Milk Powder (milk + powder)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Milk Powder

  • skim milk powder
  • whole milk powder


  • Selected Abstracts


    GRINDING SPRAY-DRIED MILK POWDER NEAR the GLASS TRANSITION TEMPERATURE

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESS ENGINEERING, Issue 2 2003
    GREGORY R. ZIEGLER
    ABSTRACT The fine grinding of chocolate is typically accomplished on five-roll mills. Chocolate manufacturers consider milk powder, a component of milk chocolate, difficult to grind. Spray-dried milk powders comprise a glassy lactose matrix in which fat globules, air vacuoles and protein are entrapped. the glassy-rubbery transition in commercial milk powders usually lies between 60,70C, depending on the moisture content. A mixture of 60% wt/wt commercial whole milk powder, Tg, 60C, and 40% wt/wt cocoa butter was ground in a three-roll refiner at temperatures of 40, 50, 60, 70 and 75C. Below Tg the particles exhibited brittle fracture, while above Tg plastic deformation was evident and particles became highly asymmetric. the amount of fat liberated from the lactose matrix, so-called free fat, particle density, and mean particle size increased with grinding temperature. However, the Casson yield value and plastic viscosity of finished "white chocolate" coatings, manufactured to a constant free fat content, increased with grinding temperature, suggesting an influence of particle shape on flow behavior. [source]


    OPTIMIZATION OF SPRAY DRYING CONDITIONS FOR PRODUCTION OF BIFIDUS MILK POWDER FROM COW MILK

    JOURNAL OF FOOD QUALITY, Issue 4 2006
    M. SELVAMUTHUKUMARAN
    ABSTRACT Bifidus milk powder was prepared by supplementing cow's milk with predetermined level of additives to obtain slurry of desired concentration. The slurry was sterilized, cooled and inoculated with 24-h-old bulk culture of Bifidobacterium bifidum at 10% and incubated at 37C for 24 h, cooled and dried in SM Scientech Lab model spray dryer with predetermined spray drying conditions. The bifidus milk powder contains bifidobacteria counts from 1.88 × 109 to 15.80 × 109 cells/g dry weight and their percent survival was 4.17,35.11%. Maximum survival was obtained by using the following spray drying conditions: inlet temperature of 164.02C, slurry concentration of 25.62% total soluble solids and air pressure of 2.5 kg/cm2. The high temperature and air pressure of spray drying markedly influenced the color and appearance of final product. The inlet temperature and air pressure showed a significant effect on survival of bifidobacteria in the final product. [source]


    EVALUATION OF THE CHARACTER IMPACT ODORANTS IN SKIM MILK POWDER BY SENSORY STUDIES ON MODEL MIXTURES

    JOURNAL OF SENSORY STUDIES, Issue 1 2004
    Y. KARAGÜL-YÜCEER
    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to verify key aroma-active compounds responsible for reconstituted fresh skim milk powder (SMP) aroma using threshold analysis, odor activity values, and model systems. Twelve odor-active compounds of SMP and one odor-active compound from fluid milk were selected based on flavor dilution factors from gas chromatography-olfactometry. Thresholds for the 13 odor-active compounds were identified using five-set ascending forced choice threshold analysis in odor-free water and fluid skim milk. Model systems were prepared using rehydrated milk retentate (RMR). The aroma of each model was evaluated by descriptive sensory analysis and by difference-from-control testing using a trained panel. The aroma of reconstituted fresh SMP and liquid skim milk were used as controls. Models containing a mixture of twelve of the thirteen chemicals had the most similar odor characteristics to rehydrated SMP aroma (9.0/10) indicating that these compounds constitute the character impact odorants of rehydrated fresh SMP. [source]


    Flavor Variability and Flavor Stability of U.S.-Produced Whole Milk Powder

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 7 2009
    M.A. Lloyd
    ABSTRACT:, Flavor variability and stability of U.S.-produced whole milk powder (WMP) are important parameters for maximizing quality and global competitiveness of this commodity. This study characterized flavor and flavor stability of domestic WMP. Freshly produced (<1 mo) WMP was collected from 4 U.S. production facilities 5 times over a 1 y period. Each sample was analyzed initially and every 2 mo for sensory profile, volatiles, color, water activity, and moisture through 12 mo storage. Selected volatiles were quantified using solid phase microextraction (SPME) with gas chromatography/mass-spectrometry: dimethyl sulfide, 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, hexanal, 2-heptanone, heptanal, 1-octen-3-ol, octanal, 3-octen-2-one, and nonanal. Multiple linear regression with backwards elimination was applied to generate equations to predict grassy and painty flavors based on selected volatiles. All WMP were between 2% and 3% moisture and 0.11 and 0.25 water activity initially. WMP varied in initial flavor profiles with varying levels of cooked, milk fat, and sweet aromatic flavors. During storage, grassy and painty flavors developed while sweet aromatic flavor intensities decreased (P,< 0.05). Painty and grassy flavors were confirmed by increased levels (P,< 0.05) of lipid oxidation products such as hexanal, heptanal, and octanal. Hexanal, 2-heptanone, 1-octen-3-ol, and nonanal concentrations were best predictors of grassy flavor (R2= 0.38,,P,< 0.0001) while hexanal, 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, octanal, and 3-octen-2-one concentrations were best predictors of painty flavor (R2= 0.61,,P,< 0.0001). These results provide baseline information to determine specific factors that can be controlled to optimize U.S. WMP flavor and flavor stability. [source]


    Biotransformation of Isoflavone Glycosides by Bifidobacterium animalis in Soymilk Supplemented with Skim Milk Powder

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 8 2007
    T.T. Pham
    ABSTRACT:, Two probiotic strains, Bifidobacterium animalis A and B, were used for the biotransformation of isoflavone glycosides in soymilk prepared from soy protein isolate (SPI) supplemented with skim milk powder (SMP) (SSMP). Unsupplemented soymilk (USM) and reconstituted skim milk powder (RSMP) were used as controls. The numbers of viable microorganisms in these products were enumerated. Lactose and isoflavone contents were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Our results showed that there was significantly higher biotransformation of isoflavone glycosides to aglycones in SSMP than that in USM. The levels of biotransformation were 83.96% and 85.43% for B. animalis A and B, respectively, compared to 74.30% and 72.82% for the USM. In addition, lactose utilization by both strains in SSMP was also higher than that in RSMP. At 24 h, 21.16 mg/mL of lactose was utilized in SSMP by B. animalis A compared with that of 16.88 mg/mL in RSMP. Consequently, the pH of SSMP was lower (3.80) than RSMP (4.00). However, the number of viable bacteria in SSMP was slightly lower than that in RSMP but significantly higher than that in USM. It appears that SMP enhanced the biotransformation of isoflavone glycosides to aglycones and SPI increased the lactose utilization by B. animalis A and B. [source]


    Comparison of Texture of Yogurt Made from Conventionally Treated Milk and UHT Milk Fortified with Low-heat Skim Milk Powder

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 6 2004
    W. Krasaekoopt
    ABSTRACT: The textures of yogurt made from ultra-high temperature (UHT) treated and conventionally treated milks at high total solids were investigated. The yogurt premixes, fortified with low-heat skim milk powder to 16%, 18%, and 20% total solids, were UHT processed at 143°C for 6 s and heated at 85°C for 30 min using the conventional method. The onset of gelation was delayed in the UHT-processed milk compared with conventionally heated milk. During fermentation, the viscosity of yogurt made from UHT-treated milk at 20% total solids was close to that of yogurt made from conventionally treated milk with 16% total solids. However, after storage for , 1 d, the yogurt made from UHT-treated milk had lower viscosity and gel strength than the yogurt made from conventionally treated milk. The solids level had no influence on yogurt culture growth. [source]


    Gelation and Water Binding Properties of Transglutaminase-treated Skim Milk Powder

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 2 2000
    J.Y. Imm
    ABSTRACT: Transglutaminase (TGase)-treated skim milk powder (TG-SMP) was prepared by freeze-drying skim milk after TGase treatment (10 U/g milk protein, 40°C for 3 h), followed by TGase inactivation at 85°C for 5 min. TGase modification resulted in significant increases in hardness and water holding capacity (WHC) of heat-induced gels (10% protein, w/v). A marked increase in storage modulus (G,) of TG-SMP upon heating suggests that TG-SMP has a greater gelling ability than control-SMP (C-SMP) prepared with predenatured TGase. Acid gels prepared from TG-SMP had a significantly higher WHC at all solid levels (12%, 14%, and 16%) tested and formed a more elastic network than C-SMP. [source]


    Maribo cheese manufactured with concentrated milk: characteristics, maturation and yield

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DAIRY TECHNOLOGY, Issue 1 2000
    C BRITO
    Research was carried out to study the feasibility of making maribo cheese using milk fortified by the addition of skim milk powder. A control (T-C) with 82 g l -1 solids-non-fat (SNF) and 32 g l -1 milk fat was included, along with three treatments with 11.7 (T-1), 14.6 (T-2) and 16.6 g l -1 SNF (T-3) and standardization of the milk fat. Some chemical characteristics of the cheese milks and of the endproducts were studied and, in addition, cheese yield and the progress of maturation were monitored. It was observed that, as maturation proceeded in all treatments, there was a steady increase in the ripening index (soluble nitrogen/total nitrogen %), which indicates a progressive advance of proteolysis. Nevertheless, there were significant differences (p <.05) between the ripening indices of the control and the rest of the treatments. Furthermore, as the extent of maturation increased, ,sl -casein was degraded more than ,-casein. The yield of cheese increased proportionally as the concentration of non-fat-solids in the milk increased. [source]


    Creep-recovery parameters of gluten-free batter and crumb properties of bread prepared from pregelatinised cassava starch, sorghum and selected proteins

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 12 2009
    Calvin Onyango
    Summary The effect of egg white, skim milk powder, soy protein isolate and soy protein concentrate on creep-recovery parameters of gluten-free batter made from sorghum and pregelatinised cassava starch was studied. Batter treated with egg white had the highest deformation and compliance parameters and lowest zero shear viscosities and differed significantly (P < 0.05) from the other treatments. However, this batter recovered its elasticity sufficiently and its elastic portion of maximum creep compliance did not differ significantly (P < 0.05) from the other treatments. Unlike the other treatments, egg white did not decrease bread volume and exhibited the lowest crumb firmness and staling rate. Optimisation of the amount of egg white with diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono and diglycerides (DATEM) showed that creep-recovery parameters and crumb hardness were affected by the linear, quadratic and interaction effects of the input variables. Treatment with 6% and 0.1% w/w fwb egg white and DATEM, respectively, gave gluten-free batter with the least elastic portion of maximum creep compliance (Je/Jmax = 11.65%) which corresponded to the lowest crumb firmness (790.8 g). [source]


    Preparation and evaluation of pizza cheese made from blend of vetch,bovine milk

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 5 2008
    Salim-ur-Rehman
    Summary The objective of the study was to develop vetch,bovine milk (VBM) pizza cheese low in animal fat and its acceptability was determined through physico-chemical, functional and sensory evaluations. Vetch (Lathyrus sativus) was detoxified by steeping in double its quantity of water for 8 h at 70 °C, changing the water seven times, draining and sun drying. Dried vetch was then treated with water at pH 4.0 at 90 °C for 60 min to deplete the beany flavour, then dried and milled into fine flour with Quadrumate Senior mill. The seed coat was separated as one of the mill fractions. Four types of VBM blends were prepared from vetch flour and bovine skimmed milk powder and were used to prepare cheese using 2.5% lactic acid bacterial culture of Streptococcus thermophillus and Streptococcus bulgaricus and rennet (0.15 mL L,1, 1:40 ratio with water). The cheese was stored at 4 °C for 14 days and used as topping over the pizza shell. Physico-chemical analyses, such as moisture, total solids, lactose, ash, fat, titratable acidity and pH, and sensory evaluations of both cheese and pizza were carried out at 0-, 7- and 14-day intervals. The stretchability and meltability of cheese increased significantly (P < 0.05) during storage. Commercial Mozzarella cheese was taken as a control. The results of this study suggested that VBM blend at the ratio of 12.5:87.5 (vetch flour:bovine milk powder) could be utilised to prepare a cheese of desirable characteristics for pizza topping. [source]


    Kavut, a traditional Turkish cereal product: production method and some chemical and sensorial properties

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 3 2006
    Mehmet Murat Karao
    Summary Kavut is a cereal-based product made from wholemeal wheat and barley flour, milk or milk powder, fat and sugar. In this study, the best processing method and formulation were investigated by analysing different formulations and processing methods for the kavut. Four different flour combinations (100% wheat without barley, 75% wheat + 25% barley, 50% wheat + 50% barley, 25% wheat + 75% barley), two shortening (butter and margarine) and three different roasting periods (1, 1.5, 2 min) at 250 °C were used in the study. Significant changes were observed in the physical and chemical properties of the cereal by heat treatment in the kavut production. Increase of barley flour in the mixture decreased protein content, softness, altered L colour values, appearance, texture, mouth-feel, and general acceptance and increased ash content, +a and the absorbance value of kavut. While the longer roasting period resulted in reduced softness and colour (L-value) of kavut, roasting period did not significantly affect the general acceptance of kavut. Kavut made from only whole wheatflour was most preferred by the panellists. [source]


    The identification of foods treated with , irradiation by the use of a luminescence technique: a case study of milk powder

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 7 2005
    Junjie Fu
    First page of article [source]


    Generation of bioaerosols during manual mail unpacking and sorting

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 5 2005
    H. Brandl
    Abstract Aims:, The dynamics of bioaerosol generation in specific occupational environments where mail is manually unpacked and sorted was investigated. Methods and Results:, Total number of airborne particles was determined in four different size classes (0·3,0·5, 0·5,1, 1,5 and >5 ,m) by laser particle counting. Time dependent formation of bioaerosols was monitored by culturing methods and by specific staining followed by flow cytometry. Besides handling of regular mail, specially prepared letters (,spiked letters') were added to the mailbags to deliberately release powdered materials from letters and to simulate high impact loads. These letters contained various dry powdered biological and nonbiological materials such as milk powder, mushrooms, herbs and cat litter. Regarding the four size classes, particulate aerosol composition before mail handling was determined as 83·2 ± 1·0, 15·2 ± 0·7, 1·7 ± 0·4 and 0·04 ± 0·02%, respectively, whereas the composition changed during sorting to 66·8 ± 7·9, 22·3 ± 3·6, 10·4 ± 4·0 and 0·57 ± 0·27%, respectively. Mail processing resulted in an increase in culturable airborne bacteria and fungi. Maximum concentrations of bacteria reached 450 CFU m,3, whereas 270 CFU of fungi were detected. Conclusions:, Indoor particle concentrations steadily increased during mail handling mostly associated with particles of diameters >1 ,m. However, it was not possible to distinguish spiked letters from nonspiked by simple particle counting and CFU determinations. Significance and Impact of Study:, The dynamics of bioaerosol generation have to be addressed when monitoring specific occupational environments (such as mail sorting facilities) regarding the occurrence of biological particles. [source]


    Blending of low-density polyethylene with vanillin for improved barrier and aroma-releasing properties in food packaging

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 6 2009
    R. S. Jagadish
    Abstract Modification of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) with vanillin to obtain flavored packaging film with improved gas barrier and flavor-releasing properties has been studied. The modification of LDPE with vanillin was monitored by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, wherein the appearance of new peaks at 1704.7, 1673.6, and 1597.2 cm,1 indicates the incorporation of vanillin into LDPE matrix. Films of uniform thickness were obtained by the extrusion of modified LDPE. Modified LDPE was found to have significantly higher gas barrier properties and grease resistance. Sensory quality of food products viz, doodhpeda (milk-based solid soft sweet), biscuit, and skimmed milk powder packed in LDPE-vanillin film showed that the doodhpeda sample had clearly perceptible vanilla aroma, whereas biscuit had marginal aroma and skimmed milk powder did not have noticeable aroma. When viewed in the light of imparting desirable vanilla aroma, results of the study indicated that LDPE-vanillin film has better prospects as a packaging material for solid sweets with considerable fat content when stored under ambient conditions. The release of vanilla aroma was further confirmed by gas chromatography,mass spectrometery analysis. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2009 [source]


    GRINDING SPRAY-DRIED MILK POWDER NEAR the GLASS TRANSITION TEMPERATURE

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESS ENGINEERING, Issue 2 2003
    GREGORY R. ZIEGLER
    ABSTRACT The fine grinding of chocolate is typically accomplished on five-roll mills. Chocolate manufacturers consider milk powder, a component of milk chocolate, difficult to grind. Spray-dried milk powders comprise a glassy lactose matrix in which fat globules, air vacuoles and protein are entrapped. the glassy-rubbery transition in commercial milk powders usually lies between 60,70C, depending on the moisture content. A mixture of 60% wt/wt commercial whole milk powder, Tg, 60C, and 40% wt/wt cocoa butter was ground in a three-roll refiner at temperatures of 40, 50, 60, 70 and 75C. Below Tg the particles exhibited brittle fracture, while above Tg plastic deformation was evident and particles became highly asymmetric. the amount of fat liberated from the lactose matrix, so-called free fat, particle density, and mean particle size increased with grinding temperature. However, the Casson yield value and plastic viscosity of finished "white chocolate" coatings, manufactured to a constant free fat content, increased with grinding temperature, suggesting an influence of particle shape on flow behavior. [source]


    MOISTURE SORPTION ISOTHERM, PROPERTIES OF SORBED WATER AND HEAT OF SORPTION OF SANDESH, AN INDIAN MILK PRODUCT

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION, Issue 1 2010
    J.K. SAHU
    ABSTRACT Moisture sorption isotherm of sandesh, one of the most popular milk products in India, was determined in terms of its moisture adsorption isotherms by gravimetrical method at 20 and 30C using various saturated salt solutions in the range of 11.2 to 97.2%. The isotherms obtained were of sigmoid shape and of the Brunauer,Emmett,Teller type. Out of three sorption models fitted to the experimental data, Caurie's model was found superior in interpreting the moisture adsorption characteristics of sandesh. The monolayer moisture content as calculated from the Caurie's model at 20 and 30C were 5.89% (dry basis [d.b.]) and 5.21% (d.b.), respectively. The values of isosteric heat of sorption as calculated from Clausius,Clapeyron equation was found to increase with decreasing moisture content at lower moisture content and approached the value of heat of vaporization of free water above 17.25% (d.b.). PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS The present paper describes basically the storage stability of sandesh. The sandesh is a heat,acid coagulated product of milk in Indian subcontinent and forms the part and parcel of social life, ceremonies and festivals. It has an excellent market potential and higher profit margin compared with other milk products like table butter, cheese and milk powder. Although Indian dairy industry has made rapid strides in the last few decades, there is no proper packaging system, developed so far, for storage of sandesh. Keeping pace with the growing consumers' demand for fresh, convenient and microbiologically free foods, design of proper packaging system is the need of the hour. The data presented in the paper will be very much essential for the researchers and research and development institutions for proper designing of packaging system for sandesh. [source]


    OPTIMIZATION OF SPRAY DRYING CONDITIONS FOR PRODUCTION OF BIFIDUS MILK POWDER FROM COW MILK

    JOURNAL OF FOOD QUALITY, Issue 4 2006
    M. SELVAMUTHUKUMARAN
    ABSTRACT Bifidus milk powder was prepared by supplementing cow's milk with predetermined level of additives to obtain slurry of desired concentration. The slurry was sterilized, cooled and inoculated with 24-h-old bulk culture of Bifidobacterium bifidum at 10% and incubated at 37C for 24 h, cooled and dried in SM Scientech Lab model spray dryer with predetermined spray drying conditions. The bifidus milk powder contains bifidobacteria counts from 1.88 × 109 to 15.80 × 109 cells/g dry weight and their percent survival was 4.17,35.11%. Maximum survival was obtained by using the following spray drying conditions: inlet temperature of 164.02C, slurry concentration of 25.62% total soluble solids and air pressure of 2.5 kg/cm2. The high temperature and air pressure of spray drying markedly influenced the color and appearance of final product. The inlet temperature and air pressure showed a significant effect on survival of bifidobacteria in the final product. [source]


    Perceived Creaminess and Viscosity of Aggregated Particles of Casein Micelles and ,-Carrageenan

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 5 2010
    Kelly L. Flett
    Abstract:, Creaminess, in terms of sensory science, is a very complex and multifaceted term. It is a descriptor often reserved for fat-containing dairy emulsions, however, has also been used to describe nondairy food emulsions. In the food industry, it is a great challenge to decrease fat content while maintaining the original quality and sensory characteristics of a food product. An aggregated particle consisting of casein micelles and ,-carrageenan has the potential to enhance the perceived creaminess of a low-fat food product, due to its colloidal size. In this study, these aggregates were incorporated into nonfat dairy beverages and subjected to sensory studies. In the 1st sensory study, the aggregates, either as a powdered ingredient or a fresh ingredient, were added to thickened dairy beverages and compared to similar beverages containing skim milk powder and either no fat or 2% dairy fat. The panelists found the aggregate-containing beverages to be creamier and more viscous in comparison to the control beverages. In the 2nd sensory study, fresh and powdered aggregates, at 2 concentrations, were added to a sweetened nonfat dairy beverage and compared to a similar beverage containing 2% dairy fat. The results of this panel showed that aggregates, especially at increased concentrations, were perceived as more creamy than the fat-containing beverage. Panelists described the creaminess of the aggregates as more thick and viscous while the dairy fat was described more in terms of mouth-coating. Thus, we have developed a nonfat milk ingredient that can contribute creaminess to a food product. Practical Application:, This study shows potential applications of aggregates of casein micelles and ,-carrageenan as a fat-mimetic or creaminess-enhancing ingredient. These particles may be produced as either fresh aggregates directly formed in a dairy product or as powdered aggregates added to dairy or nondairy products. [source]


    Flavor Variability and Flavor Stability of U.S.-Produced Whole Milk Powder

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 7 2009
    M.A. Lloyd
    ABSTRACT:, Flavor variability and stability of U.S.-produced whole milk powder (WMP) are important parameters for maximizing quality and global competitiveness of this commodity. This study characterized flavor and flavor stability of domestic WMP. Freshly produced (<1 mo) WMP was collected from 4 U.S. production facilities 5 times over a 1 y period. Each sample was analyzed initially and every 2 mo for sensory profile, volatiles, color, water activity, and moisture through 12 mo storage. Selected volatiles were quantified using solid phase microextraction (SPME) with gas chromatography/mass-spectrometry: dimethyl sulfide, 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, hexanal, 2-heptanone, heptanal, 1-octen-3-ol, octanal, 3-octen-2-one, and nonanal. Multiple linear regression with backwards elimination was applied to generate equations to predict grassy and painty flavors based on selected volatiles. All WMP were between 2% and 3% moisture and 0.11 and 0.25 water activity initially. WMP varied in initial flavor profiles with varying levels of cooked, milk fat, and sweet aromatic flavors. During storage, grassy and painty flavors developed while sweet aromatic flavor intensities decreased (P,< 0.05). Painty and grassy flavors were confirmed by increased levels (P,< 0.05) of lipid oxidation products such as hexanal, heptanal, and octanal. Hexanal, 2-heptanone, 1-octen-3-ol, and nonanal concentrations were best predictors of grassy flavor (R2= 0.38,,P,< 0.0001) while hexanal, 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, octanal, and 3-octen-2-one concentrations were best predictors of painty flavor (R2= 0.61,,P,< 0.0001). These results provide baseline information to determine specific factors that can be controlled to optimize U.S. WMP flavor and flavor stability. [source]


    Biotransformation of Isoflavone Glycosides by Bifidobacterium animalis in Soymilk Supplemented with Skim Milk Powder

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 8 2007
    T.T. Pham
    ABSTRACT:, Two probiotic strains, Bifidobacterium animalis A and B, were used for the biotransformation of isoflavone glycosides in soymilk prepared from soy protein isolate (SPI) supplemented with skim milk powder (SMP) (SSMP). Unsupplemented soymilk (USM) and reconstituted skim milk powder (RSMP) were used as controls. The numbers of viable microorganisms in these products were enumerated. Lactose and isoflavone contents were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Our results showed that there was significantly higher biotransformation of isoflavone glycosides to aglycones in SSMP than that in USM. The levels of biotransformation were 83.96% and 85.43% for B. animalis A and B, respectively, compared to 74.30% and 72.82% for the USM. In addition, lactose utilization by both strains in SSMP was also higher than that in RSMP. At 24 h, 21.16 mg/mL of lactose was utilized in SSMP by B. animalis A compared with that of 16.88 mg/mL in RSMP. Consequently, the pH of SSMP was lower (3.80) than RSMP (4.00). However, the number of viable bacteria in SSMP was slightly lower than that in RSMP but significantly higher than that in USM. It appears that SMP enhanced the biotransformation of isoflavone glycosides to aglycones and SPI increased the lactose utilization by B. animalis A and B. [source]


    Maillard Reaction Products as Encapsulants for Fish Oil Powders

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 2 2006
    Mary Ann Augustin
    ABSTRACT The use of Maillard reaction products for encapsulation of fish oil was investigated. Fish oil was emulsified with heated aqueous mixtures comprising a protein source (Na caseinate, whey protein isolate, soy protein isolate, or skim milk powder) and carbohydrates (glucose, dried glucose syrup, oligosaccharide) and spray-dried for the production of 50% oil powders. The extent of the Maillard reaction was monitored using L*, a*, b* values and absorbance at 465 nm. Encapsulation efficiency was gauged by measurement of solvent-extractable fat and the oxidative stability of the fish oil powder, which was determined by assessment of headspace propanal after storage of powders at 35 °C for 4 wk. Increasing the heat treatment (60 °C to 100 °C for 30 to 90 min) of sodium caseinate-glucose-glucose syrup mixtures increased Maillard browning but did not change their encapsulation efficiency. The encapsulation efficiency of all heated sodium caseinate-glucose-glucose syrup mixtures was high, as indicated by the low solvent-extractable fat in powder (<2% powder, w/w). However, increasing the severity of the heat treatment of the sodium caseinate-glucose-glucose syrup mixtures reduced the susceptibility of the fish oil powder to oxidation. The increased protection afforded to fish oil in powders by increasing the temperature-time treatment of protein-carbohydrate mixtures before emulsification and drying was observed irrespective of the protein (sodium caseinate, whey protein isolate, soy protein isolate, or skim milk powder) and carbohydrate (glucose, glucose/dried glucose syrup, or oligosaccharide/dried glucose syrup) sources used in the formulation. Maillard reaction products produced by heat treatment of aqueous protein-carbohydrate mixtures were effective for protecting microencapsulated fish oil and other oils (evening primrose oil, milk fat) from oxidation. [source]


    Capillary Flow and Rheology Measurements on Chocolate Crumb/Sunflower Oil Mixtures

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 9 2004
    S. Carbonell
    ABSTRACT: Rates of penetration of sunflower oil into beds of 3 types of chocolate crumb have been measured and the results analyzed using the Washburn-Rideal theory. The data show that the rates are a function of both the specific surface area of the crumb particles and their surface composition. Addition of an emulsifier to the oil reduces the penetration rate into the crumb made with full-cream milk powder, whereas for crumbs containing skimmed-milk powder, rates go through a maximum with increase of emulsifier concentration. Rheological data for dispersions of crumb in oil were fitted to the Casson equation. An inverse correlation was found between penetration rates and Casson yield values. [source]


    Fat Migration in Chocolate: Diffusion or Capillary Flow in a Particulate Solid?,A Hypothesis Paper

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 7 2004
    J. M. Aguilera
    ABSTRACT: The exact mechanism of fat and oil migration in chocolate and chocolate coatings is still unknown. Nevertheless, the so-called "diffusion equation" derived from Fick's 2nd law has been extensively used to model the phenomenon, giving the impression that molecular diffusion is the single transport mechanism. We propose that chocolate may be microstructurally regarded as a particulate medium formed by an assembly of fat-coated particles (for example, cocoa solids, sugars crystals, and milk powder). Within this matrix the liquid fraction of cocoa fat (which increases with temperature) is likely to move under capillary forces through interparticle passages and connected pores. Based on available evidence (microstructure, kinetic data, temperature dependence of liquid fat fraction, and so on) we demonstrate that capillary forces may have an important role to play in bulk flow of liquid fat and oils. The Lucas-Washburn equation for capillary rise fits available data under most reported experimental conditions. Detailed microstructural analysis in actual products as well as data on key parameters (surface tension, contact angle, viscosity) is necessary to confirm this hypothesis. Bulk flow due to capillary effects, highly disregarded in structured foods, should be considered as a mass transfer mechanism in liquid-filled porous or particulate foods. [source]


    Sequential Quadratic Programming for Development of a New Probiotic Dairy Tofu with Glucono-,-Lactone

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 7 2004
    M.-J. Chen
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effects of various concentrations of glucono-,-lactone (GDL) and skim milk powder, as well as the addition of prebiotics, on the rheology and probiotic viabilities of dairy tofu. Additionally, modern optimization techniques were applied to attempt to determine the optimal processing conditions and growth rate for the selected probiotics (Lactobacillus. acidophilus, L. casei, Bifidobacteria bifidum, and B. longum). There were 2 stages in this research to accomplish the goal. The 1st stage was to derive surface models using response surface methodology (RSM); the 2nd stage performed optimization on the models using sequential quadratic programming (SQP) techniques. The results were demonstrated to be effective. The most favorable production conditions of dairy tofu were 1% GDL, 0% peptides, 3% isomaltooligosaccharides (IMO), and 18% milk, as confirmed by subsequent verification experiments. Analysis of the sensory evaluation results revealed no significant difference between the probiotic dairy tofu and the GDL analog in terms of texture and appearance (P < 0.05). The viable numbers of probiotics were well above the recommended limit of 106 CFU/g for the probiotic dairy tofu throughout the tested storage period. [source]


    Comparison of Texture of Yogurt Made from Conventionally Treated Milk and UHT Milk Fortified with Low-heat Skim Milk Powder

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 6 2004
    W. Krasaekoopt
    ABSTRACT: The textures of yogurt made from ultra-high temperature (UHT) treated and conventionally treated milks at high total solids were investigated. The yogurt premixes, fortified with low-heat skim milk powder to 16%, 18%, and 20% total solids, were UHT processed at 143°C for 6 s and heated at 85°C for 30 min using the conventional method. The onset of gelation was delayed in the UHT-processed milk compared with conventionally heated milk. During fermentation, the viscosity of yogurt made from UHT-treated milk at 20% total solids was close to that of yogurt made from conventionally treated milk with 16% total solids. However, after storage for , 1 d, the yogurt made from UHT-treated milk had lower viscosity and gel strength than the yogurt made from conventionally treated milk. The solids level had no influence on yogurt culture growth. [source]


    Gelation and Water Binding Properties of Transglutaminase-treated Skim Milk Powder

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 2 2000
    J.Y. Imm
    ABSTRACT: Transglutaminase (TGase)-treated skim milk powder (TG-SMP) was prepared by freeze-drying skim milk after TGase treatment (10 U/g milk protein, 40°C for 3 h), followed by TGase inactivation at 85°C for 5 min. TGase modification resulted in significant increases in hardness and water holding capacity (WHC) of heat-induced gels (10% protein, w/v). A marked increase in storage modulus (G,) of TG-SMP upon heating suggests that TG-SMP has a greater gelling ability than control-SMP (C-SMP) prepared with predenatured TGase. Acid gels prepared from TG-SMP had a significantly higher WHC at all solid levels (12%, 14%, and 16%) tested and formed a more elastic network than C-SMP. [source]


    EVALUATION OF THE CHARACTER IMPACT ODORANTS IN SKIM MILK POWDER BY SENSORY STUDIES ON MODEL MIXTURES

    JOURNAL OF SENSORY STUDIES, Issue 1 2004
    Y. KARAGÜL-YÜCEER
    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to verify key aroma-active compounds responsible for reconstituted fresh skim milk powder (SMP) aroma using threshold analysis, odor activity values, and model systems. Twelve odor-active compounds of SMP and one odor-active compound from fluid milk were selected based on flavor dilution factors from gas chromatography-olfactometry. Thresholds for the 13 odor-active compounds were identified using five-set ascending forced choice threshold analysis in odor-free water and fluid skim milk. Model systems were prepared using rehydrated milk retentate (RMR). The aroma of each model was evaluated by descriptive sensory analysis and by difference-from-control testing using a trained panel. The aroma of reconstituted fresh SMP and liquid skim milk were used as controls. Models containing a mixture of twelve of the thirteen chemicals had the most similar odor characteristics to rehydrated SMP aroma (9.0/10) indicating that these compounds constitute the character impact odorants of rehydrated fresh SMP. [source]


    High-performance liquid chromatography with sequential injection for online precolumn derivatization of some heavy metals

    JOURNAL OF SEPARATION SCIENCE, JSS, Issue 16 2007
    Rodjana Burakham
    Abstract HPLC was coupled with sequential injection (SI) for simultaneous analyses of some heavy metals, including Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Fe(II). 2-(5-Nitro-2-pyridylazo)-5-[N -propyl- N -(3-sulfopropyl)amino]phenol (nitro-PAPS) was employed as a derivatizing reagent for sensitive spectrophotometric detection by online precolumn derivatization. The SI system offers an automated handling of sample and reagent, online precolumn derivatization, and propulsion of derivatives to the HPLC injection loop. The metal,nitro-PAPS complexes were separated on a C18 -,Bondapak column (3.9×300 mm2). Using the proposed SI-HPLC system, determination of four metal ions by means of nitro-PAPS complexes was achieved within 13 min in which the parallel of derivatization and separation were processed at the same time. Linear calibration graphs were obtained in the ranges of 0.005,0.250 mg/L for Cu(II), 0.007,1.000 mg/L for Co(II), 0.005,0.075 mg/L for Ni(II), and 0.005,0.100 mg/L for Fe(II). The system provides means for automation with good precision and minimizing error in solution handling with the RSD of less than 6%. The detection limits obtained were 2 ,g/L for Cu(II) and Co(II), and 1 ,g/L for Ni(II) and Fe(II). The method was successfully applied for the determination of metal ions in various samples, including milk powder for infant, mineral supplements, local wines, and drinking water. [source]


    IMPROVEMENT OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF NONFAT FERMENTED MILK DRINK BY USING WHEY PROTEIN CONCENTRATE

    JOURNAL OF TEXTURE STUDIES, Issue 3 2009
    ASLI E. OZEN
    ABSTRACT The use of whey protein concentrate (WPC) for the improvement of physical properties of nonfat fermented milk drink was investigated. Drinks were prepared from nonfat milk powder and WPC at different proportions. Rheological properties, serum separation and particle size of the drinks were measured. The effect of WPC on the physical properties of the drinks was evaluated by comparison with those of commonly used stabilizers, including propylene glycol alginate and locust bean gum. WPC addition caused an increase in the consistency coefficient and thixotropy and a decrease in the particle size of the samples. There was no serum separation in the sample with 2% WPC. Large unstable aggregates were observed in the sample with 3% WPC, which also exhibited the highest serum separation. WPC up to a level of 2% positively influenced the physical properties of nonfat fermented milk drink similar to stabilizers. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Fermented milk drinks are consumed especially for their beneficial health effects. Physical properties of fermented milk drinks influence their quality and consumer acceptability. Hydrocolloid stabilizers are used for the improvement of physical properties of fermented milk products. Whey protein concentrates (WPC) with high protein content can be used to substitute hydrocolloid stabilizers. In this study, the effect of the addition of WPC with 75% protein in place of a part of the nonfat milk powder on the physical properties of nonfat fermented milk drink with 6% dry matter was investigated. Use of an appropriate level of WPC was found to be important for obtaining a desirable effect on the physical properties of nonfat fermented milk drink. The effect of WPC was found to be comparable to those of commonly used hydrocolloid stabilizers. Use of WPC also enhances the nutritional value of the product as whey proteins have a high biological value. [source]


    PHYSICAL, SENSORY AND FLOW PROPERTIES OF WHEAT STARCH,DAIRY BY-PRODUCT SPRAY-DRIED PEKMEZ MIXTURES

    JOURNAL OF TEXTURE STUDIES, Issue 2 2008
    DURMU
    ABSTRACT Pekmez, also known as a concentrated grape juice, was spray dried in a laboratory-type pilot drying unit to obtain pekmez powder (PP). The flow characteristics of PP, wheat starch (WS) and some dairy by-products (whey powder, skim milk powder, calcium caseinate and sodium caseinate) systems as binary and ternary mixtures were studied. The empirical power law model fitted the apparent viscosity,rotational speed data. PP,dairy by-product and WS,dairy by-product mixed solutions exhibited a shear-thinning behavior at 21C with flow behavior index (n) values of 0.86 , n , 0.92 and 0.06 , n , 0.27, respectively. WS,dairy by-product mixed solutions showed high shear-thinning behavior with the highest consistency index (k = 25,425,180,599 mPa·sn). However, PP,WS and PP,WS,dairy by-product mixed solutions at the same temperature exhibited the shear-thickening behavior with flow behavior index (n) values of 1.05 , n , 1.18. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Pekmez has become popular as a healthy food product; therefore, its rheologic properties were extensively studied by some researchers. However, pekmez powder (PP) is a new product and has not been produced yet in the food industry. Spray drying of foods has been spread recently in almost all food industry branches because it provides some advantages such as extending the shelf life, storage stability, decreasing the storage costs of the food products, etc. For this reason, production technology is first developed; PP is produced and studied in this study. There is no published data informing the rheologic, physical and sensory properties of pekmez or PP as binary and ternary mixtures with other components such as wheat starch (WS) and any dairy by-product. The purpose of this study was mainly to characterize the rheologic behavior of the PP,WS,dairy by-product mixed solutions and determine their physical and sensory properties. [source]