Modified Protocol (modified + protocol)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

DNA damage and repair measurements from cryopreserved lymphocytes without cell culture,A reproducible assay for intervention studies

Jyh-Lurn Chang
Abstract Single-cell gel electrophoresis (the Comet assay) can be used to measure DNA damage and DNA repair capacity (DRC). However, to test DRC of cryopreserved lymphocytes, published methods include steps for cell culturing and phytohemagglutinin stimulation, which may limit use of this assay in intervention studies. We developed a modified Comet assay protocol that allows us to measure DRC from cryopreserved lymphocytes without these in vitro manipulations. Assay reproducibility was evaluated by performing the assay six times on different dates using six aliquots from one blood draw of one individual. The interindividual variation was assessed by performing the assay using one aliquot from six individuals. When ,-irradiation was used as the mutagen, intra-assay coefficients of variation (CVs.) for baseline DNA damage, damage after ,-irradiation exposure, and DRC,measured as tail moment,were 8, 31, and 10%, respectively. Interindividual CVs. were higher. When H2O2 was used as the mutagen, intra-assay CVs. for damage measurements were lower for a protocol modification that included damage and repair at 37°C (CVs. ranging from 8 to 35%) than for the more standard 4°C protocol. Analyzing moment arm,the average distance of DNA migration within the tail,yielded similar results. DNA repair was successfully detected in each experiment. Comparing freshly isolated lymphocytes to cryopreserved lymphocytes from the same individuals' blood draw indicated that DRC was highly correlated when determined using moment arm values. This modified protocol extends the use of the Comet assay to measuring DRC in intervention studies (e.g., dietary interventions) in that it assesses cellular response after cryopreservation without cell culture or other extensive manipulation. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Transcription dynamics of the functional tfdA gene during MCPA herbicide degradation by Cupriavidus necator AEO106 (pRO101) in agricultural soil

Mette Haubjerg Nicolaisen
Summary A modified protocol for simultaneous extraction of RNA and DNA, followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction quantification, was used to investigate tfdA gene expression during in situ degradation of the herbicide MCPA (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy-acetic acid) in soil. tfdA encodes an ,-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase catalysing the first step in the degradation pathway of MCPA and 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxy-acetic acid). A linear recovery of tfdA mRNA over three orders of magnitude was shown, and the tfdA mRNA level was normalized using the tfdA mRNA/DNA ratio. The density of active cells required for tfdA mRNA detection was 105 cells g,1 soil. Natural soil microcosms inoculated with Cupriavidus necator (formerly Ralstonia eutropha) AEO106 (pRO101) cells were amended with four different MCPA concentrations (2, 20, 50 and 150 mg kg,1). Mineralization rates were estimated by quantification of 14CO2 emission from degradation of 14C-MCPA. tfdA mRNA was detected 1 h after amendment at all four concentrations. In soils amended with 2 and 20 mg kg,1, the mRNA/DNA ratio for tfdA demonstrated a sharp transient maximum of tfdA expression from no to full expression within 3 and 6 h respectively, followed by a decline and complete loss of expression after 19 and 43 h. A more complex pattern of tfdA expression was observed for the higher 50 and 150 mg kg,1 amendments; this coincided with growth of C. necator AEO106 (pRO101) in the system. Repeated amendment with MCPA after 2 weeks in the 20 mg kg,1 scenario revealed a sharp increase of tfdA mRNA, and absence of a mineralization lag phase. For all amendments, tfdA mRNA was detectable only during active mineralization, and thus revealed a direct correlation between tfdA mRNA presence and microbial degrader activity. The present study demonstrates that direct analysis of functional gene expression dynamics by quantification of mRNA can indeed be made in natural soil. [source]

Reproducible pattern of microRNA in normal human skin

Line Marie Holst
Please cite this paper as: Reproducible pattern of microRNA in normal human skin. Experimental Dermatology 2010; 19: e201,e205. Abstract:, MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis via specific targeting of messenger RNA (mRNA). Aberrant mRNA expression contributes to pathological processes such as carcinogenesis. To take advantage of miRNA profiling in skin disease it is essential to investigate miRNA expression pattern in normal human skin. Here we investigated miRNA expression profiles from skin biopsies of 8 healthy volunteers taken from sun protected and mildly photo damaged skin using the modified protocol for miRNA extraction. We were able to show a constant pattern of miRNA expression between different individuals. We did not find any significant differences in miRNA expression between sun protected and mildly photodamaged skin. These results may be valuable for future design of studies on miRNA expression in skin disease. [source]

Active cooling in traumatic brain-injured patients: a questionable therapy?

Hypothermia is shown to be beneficial for the outcome after a transient global brain ischaemia through its neuroprotective effect. Whether this is also the case after focal ischaemia, such as following a severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), has been investigated in numerous studies, some of which have shown a tendency towards an improved outcome, whereas others have not been able to demonstrate any beneficial effect. A Cochrane report concluded that the majority of the trials that have already been published have been of low quality, with unclear allocation concealment. If only high-quality trials are considered, TBI patients treated with active cooling were more likely to die, a conclusion supported by a recent high-quality Canadian trial on children. Still, there is a belief that a modified protocol with a shorter time from the accident to the start of active cooling, longer cooling and rewarming time and better control of blood pressure and intracranial pressure would be beneficial for TBI patients. This belief has led to the instigation of new trials in adults and in children, including these types of protocol adjustments. The present review provides a short summary of our present knowledge of the use of active cooling in TBI patients, and presents some tentative explanations as to why active cooling has not been shown to be effective for outcome after TBI. We focus particularly on the compromised circulation of the penumbra zone, which may be further reduced by the stress caused by the difference in thermostat and body temperature and by the hypothermia-induced more frequent use of vasoconstrictors, and by the increased risk of contusional bleedings under hypothermia. We suggest that high fever should be reduced pharmacologically. [source]

Cryopreservation of vascularized ovary: An evaluation of histology and function in rats

MICROSURGERY, Issue 5 2008
Shijie Qi M.D.
Cryopreservation of organs has been investigated to sustain the reproductive function of patients undergoing sterilizing chemotherapy and radiotherapy or reproductive surgery. A modified protocol for whole organ cryopreservation was described and the outcome of cryopreservative ovaries was evaluated, and apoptosis of cryopreservative cells stored for different time period and the viability of cryopreserved cells stored at different temperature was examined in rats. Lewis rat ovarian grafts were perfused for 30 min at 0.35 ml/min with M2 medium containing 0.1M fructose and increasing concentrations of 0,1.5M dimethylsulfoxide, cooled to ,140°C controlled by a computerized program, and stored in liquid nitrogen (,196°C) for 24 hours. After being thawed, ovaries were transplanted to syngeneic recipients after bilateral oophorectomy. Graft functions were monitored postoperatively. The major findings were that: 1) A 100% survival rate of rat ovaries was achieved in this study. Ovarian hormone secretion recovered in 80% rats which had received cryopreservative ovarian grafts. Postoperative serum estradiol levels in the cryopreservative graft group were lower than in the sham surgery control, but much higher than in the bilateral oophorectomy group. 2) Histological examination of cryopreservative ovarian grafts showed preantral and antral follicles. Two gestations were obtained. 3) Estradiol levels remained low in ovariectomized rats while in the oophorectomized rats given cryopreservative ovarian grafts levels started to rise after 14 ± 3 days. 4) The average viability in the cells from cryopreservative ovary organ (,196°C) was about 71 ± 18% compared to 90 ± 9% of fresh cells. This success should encourage further improvement of cryopreservative techniques for large organs. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Microsurgery, 2008. [source]

Participation of the subthalamic nucleus in executive functions: An intracerebral recording study

Marek Balá
Abstract The objective of our work was to find whether the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is directly involved in cognitive activities, specifically in executive functions. Ten patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease had P3 potentials recorded by externalized deep brain electrodes that were implanted in the STN or in its immediate vicinity. Two contacts of each electrode were positioned inside the STN according to clinical effect, perioperative microrecording, and stimulation. The P3 waves were recorded following the auditory stimulus in a standard oddball paradigm. They were compared with the P3 waves elicited from a protocol modified by a dual task with an increased demand on executive functions. The P3 potentials with a steep amplitude gradient evoked by the modified protocol were detected by the contacts in 8 of the 14 available electrodes, located either inside the STN or in its immediate vicinity. The modified protocol led to an increased latency of the P3 potential in 8 of 14 electrodes. No local field potentials of the standard P3 potentials were recorded. The P3 potentials related to the increased demand on executive functions were detected by the STN contacts known to have the best effect on Parkinsonian motor signs. This could suggest that the STN takes part in the executive function processing. © 2007 Movement Disorder Society [source]

An effective DNA extraction protocol for brown algae

Naomi Phillips
SUMMARY Successful extraction of total DNA from brown algae, which are generally polysaccharide and polyphenol rich, is often problematic using current methods. Persistent polysaccharide and polyphenolic compounds can hinder further application of modern molecular techniques requisite to molecular-based evolutionary studies. Our broad and long-term research goals with fucalean taxa, especially Sargassum, and problems with existing DNA extraction methods were an impetus to develop a reliable DNA extraction method. Initial research established hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) based total-DNA methods as the most viable for further empirical development. Several constituents effective at either complexing secondary compounds or creating a reductive extraction environment were increased in concentration or added to the extraction buffer. These seemingly minor changes resulted in the creation of a highly reductive extraction buffer and effective total- DNA harvesting technique. We detail these modifications and demonstrate the reliability of the modified protocol with a variety of brown algae and tissue preservation methods. Such DNA is shown to be suitable for a variety of molecular techniques. [source]

Functionalization Strategies for Protease Immobilization on Magnetic Nanoparticles

Dan Li
Abstract A comprehensive study on the general functionalization strategies for magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is presented in this work. Using well-established techniques as well as modified protocols, the wide range of functional moieties grafted on ,-Fe2O3 (maghemite) nanosurfaces include those of amine, aldehyde, carboxylic, epoxy, mercapto, and maleimide ends. Among the modified protocols are the one-step water-catalyzed silanization with mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane, resulting in dense distal thiols, and the direct functionalization with a heterogeneous bifunctional linker N -[p-maleimidophenyl]isocynanate (PMPI). The former results in a protective Stöber type coating while simultaneously reducing the iron oxide core to magnetite (Fe3O4). The conjugation of trypsin, hereby chosen as model biomolecule, onto the differently functionalized MNPs is further demonstrated and assessed based on its activity, kinetics, and thermo-/long-term stability as well as reusability. Besides aqueous stability and ease in recovery by magnetic separation, the immobilized trypsin on MNPs offers superior protease durability and reusability, without compromising the substrate specificity and sequence coverage of free trypsin. The MNP-based proteases can be used as valuable carriers in proteomics and miniaturized total analysis devices. The applicability of the functional surfaces devised in the current study is also relevant for the conjugation of other biomolecules beyond trypsin. [source]

Extraction and analysis of colourful eggshell pigments using HPLC and HPLC/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

A. Gorchein
Abstract The literature on the pigments of avian eggshells is critically reviewed. Methods using methanolic sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid to extract eggshell pigments are unsuitable to detect the occurrence of zinc protoporphyrin or zinc biliverdin because they demetallate these compounds. Extraction methods are described here using EDTA and acetonitrile,acetic acid or acetonitrile,dimethyl sulfoxide, which do not demetallate zinc protoporphyrin. Such extracts were prepared from eggshell of the common nighthawk, Chordeiles minor, and from another six bird species. Protoporphyrin and biliverdin were identified and fully characterized by HPLC/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS) in all samples, but none contained zinc protoporphyrin. The zinc complex of biliverdin, claimed to be an additional pigment responsible for eggshell background colours, was labile to EDTA and acid pH and if occurring naturally could not be extracted intact by the published or the modified protocols. An explanation is advanced for the exceptional report that all porphyrins from uroporphyrin to protoporphyrin were found in eggshells of the fowl Gallus domesticus. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]