Monsoon Period (monsoon + period)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Simulation of the intraseasonal and the interannual variability of rainfall over West Africa with RegCM3 during the monsoon period

M. B. Sylla
Abstract Intraseasonal and interannual variability of rainfall is simulated using the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) Regional Climate Model (RegCM3) over West Africa. The intraseasonal variability of rainfall showing three distinct phases and the monsoon jump is well reproduced in the simulation. In addition, the regional model shows that while the monsoon rainbelt moves to the Sahel, the African Easterly Jet (AEJ) undergoes a northward migration and a weakening from June to August, when the core is at its northernmost location. This coexists with the appearance and the strengthening of the Tropical Easterly Jet (TEJ), the development and increased activity of the African Easterly Waves (AEWs), and the intensification and northward shift of the ascent between the AEJ and the TEJ core levels and axis. Similarly, the simulated interannual variability of rainfall over West Africa, the Guinea region, and the Sahel, as well as the variability of atmospheric features during contrasting wet and dry years, is also well captured. In fact, in the simulation during dry years the AEWs activity is decreased while the AEJ is strengthened and migrates southward, the TEJ becomes weaker, and the ascent between the levels of the AEJ and the TEJ decreases. The simulated rainfall variability and the behavior of the related features during the rainy season and during contrasting wet and dry years are in line with previous studies that used observations and reanalysis. We conclude that this model performance is of sufficient quality for application to the study of climate processes and mechanisms over West Africa. Copyright © 2009 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

Interannual variability of lower-tropospheric moisture transport during the Australian monsoon

Christopher R. Godfred-Spenning
Abstract The interannual variability of the horizontal lower-tropospheric moisture transport associated with the Australian summer monsoon has been analysed for the 1958,99 period. The 41-season climatology of moisture flux integrated between the surface and 450 hPa showed moderate levels of westerly transport in the month before Australian monsoon onset, associated with cross-equatorial flow in the Sulawesi Sea and west of Borneo. In the month after onset the westerly moisture transport strengthened dramatically in a zonal belt stretching from the Timor Sea to the Western Equatorial Pacific, constrained between the latitudes 5 and 15 °S, and associated with a poleward shift in the Intertropical Convergence Zone and deepening of the monsoon trough. Vertical cross-sections showed this transport extending from the surface to the 500 hPa level. In the second and third months after onset the horizontal flow pattern remained similar, although flux magnitudes progressively decreased, and the influence of trade winds became more pronounced over northern Australia. Nine El Niño and six La Niña seasons were identified from the data set, and composite plots of the affected years revealed distinct, and in some cases surprising, alterations to the large-scale moisture transport in the tropical Australian,Indonesian region. During an El Niño it was shown that the month prior to onset, in which the moisture flux was weaker than average, yielded to a dramatically stronger than average flux during the following month, with a zone of westerly flux anomalies stretching across the north Australian coast and Arafura Sea. The period of enhanced moisture flux during an El Niño is relatively short-lived, with drier easterly anomalies asserting themselves during the following 2 months, suggesting a shorter than usual monsoon period in north Australia. In the La Niña composite, the initial month after onset shows a tendency to weaker horizontal moisture transport over the Northern Territory and Western Australia. The subsequent 2 months show positive anomalies in flux magnitude over these areas; the overall effect is to prolong the monsoon. Comparison of these results with past research has led us to suggest that the tendency for stronger (weaker) circulations to arise in the initial month of El Niño (La Niña) events is a result of mesoscale changes in soil moisture anomalies on land and offshore sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, brought about by the large-scale alterations to SST and circulation patterns during the El Niño,Southern Oscillation. The soil moisture and SST anomalies initially act to enhance (suppress) the conditions necessary for deep convection in the El Niño (La Niña) cases via changes in land,sea thermal contrast and cloud cover. Copyright © 2002 Royal Meteorological Society. [source]

The seasonal abundance of blowflies infesting drying fish in south-west India

R. Wall
Summary 1Blowfly infestation of sun-drying fish is a major economic problem in many developing countries of Asia, Africa and the Pacific. To consider the ecology of infestation, adult and larval blowfly populations were monitored between 27 October 1997 and 27 April 1999 at a fish landing and drying site, approximately 5 km north of Calicut, in Kerala state on the coast of south-west India. 2During the 548-day sampling period, a total of 96 953 adult Diptera was collected from 16 sticky targets, placed inside and outside eight fish-storage sheds. Of these, 91 912 (95%) were Chrysomya megacephala, 3719 (4%) were other Calliphoridae and 1322 (1%) were other species, largely Sarcophagidae. 3The population of C. megacephala showed pronounced seasonal fluctuations in response to climate, particularly relative humidity. Significantly shorter-frequency fluctuations within fish-processing sheds were also evident, the periodicity of which corresponded approximately to C. megacephala generation cycles. Spatial variation in C. megacephala abundance was evident within the site, higher populations occurring closest to the beach and numbers declining with distance inland. 4The pattern of drying fish infestation by C. megacephala broadly followed changes in the density of adult flies and the seasonal change in weather, with peaks during the monsoon and troughs in the dry hot periods. High relative humidity played a significant but secondary role in increasing infestation. 5Quantification of the relationship between larval infestation and percentage fish loss suggests that, given the infestation levels observed, between 10% and 60% post-harvest wet weight losses would be expected in the monsoon period, depending on the species of fish landed. 6The study emphasizes the importance of developing a clear understanding of the basic ecology and spatial and temporal dynamics of an insect pest, prior to the design or implementation of any pest management programme. [source]

Hydroclimatic teleconnection between global sea surface temperature and rainfall over India at subdivisional monthly scale

Rajib Maity
Abstract It is well established that sea surface temperature (SST) plays a significant role in the hydrologic cycle in which precipitation is the most important part. In this study, the influence of SST on Indian subdivisional monthly rainfall is investigated. Both spatial and temporal influences are investigated. The most influencing regions of sea surface are identified for different subdivisions and for different overlapping seasons in the year. The relative importance of SST, land surface temperature (LST) and ocean,land temperature contrast (OLTC) and their variation from subdivision to subdivision and from season to season are also studied. It is observed that LST does not show much similarity with rainfall series, but, in general, OLTC shows relatively higher influence in the pre-monsoon and early monsoon periods, whereas SST plays a more important role in late- and post-monsoon periods. The influence of OLTC is seen to be mostly confined to the Indian Ocean region, whereas the effect of SST indicates the climatic teleconnection between Indian regional rainfall and climate indices in Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The Ratios of Carbon, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus in a Wetland Coastal Ecosystem of Southern India

Lizen Mathews
Abstract The fertility of the coastal and estuarine waters is of great concern because of its influence on the productivity of these waters. Seasonal variations in the distribution of organic carbon, total nitrogen and total phosphorus in the sediments of Kuttanad Waters, a part of the tropical Cochin Estuary on the south west coast of India, are examined to identify the contribution of sediments to the fertility of the aquatic systems. The adjoining region has considerable agricultural activity. The fresh water zones had higher quantities of silt and clay whereas the estuarine zone was more sandy. Organic carbon, total phosphorus and total nitrogen were higher in the fresh water zones and lower in the estuarine zones. Total phosphorus and organic carbon showed the lowest values during monsoon periods. No significant trends were observed in the seasonal distributions of total nitrogen. Ratios of C/N, C/P and N/P, and the phosphorus and nitrogen content indicate significant modification in the character of the organic matter. Substantial amounts of the organic matter can contribute to reducing conditions and modify diagenetic processes. [source]