Myeloid Precursor Cells (myeloid + precursor_cell)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Correction: IL-23 promotes osteoclast formation by up-regulation of receptor activator of NF-,B (RANK) expression in myeloid precursor cells

Li Chen
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

IL-23 promotes osteoclast formation by up-regulation of receptor activator of NF-,B (RANK) expression in myeloid precursor cells

Li Chen
Abstract Inflammation-mediated bone loss is a major feature of various bone diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and advanced periodontitis. Enhanced osteoclast development or activity at the inflammation site results in bone resorption. IL-23 is a heterodimeric cytokine belonging to the IL-6/IL-12 family that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and demonstrated to play a role in osteoclastogenesis via stimulation of IL-17 production. In this study we investigated whether IL-23 contributes to the regulation of osteoclast differentiation independent of the IL-17 pathway. We show that IL-23 dose-dependently up-regulates receptor activator of NF-,B expression in primary murine bone marrow macrophages and RAW264.7 cells and thereby promotes commitment of myeloid precursor cells to receptor activator of NF-,B ligand-mediated osteoclastic differentiation. However, IL-23 by itself is insufficient to induce osteoclastogenesis. Increased osteoclastic differentiation of cells was associated with enhanced cathepsin K expression and dentine resorption indicating enhanced formation of functional osteoclasts. IL-17 was not detectable in culture supernatants and when added to cultures, did not promote differentiation of RAW264.7 cells. These results demonstrate that IL-23 can act directly on myeloid precursor cells in addition to indirectly stimulating receptor activator of NF-,B ligand production in osteoblasts and explains its potency in driving osteoclast development in inflammation-mediated bone pathology. [source]

Acceleration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-induced neutrophilic nuclear lobulation by overexpression of Lyn tyrosine kinase

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 1 2002
Tomomi Omura
Stimulation with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) induces myeloid precursor cells to differentiate into neutrophils, and tyrosine phosphorylation of certain cellular proteins is crucial to this process. However, the signaling pathways for neutrophil differentiation are still obscure. As the Src-like tyrosine kinase, Lyn, has been reported to play a role in G-CSF-induced proliferation in avian lymphoid cells, we examined its involvement in G-CSF-induced signal transduction in mammalian cells. Expression plasmids for wild-type Lyn (Lyn) and kinase-negative Lyn (LynKN) were introduced into a murine granulocyte precursor cell line, GM-I62M, that can respond to G-CSF with neutrophil differentiation, and cell lines that overexpressed these molecules (GM-Lyn, GM-LynKN) were established. Upon G-CSF stimulation, both the GM-Lyn and GM-LynKN cells began to differentiate into neutrophils, showing early morphological changes within a few days, much more rapidly than did the parental cells, which started to exhibit nuclear lobulation about 10 days after the cells were transferred to G-CSF-containing medium. However, the time course of expression of the myeloperoxidase gene, another neutrophil differentiation marker, was not affected by the overexpression of Lyn or LynKN. Therefore, in normal cells, protein interactions with Lyn, but not its kinase activity, are important for the induction of G-CSF-induced neutrophilic nuclear lobulation in mammalian granulopoiesis. [source]

Palmitoylation-dependent endosomal localization of AATYK1A and its interaction with Src

GENES TO CELLS, Issue 9 2008
Koji Tsutsumi
Apoptosis-associated tyrosine kinase 1 (AATYK1), also named LMTK1, was previously isolated as an apoptosis-related gene from 32Dcl3 myeloid precursor cells, but its precise function remains unknown. AATYK1A, an isoform without a transmembrane domain, is highly expressed in neurons. We identified palmitoylation of AATYK1A at three N-terminal cysteine residues in cortical cultured neurons and COS-7 cells and found that palmitoylation determined localization of AATYK1A to the transferrin receptor-positive recycling endosomes. Further, we identified the tyrosine kinase Src as a novel AATYK1A-interacting protein. Src and Fyn phosphorylated AATYK1A at tyrosines 25 and 46 in a palmitoylation-dependent manner. The association of AATYK1A with Src in endosomes was also found to be palmitoylation-dependent. These results indicate that palmitoylation is a critical factor not only for the subcellular localization of AATYK1A but also for its interaction with Src. [source]

Severe antibody-mediated agranulocytosis

Summary A 56-year-old female with Crohn's disease was admitted to the hospital with malaise, fever, and a low white blood cell count (0.8 109/l) with no granulocytes or myeloid precursor cells in the bone marrow. The leucopenia was initially thought to be the result of an infection and she was treated with antibiotics and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, filgrastim). However, the bacterial cultures and viral tests were all negative. The patient's condition deteriorated and she became morbidly ill, but recovered after high dose steroid treatment. Six weeks later she relapsed whilst receiving 7.5 mg daily dose of prednisolone. She recovered quickly after being given high dose methylprednisolone in combination with filgrastim. A high maintenance dose of prednisolone was tapered over 5 months. She has not relapsed since and is currently well. Antibodies to the human neutrophil antigen (HNA)-3a were detected, but these antibodies could not easily explain her agranulocytosis as she had a HNA-3a negative phenotype. It seems plausible that her agranulocytosis was immune mediated through autoantibodies directed towards the early myeloid cells. [source]

Performance of the XE-2100 leucocyte differential

G. Stamminger
Summary The XE-2100 was evaluated in a multicentre study following a previously established protocol. In this paper, we demonstrate the results of analytical performance studies, including comparison of the leucocyte differential with the NCCLS H20-A method and evaluation of flagging sensitivity. Linearity of the leucocyte count over a wide clinical range, low imprecision in clinically important ranges and no measurable carry over were confirmed. For comparability studies, 4 200 cell microscopic differential leucocyte counts were correlated with the automated five-part-differential counts. No significant differences were detected in (1) a group without morphological abnormality and in (2) a leukopenic group. The sensitivity of flags for the detection of immature granulocytes and myeloid blasts was very good. Only few samples containing blast cells remained unrecognized but these would have been examined microscopically in any event because of other abnormalities indicated by the instrument. Atypical/abnormal lymphocytes/and lymphoblasts were detected very reliably when the total lymphocyte count and the flags were evaluated in combination. A similiar procedure is recommended for the detection of left shift. When the neutrophil count is elevated, the sensitivity of the left shift flag is improved. The absolute immature granulocyte (IG) count by the instrument correlates well with that of myeloid precursor cells by microscopy. [source]

The treatment of inflammatory bowel disease with 6-mercaptopurine or azathioprine

O. H. Nielsen
The thioguanine derivative, azathioprine, is a prodrug of 6-mercaptopurine that is further metabolized by various enzymes present in the liver and gut. Azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine have been used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, i.e. ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, for more than 30 years. However, widespread use of azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine in inflammatory bowel disease is of more recent origin, the primary reason being a long-standing debate on the efficacy of these agents in inflammatory bowel disease. Both drugs are slow acting, which is why clinical efficacy cannot be expected until several weeks or even months of treatment have elapsed. Consequently, azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine have no place as monotherapy in the treatment of acute relapsing inflammatory bowel disease. Today, azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine are the most commonly used immunomodulatory drugs in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Their clinical effects are probably identical, although their exact mode of action is still unknown. The mode of action of azathioprine is thought to be multifactorial, including conversion to 6-mercaptopurine (which acts as a purine antimetabolite), possible blockade of thiol groups by alkylation, inhibition of several pathways in nucleic acid biosynthesis (preventing proliferation of cells involved in the determination and amplification of the immune response) and damage to DNA through the incorporation of thiopurine analogues. However, 6-thioguanine nucleotides may accumulate in toxic doses in myeloid precursor cells, resulting in life-threatening myelosuppression. Azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine are further known to alter lymphocyte function, reduce the number of lamina propria plasma cells and affect natural killer cell function. The purpose of this comprehensive review is to suggest guidelines for the application of azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. [source]