Moderating Factors (moderating + factor)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Mutual Antipathies in the Peer Group as a Moderating Factor in the Association Between Community Violence Exposure and Psychosocial Maladjustment

David Schwartz
This chapter focuses on the moderating role of inimical peer relationships in the association between community violence exposure and children's functioning difficulties. A series of hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that community violence exposure is consistently related to psychosocial maladjustment only for children who are involved in a relatively high number of mutual antipathies with peers. [source]

Managerial attitudes toward environmental management within Australia, the People's Republic of China and Indonesia

Lorne S. Cummings
Abstract This study presents a survey of the attitudes of corporate managers and managerial students across Australia, the People's Republic of China and Indonesia toward 18 key contemporary environmental management issues. The study sought to explore whether respondents from these countries, characterized by differing levels of development, also differ in their attitude toward environmental management. Results indicated that, despite age being a moderating factor, significant differences did exist between the 676 country respondents on 15 of the 18 questions. Contrary to expectations, Australian respondents were more cautious of supporting a forthright view on environmental issues, whilst Chinese respondents favoured a more centralized approach to decision making regarding the environment. The results lend marginal support to the new environmental paradigm (NEP), but also to the radicalization of environmental issues and age as a possible influence on respondent beliefs. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

Developmental psychopathology in adolescence: findings from a Swiss study , the NAPE Lecture 2005

H.-C. Steinhausen
Objective:, Presentations of selective findings coming from the Zurich Adolescent Psychology and Psychopathology Study with two major aims: i) the study of the prevalence, course, and correlates of mental disorders in adolescence, and ii) the study of the determinants and processes of mental disorders in adolescence. Method:, A representative sample of n = 1964 children and adolescents was studied in the canton of Zurich in 1994. Additional waves of data collection took place in 1997 and 2000/2001. Mean ages at these three assessments were 13, 16, and 20 years. Each wave contained a two-stage procedure of assessment with screening by questionnaires and consecutive interviewing. The main constructs used were general and specific measures of psychopathology, life events, coping styles, self-related cognitions, and quality of the social network. Results:, Prevalence rates of any mental disorder in school-age at the time of assessment was 22.5% fitting into a transcultural range of 18,26% based on DSM-III-R criteria. Furthermore, the derivation and validation of a four-group adolescent drinker typology was demonstrated. Additionally, the prevalence and continuity of functional-somatic symptoms from adolescence to young adulthood was shown. Another piece of the research tested for the identification of risk, compensatory, vulnerability, and protective factors influencing behaviour problems and found remarkably different frequencies across the four types of moderating factors. Conclusion:, The presented findings provide further understanding of the developmental psychology and psychopathology of adolescence and the service, intervention, and prevention needs of this age-group. [source]

Serum Lipid Levels and Cognitive Change in Late Life

Chandra A. Reynolds PhD
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of lipids and lipoproteins on longitudinal cognitive performance and cognitive health in late life and to consider moderating factors such as age and sex that may clarify conflicting prior evidence. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: A 16-year longitudinal study of health and cognitive aging. PARTICIPANTS: Eight hundred nineteen adults from the Swedish Adoption Twin Study of Aging aged 50 and older at first cognitive testing, including 21 twin pairs discordant for dementia. MEASUREMENTS: Up to five occasions of cognitive measurements encompassing verbal, spatial, memory, and perceptual speed domains across a 16-year span; baseline serum lipids and lipoproteins including high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein (apo)A1, apoB, total serum cholesterol, and triglycerides. RESULTS: The effect of lipids on cognitive change was most evident before age 65. In women, higher HDL-C and lower apoB and triglycerides predicted better maintenance of cognitive abilities, particularly verbal ability and perceptual speed, than age. Lipid values were less predictive of cognitive trajectories in men and, where observed, were in the contrary direction (i.e., higher total cholesterol and apoB values predicted better perceptual speed performance though faster rates of decline). In twin pairs discordant for dementia, higher total cholesterol and apoB levels were observed in the twin who subsequently developed dementia. CONCLUSION: High lipid levels may constitute a more important risk factor for cognitive health before age 65 than after. Findings for women are consistent with clinical recommendations, whereas for men, the findings correspond with earlier age-associated shifts in lipid profiles and the importance of lipid homeostasis to cognitive health. [source]

Predictors of parenting among economically disadvantaged latina mothers: mediating and moderating factors,

Hazel M. Prelow
Structural equation modeling was used to examine the role of ecological risk factors, maternal psychological distress, and social network support on the parenting behaviors of 535 economically disadvantaged Latina mothers, who were surveyed for the Welfare Children, & Families: A Three City Study. We predicted that ecological risk would influence mothers' parenting through their psychological distress but that social support would buffer the effects of ecological risk on mothers' depressive symptoms. As predicted, ecological risk was associated with higher contemporaneous psychological distress, which, in turn, predicted lower positive parenting behaviors approximately 18 months later. Social network support buffered the impact of the ecological risk on mothers' symptoms of psychological distress and, thereby, also buffered its indirect effect on parenting behaviors. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Moderators of the negativity effect: Commitment, identification, and consumer sensitivity to corporate social performance

Tsung-Chi Liu
Numerous studies have identified constructs such as commitment and brand familiarity as moderators of negativity effects. However, boundary conditions for this moderation have yet to be identified within a retailing context. This study tries to rectify this gap in the literature. This study finds that three factors (commitment, consumer,company identification, and consumer sensitivity to corporate social performance) moderate attitude change toward a retailer following exposure to moderately negative (vs. positive) publicity. However, given extremely negative information, the buffering effects of the moderating factors disappear, and attitude changes are significant for all consumers. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Consumer vulnerability to scams, swindles, and fraud: A new theory of visceral influences on persuasion

Jeff Langenderfer
Scams exact a huge toll on consumers and society at large, with annual costs in the United States alone exceeding $100 billion. The global proliferation of the Internet has enabled con artists to export their craft to a rapidly expanding market and reach previously untapped consumers. In spite of the prevalence of scams around the world, there has been virtually no academic attention devoted to understanding the factors that might account for why individuals differ in their scamming vulnerability. Building on the background of elder consumer disadvantage and informed by the authors' own survey of expert opinion, this article presents a tentative theory of scamming vulnerability. The proposed theory incorporates the effects of visceral influences on consumer response to scam offers and hypothesizes a role for various moderating factors such as self-control, gullibility, susceptibility to interpersonal influence, and scam knowledge. Theoretical propositions are provided for future empirical investigation. 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]

A meta-analytic review of obesity prevention in the schools: 1997,2008

Catherine Cook-Cottone
A meta-analysis was conducted on school-based interventions to reduce obesity in children. Sixty-six (k = 66, N = 31,059) comparisons from 40 published studies from 1997 through 2008 were included in analyses. Results indicated a significant effect for school-based interventions with an overall weighted effect size of r = .05. Several moderating factors were examined to explain the heterogeneity in study outcomes. Interventions that were universal (k = 37, r = .07), conducted in elementary schools (k = 41, r = .06), implemented collaboratively (k = 19, r = .12), primarily included children of Asian ethnicity (k = 5, r = .30), encouraged nutritional change (k = 28, r = .13), and sought to reduce sedentary behaviors (k = 17, r = .15) were identified as more successful in reducing students' obesity-related outcomes. Factors that resulted in negative effects for school-based programs included interventions of short duration (k = 11, r = ,.04) and those that implemented system-wide changes in nutrition (k = 15, r = ,.03). The variability in study effect sizes is discussed, and recommendations are made for future school-based interventions targeting children. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Occupational Stress and Psychological Well-Being in Emergency Services

Mohd Dahlan A. Malek
Sources of occupational stress and their impact on job satisfaction and psychological well-being were examined in a questionnaire survey of 617 Malaysian firefighters. The role of coping strategies and work motivation as moderating factors were also tested. Sources of occupational stress had significant reverse correlations with job satisfaction and well-being. The hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine the moderating effect of work motivation and coping strategies on job satisfaction and psychological well-being. The result suggested that coping strategies and work motivation are one of the potential moderating variables between sources of stress and job satisfaction. [source]

The role of existentialism in ethical business decision-making

James Agarwal
This paper presents an integrated model of ethical decision-making in business that incorporates teleological, deontological and existential theory. Existentialism has been curiously overlooked by many scholars in the field despite the fact that it is so fundamentally a theory of choice. We argue that it is possible to seek good organisational ends (teleology), through the use of right means (deontology), and enable the decision-maker to do so authentically (existentialism). More specifically, we provide a framework that will enable the decision-maker to integrate the various ethical schools of thought available to them and to apply this framework in the ethical decision-making process. The model presented makes explicit the existential position of choice and takes into account other contextual moderating factors. Negative Option Marketing is used as a running application to illustrate the role of existentialism in the decision-making process. [source]