Monomodal Distribution (monomodal + distribution)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Juice Clarification by Thermostable Fractions of Marsh Grapefruit Pectinmethylesterase

M. Corredig
ABSTRACT: Orange juice clarification by thermostable pectinmethylesterase (TS-PME), isolated from grapefruit pulp by ammonium sulfate precipitation, and ion-exchange and affinity chromatography was investigated. TSPME, having different specific activities, induced different clarification behavior of reconstituted orange juice at 2 units/ml. Based on percent transmittance, TS-PME fraction with the lower specific activity clarified juices earlier than TS-PME at higher specific activity. Particle size distribution of the cloud-soluble fraction showed that TS-PME increased the average particle size from 0.7 ,m to 1 mm and maintained a monomodal distribution. After 27 d of storage at 4 C, samples of clarified juice still showed a large population of small cloud particles when measured by diffraction light scattering. [source]

Novel fluorescent (p -phenylene ethynylene)-calix[4]arene-based polymer: Design, synthesis, and properties

Alexandra I. Costa
Abstract A novel fluorescent (p -phenylene ethynylene)-calix[4]arene-based polymer (CALIX-PPE) has been successfully synthesized by cross-coupling polymerization of bis-calix[4]arene 1 with 1,4-diethynylbenzene. The polycondensation was carried out in toluene/NEt3 at 35 C for 24 h, using PdCl2(PPh3)2/CuI as the catalytic system, furnishing CALIX-PPE in excellent isolated yields (higher than 95%, several runs). The yellow polymer is freely soluble in several nonprotic organic solvents. The GPC trace of the isolated polymer showed a monomodal distribution and a number-average molecular weight of 23,300 g mol,1 (Mw/Mn = 2.05). No evidence was found in the structural analysis (FTIR and 1H/13C NMR) regarding the formation of alkyne homocoupled segments along the polymer chain. For comparative purposes, the synthesis of an analogous poly(p -phenylene ethynylene) containing p - t -butyl-phenoxymethyl side chains (TBP-PPE) was also undertaken. A great similarity was found between the photophysical properties of CALIX-PPE and TBP-PPE in solution (UV,vis and laser induced luminescence), clearly demonstrating their unique dependence on the structure and conformation of the conjugated PPE backbone. The fluorescence spectra of polymers are of nearly identical shape, displaying their maximum emission around 420 nm. The calculated solution photoluminescence quantum yields of CALIX-PPE and TBP-PPE are of similar magnitude (,F(CALIX-PPE) = 0.43; ,F(TBP-PPE) = 0.51). 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 46: 6477,6488, 2008 [source]

Spectrum and inheritance of resistance to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla in Rosa multiflora and R. indica

PLANT BREEDING, Issue 1 2004
X. Wang
Abstract The spectrum and inheritance of resistance to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla was studied in the diploid species Rosa multiflora and R. indica. The host suitability of seven rose rootstocks, namely five R. multiflora (K2, K1, Floradale, CE63 and CE65) and two R. indica (CE35 and Maroc) clonal accessions, was evaluated using four geographic isolates of M. hapla. Plants grown under greenhouse conditions were tested at high and durable inoculum pressure of nematodes and rated for nematode infestation five months after inoculation on a 0,5 gall index. Different host suitabilities to M. hapla were demonstrated depending on the nematode isolates: in R. multiflora, the clone K2 had a resistant (R) response to all isolates; the clone K1 ranged from intermediate (I) (isolate ,Canada') to resistant (other isolates), Floradale was shown to be intermediate, whereas CE63 and CE65 were moderate to good hosts (H). In R. indica, both rootstocks were good to excellent hosts for the isolate Canada but resistant to all three other isolates, thus expressing an isolate-specific resistance. A study on the genetics of resistance in R. multiflora to the M. hapla isolate Canada was then conducted using an incomplete diallel cross involving all previous clones except Floradale. A total of 120 hybrid individuals belonging to several progenies representing the cross combinations R I, R H, I H and H H were evaluated. Individuals of each progeny generally ranged into a monomodal distribution that suggests polygenic inheritance of resistance. In the family Rosaceae, the differences in the resistance genetics to the meiotic species M. hapla and to the mitotic species, M. arenaria, M. incognita and M. javanica are discussed in relation to the reproductive status of the nematodes. [source]

Denaturant sensitive regions in creatine kinase identified by hydrogen/deuterium exchange

Hortense Mazon
The GdmHCl-induced unfolding of creatine kinase (CK) has been studied by hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange combined with mass spectrometry. MM-CK unfolded for various periods in different denaturant concentrations was pulsed-labeled with deuterium to identify different conformational intermediate states. For all denaturation times or GdmHCl concentrations, we observed variable proportions of only two species. The low-mass envelope of isotope peaks corresponds to a species that has gained about 10 deuteriums more than native CK, and the high-mass envelope to a completely deuterated species. To localize precisely the unfolded regions in the states highly populated during denaturation, the protein was digested with two proteases (pepsin and type XIII protease) after H/D exchange and rapid quenching of the reaction. The two sets of fragments obtained were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry to determine the deuterium level in each fragment. Bimodal distributions of deuterium were found for most peptides, indicating that these regions were either folded or unfolded. This behavior is consistent with cooperative, localized unfolding. However, we observed a monomodal distribution of deuterium in two regions (1,12 and 162,186). We conclude that the increment of mass observed in the low-mass species of the intact protein (+10,Da) has its origin in these two segments. These regions, which are very sensitive to low GdmHCl concentrations, are involved in the monomer,monomer interface of CK and their perturbation is likely to weaken the dimeric structure. At higher denaturant concentration, this would induce dissociation of the dimer. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]