humanas. Aquí examinamos el efecto de la visita de humanos sobre pollos de pingüino (Spheniscus magellanicus) en áreas visitadas por turistas o no perturbadas mediante la comparación de los niveles, base e inducidos por estrés, de corticoesterona durante tres períodos de la temporada reproductiva. Los pollos recién eclosionados en áreas visitadas tuvieron mayor respuesta de la corticoesterona al estrés que los pollos recién eclosionados en áreas no perturbadas (p =0.007), pero los niveles básicos fueron similares (p =0.61). A los 40,50 días y en la etapa de volantón, los pollos visitados y no perturbados mostraron una marcada respuesta de la corticoesterona al estrés al ser capturados. Sin embargo, los pollos visitados por turistas no huyeron cuando se les acercaron humanos, mientras que los pollos no perturbados huyeron significativamente antes (i.e., acercamiento a más de 9 m; p < 0.0001). Aunque se desconoce si los pollos de pingüino criados en áreas visitadas sufren consecuencias negativas por la elevación de la corticosterona en respuesta al estrés al eclosionar, si presentan acostumbramiento conductual al contacto con humanos al momento que están listos para dejar el nido. Sin embargo, a diferencia de adultos que viven en áreas turísticas, los pollos volantones en las áreas visitadas no tienen una disminución en la respuesta al estrés cuando son capturados y sujetados. Nuestros resultados muestran la complejidad de la combinación del acostumbramiento conductual y fisiológico en Spheniscus magellanicus y que el contexto de la historia de vida puede afectar a la habilidad de la vida silvestre para adaptarse a las perturbaciones antropogénicas. [source]

An Experimental Investigation of Landscape Resistance of Forest versus Old-Field Habitats to Emigrating Juvenile Amphibians

Betsie B. Rothermel
Larval amphibians,spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum), small-mouthed salamander (A. texanum), and American toad ( Bufo americanus ),were added to artificial pools in four dispersal arrays on forest edges. Each array consisted of a pool surrounded by a circular drift fence with pitfall traps and two 2.5 × 50 m enclosures (runs) extending into forest and old-field habitat. Juveniles captured at the circular fences were individually marked and released into either field or forest runs. We determined initial distance, initial rate, total distance, and net distance moved by juveniles in the field versus forest from recaptures in the runs. We also conducted 24-hour dehydration trials to compare the rates of evaporative water loss by spotted and small-mouthed salamanders in field and forest. Initial orientation of spotted salamanders and toads was significantly biased toward forest. Orientation of small-mouthed salamanders did not differ significantly from random expectations. The avoidance of open-canopy habitat by juvenile American toads in particular indicates that predictions of dispersal behavior based on adult habitat use may be misleading. Spotted salamanders moved almost four times farther and toads more than three times farther into the forest than into the field, and recapture rates of both species were much lower in the field. We attribute the lower recapture rates and shorter distances moved in the field to higher mortality due to desiccation or an abundance of predators. Juvenile spotted and small-mouthed salamanders experienced greater evaporative water loss in the field. Our data on movement behavior and dehydration rates suggest that old-field habitats offer greater landscape resistance to dispersing juveniles of some species. Thus, forest fragmentation is likely to reduce dispersal rates between local populations of these three species, with potentially negative consequences for population persistence in altered landscapes. Resumen: Utilizamos un enfoque experimental para investigar los efectos de la composición del paisaje sobre el éxito inicial de dispersión de anfibios juveniles. Colcamos larvas de anfibios (salamandras manchadas [Ambystoma maculatum] y A. texanum y sapo americano [Bufo americanus] ) en estanques artificiales en cuatro secuencias de dispersión en bordes de bosque. Cada secuencia consistió de un estanque rodeado por un cerco circular con trampas de fosa y dos encierros (corridas) de 2.5 × 50 m que se extendían hacia el hábitat de bosque y de campo viejo. Los juveniles capturados en los cercos circulares fueron marcados individualmente y liberados en las corridas de bosque o de campo. A partir de recapturas en las corridas, determinamos la distancia inicial, la tasa inicial, las distancia total y la distancia neta recorrida por juveniles en el campo versus el bosque. También realizamos pruebas de deshidratación de 24 horas para comparar las tasas de pérdida de agua por evaporación en salamandras en el campo y el bosque. La orientación inicial de Ambystoma maculatum y Bufo americanus estuvo significativamente sesgada hacia el bosque. La orientación inicial de A. texanum no fue significativamente diferente de las expectativas aleatorias. La evasión del hábitat abierto en particular por juveniles de sapo americano indica que las predicciones del comportamiento de dispersión basadas en el uso del hábitat por adultos pueden llevar a conclusiones erróneas. Las salamandras manchadas se movieron cuatro veces mas lejos y los sapos más de tres veces más lejos dentro del bosque que dentro del campo, y las tasas de recaptura de ambas especies fueron mucho menores en el campo. Atribuimos las bajas tasas de recaptura y las distancias menores a la mayor mortalidad debido a la desecación o a la abundancia de depredadores. Los juveniles de las dos especies de salamandras experimentaron mayor pérdida de agua por evaporación en los campos. Nuestros datos del comportamiento de movimiento y las tasas de deshidratación sugieren que los hábitats de campo viejo ofrecen mayor resistencia de paisaje para los juveniles dispersantes de algunas especies. Por tanto, es probable que la fragmentación de bosques reduce las tasas de dispersión entre poblaciones locales de estas tres especies, con consecuencias potencialmente negativas para la persistencia de la población en paisajes alterados. [source]

Recognising the necessity for Indo-Pacific seagrass conservation

Richard K.F. Unsworth
Abstract Seagrass meadows are declining globally at an unprecedented rate, yet these valuable ecosystem service providers remain marginalized within many conservation agendas. In the Indo-Pacific, this is principally because marine conservation priorities do not recognize the economic and ecological value of the goods and services that seagrasses provide. Dependency on coastal marine resources in the Indo-Pacific for daily protein needs is high relative to other regions and has been found in some places to be up to 100%. Habitat loss therefore may have negative consequences for food security in the region. Whether seagrass resources comprise an important contribution to this dependency remains largely untested. Here, we assemble information sources from throughout the Indo-Pacific region that discuss shallow water fisheries, and examine the role of seagrass meadows in supporting production, both directly, and indirectly through process of habitat connectivity (e.g., nursery function and foraging areas). We find information to support the premise that seagrass meadows are important for fisheries production. They are important fishery areas, and they support the productivity and biodiversity of coral reefs. We argue the value of a different paradigm to the current consensus on marine conservation priorities within the Indo-Pacific that places seagrass conservation as a priority. [source]

Shelter from the storm?

misuse of coastal vegetation bioshields for managing natural disasters
Abstract Vegetated coastal ecosystems provide goods and services to billions of people. In the aftermath of a series of recent natural disasters, including the Indian Ocean Tsunami, Hurricane Katrina and Cyclone Nargis, coastal vegetation has been widely promoted for the purpose of reducing the impact of large storm surges and tsunami. In this paper, we review the use of coastal vegetation as a "bioshield" against these extreme events. Our objective is to alter bioshield policy and reduce the long-term negative consequences for biodiversity and human capital. We begin with an overview of the scientific literature, in particular focusing on studies published since the Indian Ocean Tsunami in 2004 and discuss the science of wave attenuation by vegetation. We then explore case studies from the Indian subcontinent and evaluate the detrimental impacts bioshield plantations can have upon native ecosystems, drawing a distinction between coastal restoration and the introduction of exotic species in inappropriate locations. Finally, we place bioshield policies into a political context, and outline a new direction for coastal vegetation policy and research. [source]

Audit Qualifications of Income-Decreasing Accounting Choices,

Frank D. Hodge
Abstract In this study we conduct an experiment to examine how qualifying an income-decreasing accounting change in years of strong financial performance affects financial report users' assessments of strategic reporting, current financial performance, and future financial performance (performance over the next three years). We find that without the qualification, users viewed the income-decreasing accounting change as relatively nonstrategic and that user assessments of current and future performance were not different. In the presence of the qualification, users believed that the accounting change was relatively strategic, and they discounted the income effect of the accounting change. We find further that their assessments of future performance were below their assessments of current performance but no different from the assessments of future performance in the absence of the qualification. Although our findings suggest that audit qualifications encourage users to be skeptical of income-decreasing accounting changes, we find no evidence that they impose negative consequences on management in terms of lower assessments of financial performance. [source]

An Appeal to Aid Specialists

Keith Horton
The appeal I am making is (roughly speaking) for aid specialists to do more to help those of us who are not aid specialists to arrive at judgments about the effects of the work of (voluntary) aid agencies that we have at least some reason to think accurate. I argue that the fact that it is so difficult for us to arrive at such judgments at present has certain negative consequences, and that this gives those who are in a position to make it easier for us to arrive at such judgments strong reasons to do so. And I argue that (certain) aid specialists are in such a position. Hence my appeal to them to do so. [source]

Rights and Access to Plant Genetic Resources under India's New Law

Anitha Ramanna
Recognition of ,Farmer's Rights' is an attempt by developing countries to evolve a counterclaim to breeders' Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) promoted under the TRIPs Agreement of the WTO. India is one of the first countries to have granted rights to both breeders and farmers under the Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers' Rights Act, 2001. This multiple rights system aims to distribute rights equitably, but may pose the threat of an ,anticommons tragedy' i.e. too many parties independently possessing the right to exclude others from utilising a resource. If under-utilisation of plant genetic resources results, the Act will have negative consequences for sustaining crop productivity and for the welfare of the very farming communities it seeks to compensate. [source]

Risk-taking and the adolescent brain: who is at risk?

Adriana Galvan
Relative to other ages, adolescence is described as a period of increased impulsive and risk-taking behavior that can lead to fatal outcomes (suicide, substance abuse, HIV, accidents, etc.). This study was designed to examine neural correlates of risk-taking behavior in adolescents, relative to children and adults, in order to predict who may be at greatest risk. Activity in reward-related neural circuitry in anticipation of a large monetary reward was measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging, and anonymous self-report ratings of risky behavior, anticipation of risk and impulsivity were acquired in individuals between the ages of 7 and 29 years. There was a positive association between accumbens activity and the likelihood of engaging in risky behavior across development. This activity also varied as a function of individuals' ratings of anticipated positive or negative consequences of such behavior. Impulsivity ratings were not associated with accumbens activity, but rather with age. These findings suggest that during adolescence, some individuals may be especially prone to engage in risky behaviors due to developmental changes in concert with variability in a given individual's predisposition to engage in risky behavior, rather than to simple changes in impulsivity. [source]

Pathological gambling: an increasing public health problem

Article first published online: 7 JUL 200
Gambling has always existed, but only recently has it taken on the endlessly variable and accessible forms we know today. Gambling takes place when something valuable , usually money , is staked on the outcome of an event that is entirely unpredictable. It was only two decades ago that pathological gambling was formally recognized as a mental disorder, when it was included in the DSM-III in 1980. For most people, gambling is a relaxing activity with no negative consequences. For others, however, gambling becomes excessive. Pathological gambling is a disorder that manifests itself through the irrepressible urge to wager money. This disorder ultimately dominates the gambler's life, and has a multitude of negative consequences for both the gambler and the people they interact with, i.e. friends, family members, employers. In many ways, gambling might seem a harmless activity. In fact, it is not the act of gambling itself that is harmful, but the vicious cycle that can begin when a gambler wagers money they cannot afford to lose, and then continues to gamble in order to recuperate their losses. The gambler's ,tragic flaw' of logic lies in their failure to understand that gambling is governed solely by random, chance events. Gamblers fail to recognize this and continue to gamble, attempting to control outcomes by concocting strategies to ,beat the game'. Most, if not all, gamblers try in some way to predict the outcome of a game when they are gambling. A detailed analysis of gamblers' selfverbalizations reveals that most of them behave as though the outcome of the game relied on their personal ,skills'. From the gambler's perspective, skill can influence chance , but in reality, the random nature of chance events is the only determinant of the outcome of the game. The gambler, however, either ignores or simply denies this fundamental rule (1). Experts agree that the social costs of pathological gambling are enormous. Changes in gaming legislation have led to a substantial expansion of gambling opportunities in most industrialized countries around the world, mainly in Europe, America and Australia. Figures for the United States' leisure economy in 1996 show gross gambling revenues of $47.6 billion, which was greater than the combined revenue of $40.8 billion from film box offices, recorded music, cruise ships, spectator sports and live entertainment (2). Several factors appear to be motivating this growth: the desire of governments to identify new sources of revenue without invoking new or higher taxes; tourism entrepreneurs developing new destinations for entertainment and leisure; and the rise of new technologies and forms of gambling (3). As a consequence, prevalence studies have shown increased gambling rates among adults. It is currently estimated that 1,2% of the adult population gambles excessively (4, 5). Given that the prevalence of gambling is related to the accessibility of gambling activities, and that new forms of gambling are constantly being legalized throughout most western countries, this figure is expected to rise. Consequently, physicians and mental health professionals will need to know more about the diagnosis and treatment of pathological gamblers. This disorder may be under-diagnosed because, clinically, pathological gamblers usually seek help for the problems associated with gambling such as depression, anxiety or substance abuse, rather than for the excessive gambling itself. This issue of Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica includes the first national survey of problem gambling completed in Sweden, conducted by Volberg et al. (6). This paper is based on a large sample (N=9917) with an impressively high response rate (89%). Two instruments were used to assess gambling activities: the South Oaks Gambling Screen-Revised (SOGS-R) and an instrument derived from the DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling. Current (1 year) and lifetime prevalence rates were collected. Results show that 0.6% of the respondents were classified as probable pathological gamblers, and 1.4% as problem gamblers. These data reveal that the prevalence of pathological gamblers in Sweden is significantly less than what has been observed in many western countries. The authors have pooled the rates of problem (1.4%) and probable pathological gamblers (0.6%), to provide a total of 2.0% for the current prevalence. This 2% should be interpreted with caution, however, as we do not have information on the long-term evolution of these subgroups of gamblers; for example, we do not know how many of each subgroup will become pathological gamblers, and how many will decrease their gambling or stop gambling altogether. Until this information is known, it would be preferable to keep in mind that only 0.6% of the Swedish population has been identified as pathological gamblers. In addition, recent studies show that the SOGS-R may be producing inflated estimates of pathological gambling (7). Thus, future research in this area might benefit from the use of an instrument based on DSM criteria for pathological gambling, rather than the SOGS-R only. Finally, the authors suggest in their discussion that the lower rate of pathological gamblers obtained in Sweden compared to many other jurisdictions may be explained by the greater availability of games based on chance rather than games based on skill or a mix of skill and luck. Before accepting this interpretation, researchers will need to demonstrate that the outcomes of all games are determined by other factor than chance and randomness. Many studies have shown that the notion of randomness is the only determinant of gambling (1). Inferring that skill is an important issue in gambling may be misleading. While these are important issues to consider, the Volberg et al. survey nevertheless provides crucial information about gambling in a Scandinavian country. Gambling will be an important issue over the next few years in Sweden, and the publication of the Volberg et al. study is a landmark for the Swedish community (scientists, industry, policy makers, etc.). This paper should stimulate interesting discussions and inspire new, much-needed scientific investigations of pathological gambling. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Guido Bondolfi and Robert Ladouceur Invited Guest Editors References 1.,LadouceurR & WalkerM. The cognitive approach to understanding and treating pathological gambling. In: BellackAS, HersenM, eds. Comprehensive clinical psychology. New York: Pergamon, 1998:588 , 601. 2.,ChristiansenEM. Gambling and the American economy. In: FreyJH, ed. Gambling: socioeconomic impacts and public policy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1998:556:36 , 52. 3.,KornDA & ShafferHJ. Gambling and the health of the public: adopting a public health perspective. J Gambling Stud2000;15:289 , 365. 4.,VolbergRA. Problem gambling in the United States. J Gambling Stud1996;12:111 , 128. 5.,BondolfiG, OsiekC, FerreroF. Prevalence estimates of pathological gambling in Switzerland. Acta Psychiatr Scand2000;101:473 , 475. 6.,VolbergRA, AbbottMW, RönnbergS, MunckIM. Prev-alence and risks of pathological gambling in Sweden. Acta Psychiatr Scand2001;104:250 , 256. 7.,LadouceurR, BouchardC, RhéaumeNet al. Is the SOGS an accurate measure of pathological gambling among children, adolescents and adults?J Gambling Stud2000;16:1 , 24. [source]

The promise and the potential consequences of the global transport of mycorrhizal fungal inoculum

Mark W. Schwartz
Abstract Advances in ecology during the past decade have led to a much more detailed understanding of the potential negative consequences of species' introductions. Moreover, recent studies of mycorrhizal symbionts have led to an increased knowledge of the potential utility of fungal inoculations in agricultural, horticultural and ecological management. The intentional movement of mycorrhizal fungal species is growing, but the concomitant potential for negative ecological consequences of invasions by mycorrhizal fungi is poorly understood. We assess the degree to which introductions of mycorrhizal fungi may lead to unintended negative, and potentially costly, consequences. Our purpose is to make recommendations regarding appropriate management guidelines and highlight top priority research needs. Given the difficulty in discerning invasive species problems associated with mycorrhizal inoculations, we recommend the following. First, careful assessment documenting the need for inoculation, and the likelihood of success, should be conducted prior to inoculation because inoculations are not universally beneficial. Second, invasive species problems are costly and often impossible to control by the time they are recognized. We recommend using local inoculum sources whenever possible. Third, non-sterile cultures of inoculum can result in the movement of saprobes and pathogens as well as mutualists. We recommend using material that has been produced through sterile culture when local inoculum is not available. Finally, life-history characteristics of inoculated fungi may provide general guidelines relative to the likelihood of establishment and spread. We recommend that, when using non-local fungi, managers choose fungal taxa that carry life-history traits that may minimize the likelihood of deleterious invasive species problems. Additional research is needed on the potential of mycorrhizal fungi to spread to non-target areas and cause ecological damage. [source]

Heroin-assisted treatment in Switzerland: a case study in policy change

ADDICTION, Issue 1 2010
Ambros Uchtenhagen
ABSTRACT Background Switzerland introduced a pragmatic national drug policy when the former conservative abstinence-orientated politics proved unable to cope with an escalating number of users and related negative consequences for public health and public order. The high visibility of ,needle parks' and the size of the acquired immune deficiency disorder (AIDS) epidemic called for a new approach and for national leadership. Aims To describe the intentions, the process and the results of setting up the new treatment approach of prescribing heroin to treatment resistant heroin addicts, as an example of drug policy change. Materials and Methods A systematic collection of relevant documents is analysed and used as evidence for describing the process of policy change. Results Measures to reduce the negative consequences of continued use and to prevent the spread of AIDS were started mainly by private initiatives and soon taken up officially in the ,four-pillar' drug policy (including harm reduction, prevention, treatment and law enforcement). Medical prescription of heroin to chronic, treatment-resistant heroin addicts was one of the innovations, based on extensive scientific and political preparation. Detailed documentation and evaluation, ample communication of results, adaptations made on the basis of results and extensive public debate helped to consolidate the new policy and heroin-assisted treatment, in spite of its limitations as an observational cohort study. All necessary steps were taken to proceed from a scientific experiment to a routine procedure. Discussion Comparable policy changes have been observed in a few other countries, such as The Netherlands and Germany, based on the Swiss experience, with equally positive results of heroin-assisted treatment. These experiments were designed as randomised controlled trials, comparing intravenous heroin against oral methadone, thereby demonstrating the specific value of pharmaceutical diamorphine for maintenance treatment in opiate dependence. The positive impact of policy change and the positive outcomes of heroin-assisted treatment were acknowledged increasingly nationally and internationally, but made it difficult to continue the process of adapting policy to new challenges, due to the low visibility of present drug problems and to changing political priorities. Conclusion A major change in drug policy was effectively realised under typical conditions of a federalist country with a longstanding tradition of democratic consensus building. Facilitating factors were the size and visibility of the heroin problem, the rise of the Aids epidemic, and a pragmatic attitude of tolerating private initiatives opening the way to official policy change. [source]

Consequences of chronic ketamine self-administration upon neurocognitive function and psychological wellbeing: a 1-year longitudinal study

ADDICTION, Issue 1 2010
Celia J. A. Morgan
ABSTRACT Background ,Recreational' use of ketamine is spreading rapidly among young people. In healthy individuals an acute dose of the N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist ketamine induces marked psychosis-like effects and cognitive impairments, but little is known about the long-term effects of the drug. Aims To evaluate the long-term neuropsychiatric or cognitive consequences. Methods A total of 150 individuals were assessed, 30 in each of five groups: frequent ketamine users, infrequent ketamine users, abstinent users, polydrug controls and non-users of illicit drugs. Twelve months later, 80% of these individuals were re-tested. Results Cognitive deficits were mainly observed only in frequent users. In this group, increasing ketamine use over the year was correlated with decreasing performance on spatial working memory and pattern recognition memory tasks. Assessments of psychological wellbeing showed greater dissociative symptoms in frequent users and a dose,response effect on delusional symptoms, with frequent users scoring higher than infrequent, abstinent users and non-users, respectively. Both frequent and abstinent using groups showed increased depression scores over the 12 months. Conclusions These findings imply that heavy use of ketamine is harmful to aspects of both cognitive function and psychological wellbeing. Health education campaigns need to raise awareness among young people and clinicians about these negative consequences of ketamine use. [source]

Social Studies Education in the Age of Testing and Accountability

Susie Burroughs
With 3 years and counting since its inception, the scope and impact of No Child Left Behind is now being felt in classrooms across the nation. Although some successes have been identified, concerns about the implementation and expectations of the legislation are emerging. As a result of the legislation's emphasis on the development of standards and assessment systems in reading, mathematics, and science, educators of other core and elective subjects are weighing the impact of being left out of the No Child Left Behind formula of testing and accountability. In an attempt to ascertain the perceptions and sentiments of social studies teachers concerning the impact of No Child Left Behind and the concomitant issue of state-level testing and accountability policy, a tristate study was conducted. The findings of this research indicate that although elementary, middle, and high school social studies educators recognize the negative consequences of being left out of No Child Left Behind, they are not convinced that being included would be better for them, their students, or social studies education in general. [source]

Examining the relationship between typical drinking behavior and 21st birthday drinking behavior among college students: implications for event-specific prevention

ADDICTION, Issue 5 2009
Melissa A. Lewis
ABSTRACT Aims The purpose of this research was to: (i) compare 21st birthday drinking with typical drinking; (ii) assess the prevalence of negative consequences and risk behaviors experienced during the 21st birthday week; and (iii) examine the role of typical drinking and 21st birthday drinking in explaining 21st birthday week negative consequences and risk behaviors. Setting and participants Participants (n = 306; 50% male) included college students turning 21 at a Midwestern public university in the United States. Design and measurement Approximately 1 week prior to their 21st birthday, students completed measures of typical past 3-month alcohol consumption via a web-based survey. Following their birthday, students (n = 296; 50% male) completed measures of 21st birthday week drinking as well as negative consequences and risk behaviors. Findings Findings indicated that students consumed considerably larger amounts of alcohol during the week of their 21st birthdays in comparison to typical weekly consumption. Additionally, students experienced a variety of negative consequences and risk behaviors during the week of their 21st birthday, including hangovers, vomiting and not remembering part of the previous evening. Negative binomial regression results indicated that those most likely to experience more negative consequences and risk behaviors associated with 21st birthday drinking were those who consumed heavy amounts of alcohol the week of their birthday, but who did not typically drink excessively. Conclusions Findings underscore the need to develop event-specific prevention approaches for occasions associated with extreme drinking and provide direction for considering who may be at greatest risk for problems associated with celebratory drinking. [source]

Entrepreneurs, Effectual Logic, and Over-Trust

Sanjay Goel
This article complements extant literature on entrepreneurship and trust by proposing a model of over-trust (the tendency to trust more than what is warranted) using entrepreneurial characteristics and effectual logic. We trace how entrepreneurs following effectual processes may tend to over-trust. More formally, we propose that specific personality characteristics of the entrepreneur interact with effectual logic to make the entrepreneur more susceptible to over-trust. The proposed model is value neutral in that we do not imply that over-trust has negative consequences for entrepreneurs. In fact, it may be part of the overall risk that entrepreneurs assume in a new venture creation. [source]

DNA damage in Pakistani pesticide-manufacturing workers assayed using the Comet assay

Javed A. Bhalli
Abstract The production and use of chemical pesticides has increased in recent years. Although the increased use of pesticides may benefit agriculture, they are also the potential source of environmental pollution, and exposure to pesticides can have negative consequences for human health. In the present study, we have assessed DNA damage in blood leukocytes from 29 Pakistani pesticide-factory workers and 35 controls of similar age and smoking history. The workers were exposed to various mixtures of organophosphates, carbamates, and pyrethroids. DNA damage was measured with the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay or Comet assay, using the mean comet tail length (,m) as the DNA damage metric. Exposed workers had significantly longer comet tail lengths than the controls (mean ± SD 19.98 ± 2.87 vs. 7.38 ± 1.48, P < 0.001). Of the possible confounding factors, smokers had significantly longer mean comet tail lengths than nonsmokers and exsmokers for both the workers (21.48 ± 2.58 vs.18.37 ± 2.28, P < 0.001) and the controls (8.86 ± 0.56 vs. 6.79 ± 1.31, P < 0.001), while age had a minimal effect on DNA damage (P > 0.05 and P < 0.05 for workers and controls, respectively). The results of this study indicate that occupational exposure to pesticides causes DNA damage. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Factor and item-response analysis DSM-IV criteria for abuse of and dependence on cannabis, cocaine, hallucinogens, sedatives, stimulants and opioids

ADDICTION, Issue 6 2007
Nathan A. Gillespie
ABSTRACT Aims This paper explored, in a population-based sample of males, the factorial structure of criteria for substance abuse and dependence, and compared qualitatively the performance of these criteria across drug categories using item,response theory (IRT). Design Marginal maximum likelihood was used to explore the factor structure of criteria within drug classes, and a two-parameter IRT model was used to determine how the difficulty and discrimination of individual criteria differ across drug classes. Participants A total of 4234 males born from 1940 to 1974 from the population-based Virginia Twin Registry were approached to participate. Measurements DSM-IV drug use, abuse and dependence criteria for cannabis, sedatives, stimulants, cocaine and opiates. Findings For each drug class, the pattern of endorsement of individual criteria for abuse and dependence, conditioned on initiation and use, could be best explained by a single factor. There were large differences in individual item performance across substances in terms of item difficulty and discrimination. Cocaine users were more likely to have encountered legal, social, physical and psychological consequences. Conclusions The DSM-IV abuse and dependence criteria, within each drug class, are not distinct but best described in terms of a single underlying continuum of risk. Because individual criteria performed very differently across substances in IRT analyses, the assumption that these items are measuring equivalent levels of severity or liability with the same discrimination across different substances is unsustainable. Compared to other drugs, cocaine usage is associated with more detrimental effects and negative consequences, whereas the effects of cannabis and hallucinogens appear to be less harmful. Implications for other drug classes are discussed. [source]

Effects of atrazine and iridovirus infection on survival and life-history traits of the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum)

Diane Forson
Abstract Environmental contaminants and emerging infectious diseases are implicated as factors contributing to global amphibian declines. However, few studies have tested the interaction of these factors. We exposed six-week-old, larval long-toed salamanders (Ambystoma macrodactylum) to Ambystoma tigrinum virus (ATV; 0 or 103.5 plaque-forming units/ml) and sublethal concentrations of atrazine (0, 1.84, 18.4, and 184 ,g/L) in a 4 × 2 factorial design for 30 d. We tested the effects of atrazine and virus on mass and snout-vent length (SVL) at metamorphosis and larval period as well as on rates of mortality and viral infectivity. We confirmed ATV transmission to A. macrodactylum via polymerase chain reaction, but infection rates were lower than expected, consistent with the theory predicting lower pathogen transmission to nonnative hosts. Larvae exposed to both atrazine and ATV had lower levels of mortality and ATV infectivity compared to larvae exposed to virus alone, suggesting atrazine may compromise virus efficacy. The highest atrazine level (184 ,g/L) accelerated metamorphosis and reduced mass and SVL at metamorphosis significantly relative to controls. Exposure to ATV also significantly reduced SVL at metamorphosis. The present study suggests moderate concentrations of atrazine may ameliorate effects of ATV on long-toed salamanders, whereas higher concentrations initiate metamorphosis at a smaller size, with potential negative consequences to fitness. [source]

Changes in the prevalence of alcohol use in rap song lyrics, 1979,97

ADDICTION, Issue 9 2005
Denise Herd
ABSTRACT Aims This paper explores the role of changing images of drinking and alcoholic beverage use in rap music from its beginnings in the United States in the late 1970s to the late 1990s. Design A sample of 341 rap music song lyrics released from 1979 to 1997 were selected using Billboard and Gavin rating charts. Song lyrics were coded for music genres, alcohol beverage types and brand names, drinking behaviors, drinking contexts, intoxication, attitudes towards alcohol and consequences of drinking. Findings From 1979 to 1997, songs with references to alcohol increased fivefold (from 8 to 44%); those exhibiting positive attitudes rose from 43% to 73%; and brand name mentions increased from 46% to 71%. There were also significant increases in songs mentioning champagne and liquor (mainly expensive brand names) when comparing songs released after 1994 with those from previous years. In addition, there were significant increases in references to alcohol to signify glamour and wealth, and using alcohol with drugs and for recreational purposes. The findings also showed that alcohol use in rap music was much more likely to result in positive than negative consequences. Conclusions Many of these findings are consistent with the idea that rap music has been profoundly affected by commercial forces and the marketing of alcoholic beverages. In addition, it is possible that the increase in references to alcoholic beverages in rap music, particularly spirits, is a reflection of a broader advertising culture which increasingly associates African Americans with alcohol use. [source]

Saturday opening of alcohol retail shops in Sweden: an experiment in two phases

ADDICTION, Issue 6 2005
Thor Norström
ABSTRACT Aim In February 2000, a trial started with Saturday opening of alcohol retail shops in certain parts of Sweden (phase I), and in July 2001, Saturday opening was extended to the whole country (phase II). The aim of this study is to assess the impact of phase II, and to probe previous results regarding phase I. Design Prior to February 2000, all alcohol monopoly outlets were closed on Saturdays. After this date, stores in an experimental area (six counties) were open on Saturdays. In the control area (seven counties) the shops remained closed. To prevent biases due to trade leakage, the experimental and control areas were separated by a buffer area (seven counties). Because continuous evaluations of the trial did not reveal any negative consequences, the Saturday opening was implemented in the whole of Sweden after 17 months. Data and methods The outcome measures included alcohol sales and indicators of assaults and drunk driving. The pre-intervention period covered the time period January 1995-January 2000, phase I of the post-intervention period February 2000,June 2001 (17 months), and phase II July 2001,July 2002 (13 months). The effects of the two phases were estimated through analyses of monthly data (auto-regressive integrated moving-average (ARIMA) modelling) depicting how sales and harm rates evolved in the experimental area compared to the control area during phase I as well as during phase II. Results The analysis uncovered a statistically significant increase in alcohol sales of 3.7% during phase I, and about the same increase during phase II (3.6%). There were no significant changes in any of the assault indicators, neither during phase I nor during phase II. There was a statistically significant increase in drunk driving (12%) during phase I, but no change during phase II. The analyses suggested that the increase during phase I was mainly due to a change in the surveillance strategy of the police. Conclusions The results lend support to the public health perspective in that the increased accessibility to alcohol rendered by Saturday opening also seems to have increased consumption. On the other hand, we could not detect any increase in alcohol-related harm. The question of whether this may be due to insufficient statistical power is discussed, together with some other methodological complications that were highlighted by the study. [source]

A Competitive, Sustainable and Diverse Agriculture: A View of the CAP Beyond 2013 Pour une agriculture compétitive, durable and variée : un point de vue sur la PAC après 2013 Eine wettbewerbsfähige, nachhaltige und vielfältige Landwirtschaft: Ein Ausblick auf die GAP nach 2013

EUROCHOICES, Issue 2 2010
Kris Peeters
Summary A Competitive, Sustainable and Diverse Agriculture: A View of the CAP Beyond 2013 New challenges make clear that past achievements of the CAP cannot be taken for granted. A strong European agricultural policy remains necessary after 2013, at the service of Europe's citizens and agricultural sector. However, in order to realise the vision embedded in the European agricultural model, the CAP will have to evolve. Beyond dealing with the negative consequences of the economic crisis, more attention should go to competitiveness and entrepreneurship. The functioning of the supply chain should be improved leading to a fairer distribution of costs and benefits. Producer organisations should be expanded and strengthened. Work is needed to put into practice the concept of green growth and to explore the synergy between the demand for public goods and the need for higher farm income. An improved system of direct support remains justified, to compensate for extra costs and to stabilise income. The CAP post-2013 should offer a strong EU framework, able to meet shared challenges, with clear objectives and sufficient funding. Within that framework, diversity is a fact, and regions should be able to deploy CAP policies and funds in a more flexible way to accommodate local needs and problems and to be able to react to changing circumstances. De par l'apparition de nouveaux défis, il est clair que les réalisations antérieures de la PAC ne peuvent être considérées comme acquises.Une politique agricole européenne forte, au service des citoyens et du secteur agricole de l'Europe, reste indispensable après 2013. Cependant, pour concrétiser la vision comprise dans le modèle agricole européen, la PAC devra évoluer. Au-delà du traitement des conséquences négatives de la crise économique, l'attention doit se porter davantage sur la compétitivité et l'esprit d'entreprise. Il faudrait améliorer le fonctionnement de la filière de l'offre pour obtenir une répartition des coûts et des avantages plus équitable. Les organisations de producteurs devraient se développer et se renforcer. Des travaux sont nécessaires pour mettre en pratique le concept de croissance verte et pour étudier les synergies entre la demande de biens d'intérêt public et le renforcement nécessaire des revenus agricoles. Un système de soutien direct amélioré reste justifié, pour compenser les coûts supplémentaires et stabiliser les revenus. La PAC d'après 2013 devrait fournir un cadre européen solide, capable d'atteindre les défis partagés, avec des objectifs clairs et des financements suffisants. Au sein de ce cadre, la diversité est un fait et les régions devraient pouvoir déployer les politiques et les fonds de la PAC de manière plus flexible pour répondre aux besoins et problèmes locaux et pour permettre de réagir aux changements. Neue Herausforderungen lassen erkennen, dass die früheren Erfolge der GAP nicht als selbstverständlich angesehen werden können.Nach 2013 wird zum Wohle der Bürger und des Agrarsektors in Europa nach wie vor eine stabile europäische Agrarpolitik gebraucht. Die GAP wird sich jedoch weiterentwickeln müssen, um der Vision aus dem europäischen Agrarmodell entsprechen zu können. Das Augenmerk sollte hierbei nicht nur auf den Umgang mit den negativen Auswirkungen der Wirtschaftskrise, sondern ebenfalls auf Wettbewerbsfähigkeit und Unternehmertum gerichtet werden. Die Funktionsfähigkeit der Wertschöpfungskette sollte erhöht werden und zu einer gerechteren Verteilung von Kosten und Nutzen führen. Erzeugerorganisationen sollten ausgeweitet und gestärkt werden. Es muss viel getan werden, um das Konzept des Grünen Wachstums umzusetzen und die Synergien zwischen der Nachfrage nach öffentlichen Gütern und der Notwendigkeit für höhere Einkommen in der Landwirtschaft zu untersuchen. Ein verbessertes System für die Direktzahlungen ist nach wie vor gerechtfertigt, um zusätzliche Kosten auszugleichen und die Einkommen zu stabilisieren. Nach 2013 sollte die GAP einen stabilen EU-Rahmen bieten, um den gemeinsamen Herausforderungen mit klaren Zielen und ausreichender Finanzierung begegnen zu können. Innerhalb dieses Rahmens ist Platz für Diversität, und die Regionen sollten dazu in der Lage sein, die Politikmaßnahmen der GAP flexibler einzusetzen, um auf die Bedürfnisse vor Ort reagieren und sich den wechselnden Bedingungen anpassen zu können. [source]

REVIEW: Behavioural assessment of drug reinforcement and addictive features in rodents: an overview

Carles Sanchis-Segura
ABSTRACT Some psychoactive drugs are abused because of their ability to act as reinforcers. As a consequence behavioural patterns (such as drug-seeking/drug-taking behaviours) are promoted that ensure further drug consumption. After prolonged drug self-administration, some individuals lose control over their behaviour so that these drug-seeking/taking behaviours become compulsive, pervading almost all life activities and precipitating the loss of social compatibility. Thus, the syndrome of addictive behaviour is qualitatively different from controlled drug consumption. Drug-induced reinforcement can be assessed directly in laboratory animals by either operant or non-operant self-administration methods, by classical conditioning-based paradigms such as conditioned place preference or sign tracking, by facilitation of intracranial electric self-stimulation, or, alternatively by drug-induced memory enhancement. In contrast, addiction cannot be modelled in animals, at least as a whole, within the constraints of the laboratory. However, various procedures have been proposed as possible rodent analogues of addiction's major elements including compulsive drug seeking, relapse, loss of control/impulsivity, and continued drug consumption despite negative consequences. This review provides an extensive overview and a critical evaluation of the methods currently used for studying drug-induced reinforcement as well as specific features of addictive behaviour. In addition, comic strips that illustrate behavioural methods used in the drug abuse field are provided given for free download under http://www.zi-mannheim/ [source]

Self-esteem and suicide rates in 55 Nations

Armand Chatard
Abstract Using recent data from the International Sexuality Description Project (ISDP), we examined whether national differences in self-esteem across 55 nations are reflected in suicide rates. Results indicate that suicide is especially common in nations with relatively low levels of self-esteem. This relation is consistent across sex lines, age of suicide and independent from several other relevant factors such as economic affluence, transition, individualism, subjective well-being, and neuroticism. These findings provide support for the predictive validity of self-esteem scores as assessed in the ISDP survey. They also contribute to a growing body of research documenting negative consequences associated with low self-esteem. Possible implications for suicide prevention strategies are discussed. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]